Our textbook defines orthopedic impairments as diseases or disorders that are related to the bones joints and/or muscles.
An orthopedic impairment is covered under IDEA if it adversely affects educational performance.
3 A few of the orthopedic impairments that we will discuss today include
Spinal Cord Injuries and
4 What is cerebral palsy
Cerebral palsy is a physical impairment that affects movement.
The four types of cerebral palsy are
2) athetoid or dyskinetic
3) ataxic and
4) any combination of the those above.
5 Presumed causes of cerebral palsy
Failure of a part of the brain to develop blocked blood vessel complications during labor extreme prematurity multiple births STDs poor nutrition effects of anesthetics or analgesics
Head injury near drowning poison ingestion illness/infection genetics
6 Prevalence/Incidence Rates
It affects 1 in every 400 births.
It is estimated that 500000 people in the United States currently have cerebral palsy.
It is the most common orthopedic impairment among students in public schools.
7 How can cerebral palsy be diagnosed
Test an infants motor skills.
Examine the mothers and infants medical histories.
Test the infants reflexes and early development of hand preference.
Look for signs of slow development abnormal muscle tone and unusual posture.
8 What are some characteristics of students with cerebral palsy
Difficulty with fine motor tasks maintaining balance and chewing and swallowing
Weak or tight muscles
9 What is muscular dystrophy what causes it
Muscular dystrophy is a disease that weakens the muscles.
There are 43 types of muscular dystrophy most of which are caused by alterations in specific genes.
The most common type is Duchenne muscular dystrophy and it only affects boys.
It is a genetic disease passed from mother to son or it can arise in a young boy due to a spontaneous genetic mutation.
10 Prevalence/Incidence Rates
In the United States it is estimated that between 50-250000 people are affected each year.
That number is on the rise due to technological advancements and earlier testing.
11 How can muscular dystrophy be diagnosed
Muscular dystrophy can be diagnosed through an EMG (electromyogram) blood test and/or a muscle biopsy.
If a blood test is performed and it reveals high levels of creatine kinase this indicates that the muscles are damaged.
12 What are some characteristics of students with muscular dystrophy
Between two and six years of age
Difficulty getting up from sitting or lying position
Waddling gait and
Fattening of the leg muscles.
Later on in life
Wheelchair by age 12 and
By the late teens or early 20s respiratory and cardiovascular problems develop and ultimately result in death.
13 What is spinal cord injury
Spinal cord injuries occur when a traumatic event results in damage to cells within the spinal cord or severs the nerves that relay signals up and down the spinal cord. It causes paralysis loss of sensation and loss of reflex function.
Spinal cord injuries occur suddenly and without warning.
The four types of spinal cord injuries are
3) lacerations and
4) central cord syndrome.
Terms for the types of paralysis
1) paraplegia and
14 What causes spinal cord injury
Horse motorcycle sporting event-related and
Various other types.
Alcohol plays a significant role in many of these.
15 Prevalence/Incidence Rates
In the United States there are approximately 10000 new spinal cord injuries each year.
There are over 250000 people currently affected.
Spinal cord injuries can happen to anyone at any time of life.
The typical case is a man age 19-26.
16 How is spinal cord injury diagnosed
Diagnosis occurs after a traumatic injury by a medical professional.
17 What are some characteristics of students with spinal cord injury
Varying degrees of paralysis
18 What is spina bifida
Spina bifida is a birth defect where an abnormal opening in the spinal column results in some degree of paralysis.
Spina bifida literally translates to cleft or split spine.
There are environmental as well as genetic factors
Lack of folate/folic acid in the mother during pregnancy and
20 Prevalence/Incidence Rates
Approximately 4 in every 1000 births are affected.
There are many thousands of people currently affected.
21 How is spina bifida diagnosed
Amniocentesis checking for increased levels of alpha-fetoprotein.
After birth it is physically apparent if a baby has spina bifida.
There may be a buildup of fluid around the brain (hydrocephalus)
22 What are some characteristics of students with spina bifida
Poor short term memory
Poor attention organization sequencing time generalization motivation left-right discrimination and coordination.
23 What are some assistive technologies that can be used for students with orthopedic impairments
Altered pencils and pens
Altered keyboards (BAT)
Eye-controlled input systems (cyberlink)
Adjustable seats and desks
Portable reading racks
Speech-controlled input systems (dragon-dictate and write-away)
Icon-driven communication (dynavox)
A website that includes several examples is located here 24 Some instructional ideas resources for teachers
Please see handout
Bigge J.L. ODonnell P.A. (1976). Teaching individuals with physical and multiple disabilities. Columbus Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company.
Calhoun M.L. Hawisher M. (1979). Teaching and learning strategies for physically handicapped students. Baltimore University Park Press.
Friend M. Bursuck W.D. (2002). Including students with special needs A practical guide for classroom teachers. Boston Allyn and Bacon.
The Irish Association for Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus (2004). What is spina bifida Retrieved May 24 2004 from http//www.iasbah.ie.
Muscular Dystrophy Family Foundation (2002). Muscular dystrophy family foundation. Retrieved May 24 2004 from http//www.mdusa.org.
National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (2004). National dissemination center for children with disabilities. Retrieved May 25 2004 from http//www.nichcy.org.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (2001). Spinal cord injury information page. Retrieved May 24 2004 from http//www.ninds.nih.gov.
Ohlone College (2004). Students with physical disabilities. Retrieved May 25 2004 from http//www.ohlone.cc.ca.us/org.
Texas Pediatric Surgical Associates (n.d.). Spina bifida neurological issues. Retrieved May 24 2004 from http//www.pedisurg.com.
United Cerebral Palsy (2001). Cerebral palsy facts and figures. Retrieved May 24 2004 from http//www.upc.org.
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