Functional Conflict and Symbolic Interaction Theoretical Perspectives
3 Types of Groups
4 Dyads and Triads
DyadGroup consisting of two people
TriadGroup consisting of three people.
Triadic segregation The tendency for triads to segregate into a coalition of the dyad against the isolate.
5 Primary and Secondary Groups
Primary groupsGroups consisting of intimate face-to-face interaction and relatively long-lasting relationships.
Secondary groupsGroups with large membership less intimate and less long lasting.
6 Polling Questions
Which type of group is the most important to you
A. Primary group
B. Secondary group
7 Attribution errors
We perceive people in our out-groups negatively regardless of their actual characteristics.
Include misperceptions between racial groups and between men and women.
8 Polling Question
The Boys Scouts of American discriminates against homosexuals in general.
A.) Strongly agree
B.) Agree somewhat
D.) Disagree somewhat
E.) Strongly disagree
9 Social Networks
A set of links between individuals or other social units such as bureaucratic organizations or even entire nations.
Numerous research studies indicate that people get jobs via their personal networks more often than through formal job listings want ads or placement agencies.
10 Small World Research Project
300 senders were tasked with getting a document to a complete stranger.
1/3 of the documents arrived with an average of 6.2 contacts.
11 Asch Conformity Experiment
1/3 to 1/2 of the subjects make a judgment contrary to objective fact and in conformity with the group.
12 Milgram Obedience Studies
65 of subjects administered what they thought was lethal voltage on the shock machine.
Milgram described the dilemma as a conflict between conscience and authority.
13 The Iraqi Prisoners at Abu Graib Research Predicts Reality
In the spring of 2004 it was revealed that American soldiers who were military police guards at Abu Graib prison in Iraq engaged in severe torture of Iraqi prisoners of war.
The guards claimed they were following orders directly given or indirectly assumed.
Milgram studies suggest that many ordinary soldiers would engage torture if they believed they were under orders to do so or that they would not be punished.
14 Groupthink4 Aspects
Illusion of invulnerability.
Falsely negative impression of those who are antagonists to the groups plans.
Discouragement of dissenting opinion.
Illusion of unanimity.
15 Historic Group Think Decisions
The Naval High Command decided in 1941 not to prepare for the attack on Pearl Harbor by Japan.
President Kennedys attempt to overthrow Cuba by launching the invasion at the Bay of Pigs in 1962.
16 Historic Group Think Decisions
President Johnsons decision in 1967 to increase the number of U.S. troops in Vietnam.
Decision by President Nixons advisers in 1972 to break into Democratic Party headquarters at the Watergate apartment complex.
17 Risky Shift
Groups weigh risk differently than individuals.
Most but not all group discussion leads to greater risk-taking.
As groups get larger trends in risk-taking are amplified.
18 Formal Organizations
Develop cultures and routine practices.
People conform to expected patterns of behavior.
Can be tools for innovation depending on the organizations values and purpose.
19 Types of Organizations.
Normative (service charitable organizations)
20 Weber Characteristics of Bureaucracy
Division of labor and specialization
Hierarchy of authority
Rules and regulations
21 Bureaucracys Other Face
Informal structures ignore change or bypass formal structure and rules.
Subcultures develop when people try to humanize an impersonal organization.
The informal culture can become exclusionary.
22 Problems of Bureaucracies
23 McDonaldization of Society
Efficiency - things move from start to finish in a streamlined path.
Calculability - emphasis on quantitative aspects of products sold.
24 The McDonaldization of Society
Predictability - products are the same no matter when or where they are purchased.
Control - behavior is reduced to a series of machinelike actions.
25 The McDonaldization of Society 26 Diversity in Organizations
Organizations perpetuate inequality of race-ethnicity gender and social class.
Minorities are less likely to get promoted and more likely to get fired.
27 Theoretical Perspectives on Organizations 28 Theoretical Perspectives on Organizations 29 Theoretical Perspectives on Organizations 30 Quick Quiz 31
1. What did Simmel called the tendency for triads to segregate into a pair and an isolate
a. tertius gaudens
b. dyadic segregation
c. triadic segregation
d. coalition of the isolate
32 Answer c
Simmel called the tendency for triads to segregate into a pair and an isolate a triadic segregation.
2. A set of links between individuals or between other social units is defined as a
a. secondary groups
b. social network
c. primary group
d. social category
34 Answer b
A set of links between individuals or between other social units is defined as a social network.
3. In a classic study known as the Asch Conformity Experiment Solomon Asch showed that
a. most people conform when an authority figure demands obedience
b. most people would proclaim their willingness to aid a stranger in need
c. significant gender difference is evident in patterns of conformity
d. simple facts cannot withstand the distorting pressure of group influence
36 Answer d
In a classic study known as the Asch Conformity Experiment Solomon Asch showed that simple facts cannot withstand the distorting pressure of group influence.
4. Which of the following statements is true regarding the Milgram obedience studies
a. When the learner complained of a heartcondition less than 10 percent of the subjects delivered the maximum shock level
b. Class background and racial/ethnicdifferences had no effect on compliancerate.
c. In the first experiment only 20 percent ofthe subjects went all the way to 450 volts
d. Women were found to be more humanethan men.
38 Answer b
The statement class background and racial/ethnic differences had no effect on compliance rates is true regarding the Milgram obedience studies.
5. A married couple is an example of a dyad.
40 Answer True
A married couple is an example of a dyad.
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