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Visual Artists of the 19th and 20th Centuries


There he met all the other famous artists like Henri Matisse, Joan Miro and George Braques. ... Soon he became a famous figure in the New York art scene. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Visual Artists of the 19th and 20th Centuries

Visual Artists of the 19th and 20th Centuries
  • A closer look

Salvador Dali 1904-1989
  • "Every morning when I wake up", said the painter
    of Soft Watches (later retitled The Persistence
    of Memory), "I experience exquisite joy - the joy
    of being Salvador Dali ..."
  • The native Catalonian was obsessed with both
    money and fame painting and speaking were his
    main occupations, his favorite subject how to
    discover one's genius.

Anthropomorphic Cabinet
Salvador Dali
  • Not exactly loved by the Surrealists, who
    criticized him for extravagance and his addiction
    to money (it was Andre Breton who came up with
    the anagram "Avida Dollars"), Dali's
    "paranoiac-critical" method nonetheless provided
    them with a first-rate instrument to liberate
    intelligence and imagination from the bonds of
    memory or dreams.
  • Had he been born during the Renaissance, his
    genius would have met with greater acceptance
    than was the case in our era, which saw him as a
    constant source of provocation he, for his part,
    described it as "degenerate".

My Giraffe in Fire
Salvador Dali
  • Dali commented
  • "The only difference between me and a madman is
    the fact that I am not mad"
  • Remarking pithily that
  • "The difference between the Surrealists and
    myself is that I am a Surrealist."
  • Dali decodes the fantasies and symbols of his
    Surrealist visions, penetrating the depths of the
    irrational and subconscious, elevating hard and
    soft to the level of aesthetic principles. He and
    Gala, his wife and muse, are a mythical couple,
    she his "existential double", his "perpetuation
    in immortal memory".

The Persistence of Memory
Broken Bridge and the Dream
Soft Construction With Boiled Beans- Premonition
of Civil War
Geopoliticus Child Watching the Birth of the New
Pablo Picasso 1881-1973
  • Pablo Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in
    Malaga, Spain, as the son of an art and drawing
    teacher. He was a brilliant student. He passed
    the entrance examination for the Barcelona School
    of Fine Arts at the age of 14 in just one day and
    was allowed to skip the first two classes.
    According to one of many legends about the
    artist's life, his father, recognizing the
    extraordinary talent of his son, gave him his
    brushes and palette and vowed to paint never
    again in his life.

Pablo Picasso
  • Blue and Rose Period
  • During his lifetime, the artist went through
    different periods of characteristic painting
    styles. The Blue Period of Picasso lasted from
    about 1900 to 1904. It is characterized by the
    use of different shades of blue underlining the
    melancholic style of his subjects - people from
    the grim side of life with thin, half-starved
    bodies. His painting style during these years is
    masterly and convinces even those who reject his
    later modern style.
  • During Picasso's Rose Period from about 1905 to
    1906, his style moved away from the Blue Period
    to a friendly pink tone with subjects taken from
    the world of the circus.

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Pablo Picasso
  • Cubism
  • After several travels to Paris, the artist moved
    permanently to the "capital of arts" in 1904.
    There he met all the other famous artists like
    Henri Matisse, Joan Miro and George Braques. He
    became a great admirer of Henri Matisse and
    developed a life-long friendship with the master
    of French Fauvism.
  • Inspired by the works of Paul Cezanne, he
    developed together with George Braque and Juan
    Gris developed the Cubist style. In Cubism,
    subjects are reduced to basic geometrical shapes.
    In a later version of Cubism, called synthetic
    cubism, several views of an object or a person
    are shown simultaneously from a different
    perspective in one picture.

