1 Trojan War The Trojan War was a 10 year conflict between the Achaeans of mainland Greece and the people of Troy. The Trojan prince Paris had run away with Helen who was the wife of Menelaus the Achaean king of Sparta. The story of the Trojan War is told in Homers Iliad. The Trojan prince Aeneas escapes Troy after the Achaeans finally destroy the city and flees to Italy. According to legend the descendants of Aeneas will found Rome. Aeneas journey is told in Virgils Aeneid which we will read. Go to timeline 2 Timeline Before the War Marriage of Thetis and Peleus Paris arrives in Sparta and falls in love with Helen Judgment of Paris Apple of Discord Helen and Paris go to Troy Oath of Tyndareus the marriage of Helen to Menelaus 3 Timeline During the War Agamemnon chosen as leader sacrifices Iphigenia to gain favorable winds Achilles kills Hector signaling the end for Troy Briseis and Chryseis incident Achilles refuses to fight Trojan Horse is devised by Odysseus Troy is sacked For 9 years the Achaeans fight the Trojans with no result Hector kills Patroclus enraging Achilles and drawing him back to battle 4 Timeline After the War Aeneas flees Troy with the Trojan gods journeys to Italy 500 years after Aeneas flees his descendant Romulus founds Rome Odysseus journeys for 10 years trying to get home Agamemnon returns home to find his family in a shambles Menelaus and Helen live happily ever after 5 Aeneid Virgils Aeneid tells the story of the night of Troys destruction Aeneas long journey to Italy and his struggle to establish a new city there. Virgil begins Arma virumque cano Trojae qui primus ab oris Italiam fato profugus Lavinaque venit litora. . . (Aeneid 1. 1-3a) Timeline 6 Achaeans The key characters fighting the Trojans in the war include Mortals Gods Hera Athena Poseidon Thetis Agamemnon Achilles Menelaus Odysseus Patroclus Timeline 7 Trojans The key characters fighting the Achaeans in the war include Mortals Gods Aphrodite Ares Trojan Royal Family Laocoon Timeline 8 Trojan Royal Family King Priam Queen Hecuba Prince Hector Prince Paris Princess Cassandra Prince Aeneas (nephew of the king) Timeline 9 Laocoon A Trojan serving as the yearly priest of Poseidon. Laocoon believes that the Trojan Horse is trouble. Laocoons warning is famous Quidquid id est timeo Danaos et dona ferentes. (Aeneid 2 49) Two snakes emerge from an island sacred to Poseidon and drag off Laocoon and his sons. The Trojans interpret this as a sign from Poseidon that Laocoon was incorrect and they have won the war. Timeline Laocoon unknown Vatican Museum 10 Prince Hector The Trojan Prince Hector is the eldest son of Priam and Hecuba and the leader of the Trojan army. Hector realizes that the Trojans will likely lose the war but believes that he is honor-bound to defend his brother his city his family and his people. The only Achaean who can match Hector in battle is the semi-divine Achilles. Hector kills Achilles closest friend Patroclus thereby enraging Achilles and drawing him back into the battle. Achilles eventually kills Hector (signaling the end for Troy) and desecrates his body. Timeline 11 Prince Paris Before his birth the prophets of Troy foretold that Prince Paris would cause the destruction of the city. Consequently his parents decided to have him left on a mountainside and let the gods determine his fate. Paris was found by shepherd and raised as his son. Paris settles the divine argument over The Apple of Discord in what is known as The Judgment of Paris. Eventually Paris returns to Troy where he is miraculously recognized by Queen Hecuba as her long lost son. The king and queen restore Paris to his birthright. In his first official duty as a Trojan Prince Paris travels to Sparta to negotiate a treaty with King Menelaus. In Sparta Paris meets and falls in love with Helen. Timeline 12 Judgment of Paris As the adopted son of a shepherd Paris is tending flocks one day when a golden apple falls at his feet. Three goddess then appear Hera Athena and Aphrodite. Each goddess promises a unique gift if he will declare her the most beautiful. Aphrodites promise of the most beautiful in the world sways Paris to choose her. Judgment of Paris red-figure vase unknown British Museum