Ph.D clinical psychology from Columbia University Teachers College in 1931
2 Rogers Client-Centered TherapyAssumptions about Human Nature
Internal Frame of Reference
Persons behavior - understood from this frame of reference
Human beings are innately good.
Need for unconditional positive regard from others.
Humans are purposive goal-directed.
3 Rogers Client-Centered TherapyAssumptions about Human Nature
Core of human life resides in SELF-EXPERIENCE
Value of life is in PRESENT
Basic Human Need - Deep Human Relationship
Internal Rationalities - people do the best possible thing if conditions are present
4 Development of Personality
Self-Concept picture or image people have of themselves.
Self-Experience all that is occurring within the organism that is potentially available to awareness.
Ideal-Self the self-concept the person would like to possess.
Incongruence the difference between the self-concept and the self-experience.
the inherent tendency of the organism to develop all its capacities in ways that serve to maintain or enhance the organism..
5 Case Example Person Smith Self-Concept How I see me Self-Experience How I really am Lonely Angry Fearful Smart Manipulative Compulsive Joyful Insecure Lonely Honest Trustworthy Smart Incongruence 6 Psychopathology
No dividing line between normality and psychopathology.
Avoid diagnostic labels
..such categories as pseudoscientific efforts to glorify the therapists expertise and depict the client as a dependent object.. (Rogers 1951)
Defense responding to experiences that threaten the self-concept (distortion denial)
Neurosis Powerful conditions of worth in self-concept. Incongruent with totality of experience.
Psychosis Person is badly hurt by life needs corrective influence of a deep interpersonal relationship.
7 Case Example Therapy Begins Person Smith Self-Concept How I see me Self-Experience How I really am Joyful Insecure Lonely Honest Trustworthy Smart Lonely Angry Fearful Smart Manipulative Compulsive Moving toward Congruency 8 Therapeutic Procedures
No use of interpretation
No investigation of clients past
No dream analysis
Client must perceive three characteristics in the therapist
Genuine therapist in touch with his/her own personal experience
Empathic attuned to the clients feelings and beliefs
Unconditional positive regard Non-judgmental non-possessive respect and caring for clients self-concept and feelings
9 Mechanism of Change
Abandon the defensive facades that protect incongruent self-concept.
Accept anxiety-provoking aspects of self-experience.
Move from incongruence to congruence.
Establishing a constructive interpersonal relationship with therapist.
Completely optimist and simplistic view of human nature.
Three therapeutic conditions are necessary but insufficient.
Implies therapist must be congruent.
Diagnosis is also important.
Avoids confrontation--therapy needs to be confrontational.
Conducted on three characteristics genuineness empathy and unconditional positive regard.
Some studies found these related to constructive change in therapy other studies have found no relationship (Epstein 1980)
Self-concept has also been studied. Research supports notion that therapy is usually related to increased self-acceptance (Wylie 1984)
PowerShow.com is a leading presentation/slideshow sharing website. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow.com is a great resource. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use.
You can use PowerShow.com to find and download example online PowerPoint ppt presentations on just about any topic you can imagine so you can learn how to improve your own slides and presentations for free. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows - with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music - that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. That's all free as well!
For a small fee you can get the industry's best online privacy or publicly promote your presentations and slide shows with top rankings. But aside from that it's free. We'll even convert your presentations and slide shows into the universal Flash format with all their original multimedia glory, including animation, 2D and 3D transition effects, embedded music or other audio, or even video embedded in slides. All for free. Most of the presentations and slideshows on PowerShow.com are free to view, many are even free to download. (You can choose whether to allow people to download your original PowerPoint presentations and photo slideshows for a fee or free or not at all.) Check out PowerShow.com today - for FREE. There is truly something for everyone!