Weeping Woman
Pablo Picasso
  • Picasso and Guernica
  • In 1937 the artist created his landmark painting
    Guernica, a protest against the barbaric air raid
    against a Basque village during the Spanish Civil
    War. Picasso's Guernica is a huge mural on canvas
    in black, white and grey which was created for
    the Spanish Pavilion of the Paris World's Fair in
    1937. In Guernica, Picasso used symbolic forms -
    that are repeatedly found in his works following
    Guernica - like a dying horse or a weeping woman.
  • Guernica was exhibited at the museum of Modern
    Art in New York until 1981. It was transferred to
    the Prado Museum in Madrid/Spain in 1981 and was
    later moved to the Queen Sofia Center of Art,
    Madrid in 1992. Picasso had disallowed the return
    of Guernica to Spain until the end of the rule of
    Fascism by General Franco.

Pablo Picasso
  • Pablo Picasso and Women
  • Picasso changed his companions at least as often
    as his painting
  • styles. The relationships with women influenced
    his mood and even
  • his art styles. The shift from the "blue" to the
    "rose period" was
  • probably a result of meeting Fernande Olivier,
    his first companion. The
  • artist made numerous portraits of his wives and
    companions and of
  • his children.
  • During his early years in Paris, he lived with
    Fernande Olivier for
  • seven years. During World War I, from 1914 to
    1918, Picasso worked
  • in Rome where he met his first wife, Olga
    Koklova, a Russian ballet
  • dancer. In 1927 he met Marie Therese Walther, a
    seventeen year old
  • girl and began a relationship with her. In 1936
    another woman, Dora
  • Maar, a photographer, stepped into his life. In
    1943 he encountered a
  • young female painter, Francoise Gilot. In 1947
    she gave birth to
  • Claude, and in 1949 to Paloma, Picasso's third
    and fourth child.
  • The artist's last companion was Jacqueline Roque.
    He met her in 1953
  • and married her in 1961.

Girl Before a Mirror
Pablo Picasso
  • In 1965 Pablo Picasso had to undergo a prostrate

  • operation. After a period of rest, he
    concentrated on
  • drawings and a series of 347 etchings. In spite
    of his
  • health problems, he created a number of paintings
  • his last years. On April 8, 1973 he died at the
    age of 91.
  • "I think about Death all the time. She is the
    only woman who never leaves me."

Three Musicians
Pablo Picasso
  • There are numerous books and articles with
    anecdotes, citations and interviews by Picasso.
    It is hard to figure out what is real and what
    are inventions or fakes. Picasso did not seem to
    care too much what the press wrote about him as
    long as they wrote about him at all. Whether by
    intuition or carefully planned, he was a
    marketing genius, spinning his own legend at
  • Picasso had an excellent business sense. He paid
    even small amounts by cheque "People rather keep
    the cheque for my famous signature than to cash
    it." He enjoyed being famous and rich. He was
    charming and witty and he liked to confuse, to
    provoke and to have his fun with the public.
  • After visiting an exhibition of children's
    drawings "When I was their age I could draw like
    Raphael, but it took me a lifetime to learn to
    draw like them."
  • About art "You expect me to tell you what art
    is? If I knew it, I would keep it for myself."
  • About abstract art "There is no abstract art.
    You must always start with something. Afterwards
    you can remove all traces of reality."

Dorthea Lange
  • Dorothea Lange photographed the nations soul.  
    Hired in the 1930s and 1940s by the federal
    government, Lange recorded the men, women and
    children whose lives on societys margins were
    absent of color and voice. During the heyday of
    the New Deal, she documented the rural poor whose
    meager existence stretched from the southeastern
    to the southwestern states. And in the heated
    atmosphere of patriotic fervor prompted by Pearl
    Harbor, she captured the human dignity of
    Japanese Americans forced to leave their homes
    and relocate to the internment camps. In
    thousands of her photographs, Lange stayed
    consistent with her own view of the humanity She
    sought to uncover the inner strength and quiet
    courage of Americas everyman.  That she
    succeeded leaves a visual legacy that tells us
    much about who we are as individuals and as a

Dorthea Lange (1895-1965)
  • In 1933, Dorothea Lange, a young, successful
    portrait photographer, picked up her camera and
    left her studio, located on Union Street in San
    Francisco. Compelled by the visible human anguish
    of the Great Depression, she traveled through the
    streets to a food distribution area --- a bread
    line --- that had been recently set up by White
    Angel, a wealthy woman living in San Francisco.