Timeline 13 Apple of Discord The goddess Discord was unhappy at being the only divinity who was not invited to the wedding of Thetis and Peleus. As revenge she plucks a golden apple from the Garden of the Hesperides and attaches a tag to the apple which reads for the fairest. Discord then tosses the apple into the wedding reception and waits to watch the results. Three goddesses step forward to claim the apple Hera Athena and Aphrodite. They cannot decide among themselves who is fairest so they take their cases to Zeus. Zeus husband of Hera and father of Athena and Aphrodite refuses to intervene. He tosses the apple over his shoulder. The apple bounces to earth and lands at the feet of Paris. Timeline 14 Princess Cassandra The Trojan princess Cassandra was granted the gift of prophecy by Apollo due to her beauty. Cassandra however did not return the gods love. Unable to revoke his gift but enraged at his rejection Apollo cursed Cassandra to see the future but not to be believed. Cassandra is one of several Trojans who prophesied that Prince Paris would cause the destruction of Troy. After the Trojans are defeated Cassandra is taken as a war-prize by Agamemnon whose death she also correctly prophesies. Timeline 15 King Priam Priam is king of the city-state of Troy husband of Hecuba and father of Hector Paris and Cassandra. Priam feels guilty about abandoning Paris as a child thus when Paris reappears he reinstates him as a Prince of Troy. Likewise when Paris returns from Sparta with Helen Priam indulges his son and allows Helen to stay though he may lose his life and his city. After the death and desecration of Hector Priam goes into the Achaean camp late one night to beg Achilles to return the body. Timeline Priam ransoms Hector red-figure vase unknown Louvre 16 Helen of Troy/ Helen of Sparta Simply Helen is the cause of the Trojan War. Lawfully Helen is married to the Achaean Menelaus king of Sparta. Throughout the Trojan War however she resides in Troy as the wife of Prince Paris. (Ancient sources are ambiguous about Helens willingness to go to Troy.) Menelaus (and the other Achaeans) are bound by oath to fight for Helen and war ensues. Helen the daughter of Zeus is noteworthy for her otherworldly beauty which drives men to do amazing things. Timeline 17 Aeneas Aeneas known as the pater patriae to the Romans was a Trojan prince second in line to the throne (after Hector). The goddess Aphrodite is Aeneas mother his father was Anchises brother to King Priam. Aeneas fights bravely throughout the war. During the destruction of Troy the ghost of Hector appears to Aeneas and tells him to take the gods of Troy and his family and flee to Italy where he is to establish a new Troy. Aeneas Anchises and Ascanius Bernini Galleria Borghese Timeline 18 Aphrodite goddess of love Aphrodite is the mother of the Trojan prince Aeneas and fights for the Trojans during the war. She also won the Apple of Discord from Paris by promising him the most beautiful woman in the world as his wife. Aphrodite neglects to mention to Paris that this woman Helen is already married to Menelaus. Timeline Venus de Milo Louvre 19 Ares god of war Ares is a rash and unpredictable god who enjoys war for the sake of war. He fights for the Trojans during the war because he is in love with Aphrodite and he appreciates that Paris could cause a war so wide-spread. Ares red-figure vase Leagros Group British Museum Timeline 20 Agamemnon Agamemnon is the brother of Menelaus and the leader of the Achaeans during the Trojan War. In order to gain favorable winds to sail to Troy Agamemnon sacrifices his daughter Iphigenia to Artemis. Excessively proud of his role as first among equals Agamemnon angers Achilles causing Achilles to withdraw from the fighting. After the war Agamemnon takes the Trojan princess Cassandra as his war-prize and takes her home to meet his wife who is not pleased. Death Mask of Agamemnon bronze unknown National Archeological Museum Athens Timeline 21 Agamemnons Family Life Agamemnon was ambitious. He dreamed of the power and prestige that awaited him as the conqueror of the great city of Troy. However the goddess Artemis refused to allow the winds to blow so the Achaeans could