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A New Genre Emerges


... as it descends from African American folk tradition and emerges as modern genre. ... The first gospel artist to perform at the Newport Jazz Festival ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A New Genre Emerges

A New Genre Emerges
  • A survey of gospel music, its roots history and

Why I choose this topic
  • I have been singing gospel music for many years,
    how I started singing
  • Was uninformed concerning specific aspects of the
    musics roots and history
  • Subject is not offered in school nor is it
    discussed in detail (served a great opportunity
    for me to become self educated on the topic)

  • Websites Great For Pictures and Sound Clips
  • Thomas Dorsey
  • http//www.palletmastersworkshop.com/birth.html
  • Gospel Photos- Chicago
  • http//www.chipublib.org/008subject/001artmusic/go
  • Dorsey Mahalia
  • http//news.minnesota.publicradio.org/features/199
  • Dorsey Music
  • http//www.hierographics.org/yourhistoryonline/you
  • Tindley-
  • http//library.thinkquest.org/3337/ctindley.html
  • Richard Allen
  • http//home.iag.net/greaterfaith/
  • Colored Infantry Band- Arlington, Virginia Band
    of 107th U.S. Colored Infantry at Fort Corcoran
  • http//americancivilwar.com/colored/colored_troops
  • Fisk Jubilee singers
  • http//www.fiskjubileesingers.org/about.html
  • http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/singers/

Proposal (Goals and Objectives)
  • The main objective of this project is to show the
    evolution of gospel music as it descends from
    African American folk tradition and emerges as
    modern genre.
  • This process of evolution is revealed through
    examination of
  • Gospel Music Tradition
  • Musical Components
  • Mass Appeal
  • Definition of Gospel Music
  • Bound in the development of fundamentalist
    religion within rural and southern American
    Communities in America after the Civil War
  • Sung by both Afro-American and white soloist,
    groups and congregations, has found its richest
    expression in the black church
  • The New Grove Gospel Blues and Jazz

1784The First black men granted licenses to
  • The black church is the first and greatest
    institution where Black Americans possess power
    and leadership.

Rev Richard Allen (1760-1831)
  • Granted a license to preach through the Methodist
  • Black Methodist churches emerged in New York
  • Founded the African Methodist Episcopal (AME)
    Church in 1794- by 1880 it had 400,000 members a
    number double that of its rivals
  • Published an AME hymnal which included a
    collection hymns of that appealed to his African
    American congregation.

A former slave, Richard Allen founded the AME
church as a result of segregationist practices
enacted by white Methodist churches.
1863Emancipation ProclamationA Result of the
Norths Victory in the Civil War
  • Black Men served in the military during the civil
    war. They became part of military bands, it was
    this experience that added new instrumentation to
    African American music traditions.

Arlington, Virginia Band of 107th U.S. Colored
Infantry at Fort Corcoran
Early Influences on Gospel Music
  • Protestant Hymns
  • Spirituals
  • Jubilee Songs
  • Gospel Hymns
  • Folk churches performed these types of songs in a
    highly unorthodox way

1871 First Tour of Fisk Jubilee Singers
  • Jubilee Singers performed concert arrangements of
    black spirituals. The publication of these
    spirituals in the 1860s and their international
    tour sparked a new and increasing interest in
    black spirituals and helped to preserve portions
    of this pre-war history.
  • Songs they performed were a capella, used
    conventional harmonies, diatonic scales, pure
    vocal tones and modified responses

The picture above hangs in the Fisk University
Collections in Nashville, Tennessee. It was
painted by the British artist Edmund Havel
(1835-1908) in 1873 and is entitled, "The Jubilee
Singers." (Used here by permission of Fisk
1900Fist compositions of a black gospel
songwriter appear
  • Albert Tindley (1851?-1933)
  • Methodist preacher from Maryland
  • Founded the East Calvary Methodist Episcopal
    Church in Philadelphia in 1870
  • Became well known for its exiting music, some
    songs written by Tindley
  • Many of his songs were intended for Sunday school
    and social gatherings (informal settings)

Albert Tindley (1851?-1933)
Thomas Dorsey (1899-1993) The Father of Gospel
  • Born in Rural Georgia
  • Settled in Chicago in 1916- during great
  • Known for coining the term gospel music during
    the 1930s

Precious Lord Take My Hand, When Ive Done My
Best, Thy Bossom, and Search Me, Lord