Dorthea Lange
  • That day Dorothea Lange took several photographs.
    But the most telling was the one of an "unshaven,
    hunched-up little man, leaning on a railing with
    a tin can between his arms, his hands clenched,
    the line of his mouth bitter, his back turned to
    those others waiting for a handout." Lange tacked
    the developed image of this man on the wall of
    her studio, naming it "White Angel Bread Line."
    Next to that image, she put a quotation from the
    English philosopher, Francis Bacon
  • The contemplation of things as they arewithout
    error or confusionwithout substitution or
    impostureis in itself a nobler thing than a
    whole harvest of invention.
  • Both remained on that wall for the years to come.

White Angel Breadline
Dorthea Lange
  • More significantly, the combination of these two
    reminders proved transformational for Dorothea
    Lange. From that day until her death in 1965, she
    applied her creative imagination, her commitment
    to excellence, and her skill as a photographer to
    record social and cultural events in America.
    Best known and perhaps most lasting --- are her
    photographs of the 1930s and 1940s.

Dorthea Lange
  • Hers is a social history the seeing of those
    least able to have a voice during the pivotal
    years of the Great Depression and World War II.
    With camera in hand, Dorothea Lange recorded the
    forgotten men, women and children of the 1930s
    the rural poor whose meager existence stretched
    from the southeastern to the southwestern states.
    Then, as Americans' attentions and energies
    turned from economic turmoil to fighting fascism,
    Lange used her critical eye to record the human
    dignity and pride of Japanese Americans forced to
    leave their homes and relocate to the internment

  • "These were some pretty terrible chapters of that
    history evacuation and internment of the
    Japanese and Japanese Americans. The whole
    thing, the feelings and tempers and peoples
    attitudes, were very complex and very heated at
    that time . What was, of course, horrifying, was
    to do this thing completely on the basis of what
    blood may be coursing through a persons veins,
    nothing else. Nothing to do with your
    affiliations or friendships or associations.
     Just blood.Dorothea Lange, 1960

  • Migrant Mother
  • "She seemed to know, to accept, to welcome her
    position, the citadel of the family, the strong
    place that could not be taken. And since her
    husband and children could not know hurt or fear
    unless she acknowledged hurt and fear, she had
    practiced denying them in herself.  And since,
    when a joyful thing happened, they looked to see
    whether joy was on her, it was her habit to build
    up laughter out of inadequate materials.  But
    better than joy was calm And from her great and
    humble position in the family she had taken
    dignity and a clean calm beauty.  From her
    position as healer, her hands had grown sure and
    cool and quite from her position as arbiter she
    had become as remote and faultless in judgment as
    a goddess.  She seemed to know that if she swayed
    the family shook, and if she ever really deeply
    wavered or despaired the family would fall, the
    family will to function would be gone..."
  • John Steinbecks Ma Joad, Grapes of Wrath

"We want the Mexican because we can treat them as
we cannot treat any other living man.  We can
control them by keeping them at night behind
bolted gates, within a stockade eight feet high,
surrounded by barbed wire we can make them work
under armed guards in the fields." Interview in
"Organization Efforts of Mexican Agricultural
Worker's, "Works Progress Administration, Federal
Writers' Project File
Georgia O'Keeffe 1887-1986
  • "My first memory is of the brightness of
    light...light all around. I was sitting among
    pillows on a quilt on the ground...very large
    white pillows..." Georgia Totto O'Keeffe was
    born in a farmhouse on a large dairy farm outside
    of Sun Prairie, Wisconsin on November 15, 1887.
  • Education for women was a family tradition.
    Georgia's own mother, Ida had been educated in
    the East. All the daughters but one became
    professional women, attesting to her influence on
  • When Georgia was in the eighth grade she asked a
    daughter of a farm employee what she was going to
    do when she grew up. The girl said she didn't
    know. Georgia replied very definitely... "...I
    am going to be an artist!"--"I don't really know
    where I got my artist idea...I only know that by
    that time it was definitely settled in my mind."

