1 Policies for Sustainable Biofuels Development in the United States Jeff Skeer Office of Policy and International Affairs U.S. Department of Energy German Marshall Fund Washington DC 22 February 2008
2 Renewable Fuels Standard Enacted Focus on 2d Generation Feedstocks
Year Billions of Gallons of Fuel Per Year
20 in 10 Proposal Enacted 12/2007
(Alternative Fuels) (Biofuels Only)
2010 10 12
2011 11 12.6
2012 12 13.2
2013 14 13.8
2014 17 14.4
2015 22 15
2016 28 18 3
2017 35 21 6
2018 24 9
2019 27 12
2020 30 15
2021 33 18
2022 36 21
Of Which Non Starch Ethanol Biofuels 3 Comparison of Biofuel Scenarios Twenty in Ten Proposal Enacted December 2007l Biofuels Alternative Fuels Biofuels EIA No-Policy-Change Projections Annual Energy Outlook 2007 Corn Ethanol History Cellulosic Ethanol 4 (No Transcript) 5 The Standards are NestedShown with 2022 volumes 6 Our Commitment to Sustainability DOEs Biomass Program is committed to developing the resources technologies and systems needed for biofuels to grow in a way that enhances the health of our environment and protects our planet. To that end we are working to
Develop diverse non-food feedstocks thatrequire little water or fertilizer
Foster sustainable forestry practices toenhance forest health
Assess life-cycle impacts of major scale-up in biofuels production from feedstocksto vehicles addressing
land use and soil health
air quality issues
impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
7 Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Different Fuels 8 Overcoming Barriers to Commercial 2d Generation BIofuels
Enzymatic conversion costs
C5 sugars conversion
Low Syngas-to-Fuel Yields
Commercial-scale integration of process components
Inadequate feedstock and distribution infrastructure
9 Genetic Strategies to Boost Crop Yields
Increase feedstock per unit of land by increasing growth rate and photosynthetic efficiency.
Increase fuel yield per ton of feedstock through better composition and structure.
Enhance disease and pest resistance.
Allow germination and growth in cold weather.
Use perennial multi-year crops with efficient nutrient use and reduced fuel input.
Permit dense planting and easy harvesting.
Deep roots for increased carbon sequestration drought tolerance and nutrient uptake.
10 Cellulosic Ethanol Potential and Status Historical and Projected Cellulosic Ethanol Costs Cellulosic ethanol cost competitiveness and sustainability attributes are key to biofuels growth potential Modeled Ethanol Cost for nth Plant Enzyme Feedstock Conversion NREL Modeled Cost Major reductions in the cost of cellulosic ethanol already achieved much remains to be done 11 DOE Leverages Partnerships to Achieve Cost Reduction Goals
Commercial-Scale Biorefineries (up to 385 million)
Six cost-shared integrated biorefinery demonstration projects to produce130 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol in 5 years using variety of conversion technologies and cellulosic feedstocks
10-Scale Biorefinery Validation (currently 4 projects up to 114 million)
Cost-shared integrated biorefinery demonstrations using cellulosic feedstocks to produce renewable fuels one-tenth of commercial scale
Four selectees announced last month for total investment of 114 million more selectees expected by April 2008
Ethanologen Solicitation (up to 23 million)
Five selected research teams working on microorganisms
Enzyme Solicitation (up to 33.8 million)
Creating highly effective inexpensive enzyme systems forcommercial biomass hydrolysis second phase cellulase development with cost-sharing industry partners
Thermochemical Conversion (up to 7.75 million)
Integration of gasification and catalyst development
Joint DOE-USDA Solicitation (18 million)
Biomass RD Initiative
12 Major DOE Biofuels Project Locations Geographic Feedstock and Technology Diversity 13 GHG Methodologies Task Force of Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP)
GHG methodologies taskforce established by GBEP steering committee in May 2007.
Desired end result is flexible methodology for policy makers in all countries.
First taskforce meeting held October 2007.
Second meeting scheduled for March 6-7 2008 and will include solid biomass and liquid biofuels.
14 GHG Taskforce Work Plan
1. Review existing methodologies
2. Develop a harmonised approach so GHG lifecycle assessments can be compared on an equivalent basis
3 Encompass the full well-to-wheel lifecycle of transport biofuels
4 Not indicate a preference for any particular existing methodology or feedstock or to limit parameters and
5 Define parameters and inputs to be considered when conducting a LCA and develop a good practice document.
15 Membership of GHG Taskforce
Attendance at first meeting included
International Council on Clean Transportation
University of California Berkeley
Iowa State University
16 Results of First GBEP GHG Meeting
Accomplished review of existing efforts in defining methodologies
Reached broad agreement that it is possible to develop common methodology
Developed preliminary list of parameters needed for a common methodology in a checklist
Recognized issues needing further discussion
17 Development of Common Checklist
The GHGs to be covered
The effects of direct land use change both in terms of above and below ground carbon inventories
The effects of the production cycle including fertilizer production agricultural inputs and processing energy
Combustion of the finished biofuel and tailpipe emissions and
Corresponding factors to facilitate comparison with the fuel replaced.
18 Issues Needing further Discussion
Accounting for co-product emissions
Ensuring transparency in default values and parameters used and assumptions made in conducting a GHG lifecycle assessment
Whether and how to take account of the effects of indirect land use change
How to take account of future technologies (e.g. cellulosic) in the design of the methodology.
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