Secular vs. Sacred
  • Dorsey was not allowed to play his music during
    church services
  • Began as a blues musician
  • Nicknamed Barrelhouse Tom
  • Experienced dance pianist and toured w/ famous
    blues artist such a Ma Rainey
  • Influenced by Albert Tindleys gospel songs which
    he reworked in a different style
  • Was also impacted by evangelist Homer A.
    Rodeheaver which he saw in 1911 at a camp
  • Was writing gospel songs at the same time he was
    working on blues songs

Secular Influences on Gospel Music
  • By 1920 gospel was established as a distinctive
  • Blues- spirituals
  • Antecedents of the blues
  • Personal reflection
  • 12 bar form chords I-IV-V
  • Satirical/ Sarcastic reflections of hard times or
    personal misery

By the 1920s it had developed into a distinctive
genre, displaying features of both the historic
sacred black music and the secular. Observers
perceived that this expressive church music was
essentially the sacred counterpart of the blues,
frequently the sacred text being the only
distinguishing element. -Eilleen Southern. The
Music of Black Americans A history.
The first recordings by the Father of the Blues,
with his own hand-picked orchestra.These
recordings were made between 1917 and 1923, Mr.
Handy presiding and playing cornet. His orchestra
featured trombone, clarinet, alto sax, violins,
piano, tuba, string bass, drums and xylophone!
Produced and with liner notes by Richard Hite.
(Memphis Archives)
1921Gospel Pearls- a collection of 165 songs
produced by Sunday School Publishing Board of the
National Baptist Convention
  • Poems center around a single theme stressed
    through repetition of phrases
  • Instrumental accompaniment
  • Marked syncopation
  • Percussive instrumental rhythms
  • Strophic forms- Verse refrain
  • Melody uses flatted thirds and sevenths- related
    to the blues
  • Group oriented, tell stories about biblical
    events, old testament stories
  • Sung a capella
  • Form consists of one repeated strain (ie aaa)
  • Uses bent tones rarely

1930National Baptist Convention publicly
endorses gospel music at the Jubilee annual
meeting of the National Baptist Convention, USA
at Chicago
  • Thomas Dorsey
  • Popularized the term gospel music in the 1930s
  • 1932- Founded the National Convention of Gospel
    Choirs and choruses
  • Gospel Music competitions
  • Paid gospel concerts sell out and establish
    gospel music as a profitable business
  • Prior to religious music concerts were open to
    whoever wanted to listen
  • Caused the emergence of professional Gospel
  • Dorseys Musical Contributions
  • The addition of female singers
  • Large choirs with accompaniment
  • Musical density and improvisation

Gospel Music Becomes Popular
  • Mahalia Jackson (1912-1972) born in New Orleans
  • Settled in Chicago in 1927, became associated
    with Dorsey in 1929
  • Recorded regularly starting in 1946
  • Took Gospel music international in 1952 as she
    toured Europe

Gospel Quartets
5 blind boys at the Apollo Theatre
Mighty Clouds of Joy
The Sensational Nightingales
The Spirit of Memphis
1957Ward Singers become the first gospel group
to perform at Newport Jazz Festival
  • Gospel music is taken into secular venues
  • The Ward singers, a professional group
  • The first gospel artist to perform at the Newport
    Jazz Festival
  • The first to sing gospel music in Nightclubs
  • The first to sing at radio city music hall in New
    York City
  • Among the first to appear in films and gospel

Gospel Music in the Mainstream
  • 1961 Mahalia Jackson invited to sing at the
    inaguration party for president John F. Kennedy
  • 1963 TV Gospel Time was broadcast every Sunday
    morning in 60 major US cities

Gospel Music Internationally
  • Gospel music tradition reaches various parts of
    the globe
  • Choirs in South Africa
  • Norway
  • Germany
  • Europe
  • Australia

Vegårshei Gospel Choir from Norway, Sun. October
5   http//www.mindekirken.org/LEIF/Leif_2003/veg
Gospel Vocal Techniques Remain
  • High shrill sopranos
  • Melismatic singing
  • Moans Growls
  • Subcategories of Gospel Music
  • Contemporary Soul Gospel- Karen Clark Sheard
  • Gospel Jazz- Kim Burrell
  • Sophisticated Mainstream- Donnie McClurkin,
    Yolanda Adams
  • Gospel Funk/ Hip Hop
  • Gospel Rap
  • High shrill sopranos
  • Melismatic singing
  • Moans Growls

Contemporary Gospel Music
  • Combines biblical/ religious texts with other
    types of musical forms both secular and sacred
  • Gospel music played on secular radio stations
  • Becomes difficult to tell what is actual gospel
    music by the sound of the music alone
  • More Cohesion between black and white church
    music Contemporary Christian
  • Gospel music videos emerge

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