Red Snapdragons
Georgia OKeeffe
  • Known for her striking flower paintings and other
    captivating works, Georgia OKeeffe was one of
    the greatest American artists of the twentieth
    century. She took to making art at a young age
    and went to study at the Art Institute of Chicago
    in the early 1900s. Later, while living in New
    York, she studied with such artists as William
    Merritt Chase as a member of the Art Students

Grey line with black blue and yellows
Georgia OKeeffe
  • Georgia OKeeffe found an advocate in famed
    photographer and gallery owner Alfred Stieglitz.
    He showed her work to the public for the first
    time in 1916 at his gallery 291. Married in 1924,
    the two formed a professional and personal
    partnership that lasted until his death in 1946.
    Some of her popular works from this early period
    include Black Iris (1926) and Oriental Poppies
    (1928). Living in New York, she translated some
    of her environment onto the canvas with such
    paintings as Shelton Hotel, N.Y. No. 1 (1926).

Oriental Poppies
Georgia OKeeffe
  • After frequently visiting New Mexico since the
    late 1920s, Georgia OKeeffe moved there for good
    in 1946 after her husbands death and explored
    the areas rugged landscapes in many works. This
    environment inspired such paintings as Black
    Cross, New Mexico (1929) and Cows Skull with
    Calico Roses (1931). Georgia OKeeffe died on
    March 6, 1986, in Santa Fe, Mexico. As popular as
    ever, her works can be seen at museums around the
    world as well as the Georgia OKeeffe Museum in
    Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Red Canna
Rams Head White Hollyhock Hills
Frank Lloyd Wright 1867-1959
  • Frank Lloyd Wright spent more than 70 years
  • designs that revolutionized the art and
    architecture of this
  • century. Many innovations in today's buildings
    are products
  • of his imagination.
  • In all he designed 1141 works - including houses,
  • churches, schools, libraries, bridges, museums
    and many
  • other building types. Of that total, 532 resulted
    in completed
  • works, 409 of which still stand.
  • However, Wright's creative mind was not confined
  • architecture. He also designed furniture,
    fabrics, art glass,
  • lamps, dinnerware, silver, linens and graphic
    arts. In addition, he was a prolific writer,
  • and educator and a philosopher.
  • He authored twenty books and countless articles,
    lectured throughout the United States
  • and in Europe, and developed a remarkable plan
    for decentralizing urban America
  • (Broadacre City) that continues to be debated by
    scholars and writers to this day -- some
  • 60 years after its conception.

  • Wright is considered by most authorities to be
    the 20th century's greatest architect. Indeed,
    the American
  • Institute of Architects in a recent national
    survey, recognized Frank Lloyd Wright to be "the
  • American architect of all time." Architectural
    Record magazine (the official magazine of the
  • Institute of Architects) declared that Wright's
    buildings stand out among the most significant
  • works during the last 100 years in the world.

Frank Lloyd Wright
  • A Reverance for Democracy and Nature Wright
    revered the American experience and believed that
    democracy was the best form of government.
    Throughout his life he strived to create a new
    architecture that reflected the American
    democratic experience, an architecture based not
    on failing European and foreign models (such as
    Greek, Egyptian and Renaissance styles) but
    rather an architecture based solely on America's
    democratic values and human dignity. He often
    referred to the United States as Usonia. The city
    plan, Broadacre City, was the culmination of
    Wright's ideas on a new architecture for a new
    democracy.Wright preached the beauty of native
    materials and insisted that buildings grow
    naturally from their surroundings. He freed
    Americans from the Victorian "boxes" of the 19th
    century and helped create the open plan with
    rooms that flowed and opened out to each other.

