1 (No Transcript) 2 Darfur is located in Sudan Represents frontier between the Arab world and black Africa For 10 years Sudan has hardly seen peace regularly dealing with crises 3 Sudans population is one of the most diverse on the African continent.
Two distinct major cultures
hundreds of ethnic and tribal subdivisions and language groups
make effective collaboration a major political challenge
4 Sudan proclaimed independence in 1956 from Egypt and Britain Series of unstable parliamentary governments established Fundamentalist Islamic law was instituted by Major General Gaafar Mohamed Nimeiri in 1983 5 Language Religion Ethnicity Political Power Influenced by the National Islamic Front and southern rebels and supported by the Sudan Peoples Liberation Army unending civil war erupted between government forces. 6
A famine in the mid-1980s disrupted many societal structures
Led to first significant fighting among people in Darfur
Low level conflict continued for 15 years
Government survived and armed Arab militias against its enemies
7 The arid mountainous soil is central to the conflict between African farmers and Arab herders There is an eternal fight for water food and shelter Below-normal rainfall and massive numbers of displaced people have led to water shortages in refugee camps 8
A secret group called Tajamu al Arabi
(Arab Gathering) emerged in the
Darfur region in the 1980s.
This group created tensions between Muslims and Non-Arab Africans with violent attacks against the Non-Arab Africans. 9
The mentality behind the conflict stems from the 1960s and 1970s. The ideology of Arab supremacies grows in northern Africa.
10 (No Transcript) 11 In 2003 the Non-Arab Africans combined forces to protect themselves against the militia groups. The Sudanese government became involved in the 1990s funding militia groups who were carrying out the attacks. 12
Capital Washington D.C.
President George W. Bush
Industries Oil Steel Chemicals Aerospace Food Process
Natural Resources Coal Copper Lead Gold Iron and Nickel
Per Capita GDP 40100
Ethnic Groups White 75.1 Black 12.3 Hispanic 12.5 Asian 3.6
President General Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir
Industries Oil Textiles Cement Sugar
Natural Resources Oil Iron Ore Copper Zinc
Per Capita GDP 1900
Ethnic Groups Black 52 Arab 39
TV Sets 173/1000
Life Expectancy 57.3 male 59.8 female
Infant Mortality 62.5/1000
Education mandatory ages 6-13
TV Sets 844/1000
Internet 161.6 million users
Life Expectancy 74.9 male 80.7 female
Infant Mortality 6.5/1000
Education mandatory 6-17
14 The Janjaweed a rebel militia group contribute to much of the violence in Sudan which has created over 2.5 million refugees Target non-Islamic Sudanese Mostly members of nomadic Arab tribes long at odds with settled African farmers in Darfur 15 The refugees are going to have to move. Theres going to be nothing here to sustain life. - Palouma Ponlibae Agriculture and Natural-Resources Officer for CARE 16 Before crisis
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