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Frank Lloyd Wright
  • By changing architecture and changing the way
    America lived, Wright may have had an even more
    profound effect. As Wright said, "Whether people
    are fully conscious of this or not, they actually
    derive countenance and sustenance from the
    'atmosphere' of the things they live in or with.
    They are rooted in them just as a plant is in the
    soil in which it is planted."Throughout his life
    Wright spoke of the influence of nature on his
    work and attributed his love of nature to those
    early years in the rural Wisconsin countryside.
    During summers spent on his uncle's farm he
    learned to look at the patterns and rhythms found
    in nature - the branch of a tree (a natural
    cantilever), outcroppings of limestone, and the
    ever-changing sandbars.

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Frank Lloyd Wright
  • Wright later advised his apprentices to "study
    nature, love nature, stay close to nature. It
    will never fail you." The influence of nature is
    apparent in his work. From the earth-hugging
    "Prairie" houses such as the 1909 Robie House in
    Illinois and Taliesin in Wisconsin, to the
    cascading cantilevers of the 1936 Fallingwater in
    Pennsylvania (considered to be the most famous
    house ever designed for non-royalty), from the
    sky-lighted forest of concrete columns of the
    1936 Johnson Wax Administration Building in
    Racine, Wisconsin, the rugged beauty of Taliesin
    West in Arizona, to the spiraling, "snail-like"
    Guggenheim Museum completed in 1959 in New York
    City, his work shows a command of nature and
    native materials and an instinctive understanding
    of social and human needs.No other architect so
    intuitively designed to human scale. No other
    architecture took greater advantage of setting
    and environment. No other architect glorified the
    sense of "shelter" as did Frank Lloyd Wright. "A
    building is not just a place to be. It is a way
    to be," he said.

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Frank Lloyd Wright
  • A Timeless Contribution Wright's work has stood
    the test of time. His buildings are still
    relevant to today's values. People have moved and
    found new jobs just to own a Wright house.
    Grass-roots efforts have developed to preserve
    his work. In 1970, there were only two Wright
    homes open to the public. Today there are more
    than twenty, which together attract more than one
    million visitors a year. More than one-third of
    Wright buildings are listed on the National
    Register of Historic Places or are in a National
    Historic District.

Jacob Lawrence (1917- )
With the culture of Harlam as his primary source
of inspiration, Jacob Lawrence possessed a
consciousness of black history that is generally
not included in textbooks. Jacob Lawrence was a
student of life and made exposing the reality of
black history though art his life long pursuit.
After a long period of research and study
research, Jacob Lawrence began his first series
documenting African history.

  • Lawrence found

  • inspiration in

  • the Harlem

  • community where

  • he was raised.

  • His early work

  • depicts scenes of

  • Harlem life people, rooms,

  • facades, sidewalks, streets, and
  • storefrontsusing bold colors and elemental
  • in commercial tempera (poster) paints on
  • brown paper. Several early paintings portray his

  • immediate environment, including his studio,
    home, and
  • family.

Jacob Lawrence
  • Lawrence's original intention was to provide
    African Americans with a sense of pride,
    accomplishment, and hope during a time when many
    blacks were experiencing extreme political,
    economic, and racial difficulties. In 1986, the
    Spradling Ames Corporation and the Amistad
    Research Center, in conjunction with Lawrence and
    silk-screen artist Lou Stovall, decided to
    publish the works of Lawrence in silk-screen.
    General Toussaint L'Ouverture was the first
    painting to be issued as part of this silk-screen
    presentation and has been described as " Jacob
    Lawrence's most heroic painting and maybe his
    most decorative."

The Trains were Packed Continually with Migrants
The Migration Series
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The Migrants Cast Their Ballots
Andy Warhol 1928-1987
Andy Warhol
  • Andy was born in 1928 in Pittsburgh as the son of
    Slovak immigrants. His original name was Andrew
    Warhola. His father was as a construction worker
    and died in an accident when Andy was 13 years
  • Andy showed an early talent in drawing and
    painting. After high school he studied commercial
    art at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in
    Pittsburgh. Warhol graduated in 1949 and went to
    New York where he worked as an illustrator for
    magazines like Vogue and Harpar's Bazaar and for
    commercial advertising. He soon became one of New
    York's most sought of and successful commercial

Andy Warhol
  • In 1952 Andy Warhol had his first one-man show
    exhibition at the Hugo Gallery in New York. In
    1956 he had an important group exhibition at the
    renowned Museum of Modern Art.
  • In the sixties Warhol started painting daily
    objects of mass production like Campbell Soup
    cans and Coke bottles. Soon he became a famous
    figure in the New York art scene. From 1962 on he
    started making silkscreen prints of famous
    personalities like Marilyn Monroe or Elizabeth
  • The quintessence of Andy Warhol art was to remove
    the difference between fine arts and the
    commercial arts used for magazine illustrations,
    comic books, record albums or advertising
    campaigns. Warhol once expressed his philosophy
    in one poignant sentence
  • "When you think about it, department stores are
    kind of like museums".

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Andy Warhol
  • The pop artist not only depicted mass products
    but he also wanted to mass produce his own works
    of pop art. Consequently he founded The Factory
    in 1962. It was an art studio where he employed
    in a rather chaotic way "art workers" to mass
    produce mainly prints and posters but also other
    items like shoes designed by the artist. The
    first location of the Factory was in 231 E. 47th
    Street, 5th Floor (between 1st 2nd Ave).
  • Warhol's favorite printmaking technique was
    silkscreen. It came closest to his idea of
    proliferation of art. Apart from being an Art
    Producing Machine, the Factory served as a
    filmmaking studio. Warhol made over 300
    experimental underground films - most rather
    bizarre and some rather pornographic. His first
    one was called Sleep and showed nothing else but
    a man sleeping over six hours.

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Andy Warhol
  • In July of 1968 the pop artist was shot two to
    three times into his chest by a woman named
    Valerie Solanis. Andy was seriously wounded and
    only narrowly escaped death. Valerie Solanis had
    worked occasionally for the artist in the
    Factory. Solanis had founded a group named SCUM
    (Society for Cutting Up Men) and she was its sole
    member. When Valerie Solanis was arrested the day
    after, her words were "He had too much control
    over my life".
  • Warhol never recovered completely from his wounds
    and had to wear a bandage around his waist for
    the rest of his life

Andy Warhol
  • After this assassination attempt the pop artist
    made a radical turn in his process of producing
    art. The philosopher of art mass production now
    spent most of his time making individual
    portraits of the rich and affluent of his time
    like Mick Jagger, Michael Jackson or Brigitte
  • Warhol's activities became more and more
    entrepreneurial. He started the magazine
    Interview and even a night-club. In 1974 the
    Factory was moved to 860 Broadway. In 1975 Warhol
    published THE philosophy of Andy Warhol. In this
    book he describes what art is
  • "Making money is art, and working is art and good
    business is the best art."

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Andy Warhol
  • Warhol was a homosexual with a slightly bizarre
    personality. In the fifties he dyed his hair
    straw-blond. Later he replaced his real hair by
    blond and silver-grey wigs.
  • The pop artist loved cats, and images of them can
    be found on quite a few of his art works. One of
    Andy's friends described him as a true
    workaholic. Warhol was obsessed by the ambition
    to become famous and wealthy. And he knew he
    could achieve the American dream only by hard
  • In his last years Warhol promoted other artists
    like Keith Haring or Robert Mapplethorpe.
  • Andy Warhol died February 22, 1987 from
    complications after a gall bladder operation.
    More than 2000 people attended the memorial mass
    at St.Patrick's Cathedral. The pop art icon
    Warhol was also a religious man - a little known

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