sail to Troy. The troops began to get restless and complained to Agamemnon. A prophet told Agamemnon that he could regain the winds by sacrificing his daughter Iphigenia. So he did. Sacrifice of Iphigenia red-figure krater unknown Metropolitan Museum Timeline 22 Agamemnons Family Life Agamemnons wife Clytemnestra was upset that her daughter had been sacrificed for the war. For the 10 years that Agamemnon was at Troy she plotted her revenge. The night Agamemnon returned home with the Trojan princess Cassandra as his mistress Clytemnestra killed them both in the bath fulfilling Cassandras prophecy. Clytemnestra kills Cassandra red-figure vase unknown Louvrre Timeline 23 Agamemnons Family Life Agamemnons only son Orestes knew that the honor code of Greece demanded that he avenge the murder of his father. Orestes however did not want to kill his mother. Eventually the guilt of allowing his father to die un-avenged overcame Orestes and he killed Clytemnestra. Orestes pursues Clytemnestra red-figure vase attributed to Nestoris Louvrre Timeline 24 Menelaus Menelaus is the King of Sparta and the lawful husband of Helen. Menelaus was chosen for Helen by her mortal father Tyndareus after all her suitors had sworn The Oath of Tyndareus. Menelaus and Helens other suitors are honor-bound to regain Helen from the Trojans. Menelaus is the brother of Agamemnon. Menelaus unknown private collection Timeline 25 Oath of Tyndareus As the father of the beautiful Helen Tyndareus had many suitors at his door as she approached a marriageable age. In fact every eligible young man in Greece wanted to marry her. As time wore on and Tyndareus could not select a suitor the suitors began to fight among themselves. Tyndareus feared the worst. Then the wily Odysseus made a suggestion let every suitor swear that he would defend Helen and her future husband from any man who tried to separate them as long as any of them should live. Each suitor agreed. Tyndareus then choose lots and Menelaus won. The Oath of Tyndareus was sworn and all the men who had been Helens suitors were honor-bound to recover her for Menelaus when she went to Troy with Paris. Timeline 26 Achilles Achilles is the only son of Thetis and Peleus. After Achilles was born Thetis dipped him by the heel in the River Styx which encircles Hades. This unusual baptism provided protection to Achilles from all weapons. His heel however which Thetis was holding was not protected. Homers Iliad focuses on the wrath of Achilles. Achilles is first angry that Agamemnon insults him before the other Achaeans by taking his war-prize. The death of his close friend Patroclus further incites Achilles convincing him to return to the war to avenge his friend. Achilles kills the Trojan Hector. Paris (with the aid of Apollo) kills Achilles by shooting Achilles in his unprotected heel. Timeline Achilles kills Hector red-figure vase unknown Louvrre 27 Marriage of Thetis Peleus The king of the gods Zeus received a prophecy which stated that any child he had with the sea-nymph Thetis would cause his death. To prevent this he arranged her marriage to the human Peleus. The wedding was a huge event. All the gods were invited major gods and nymphs dryads satyrs and not a few mortals all the gods except the goddess Discord. Discord got her revenge through a unique gift which sent reverberations throughout the world. Thetis and Peleus had a happy marriage and produced one son Achilles. Timeline 28 Patroclus Patroclus was brought into the house of Peleus and raised alongside Peleus son Achilles. The two became the closest of friends. Once Achilles withdraws from the war in anger the Trojans gain an advantage. Patroclus realizes this and begs Achilles to return to the battle. Achilles refuses to go himself but allows Patroclus to go in his distinctive armor to raise the morale of the Achaean fighters. Hector kills Patroclus. In a rage over his friends death Achilles returns to the war to hunt and kill Hector. Timeline 29 Briseis Chryseis Briseis and Chryseis were women taken as slaves during an Achaean raid on a town near Troy. Briseis was given as a war-prize to Achilles while Chryseis was given to Agamemnon. The father of Chryseis was a priest of Apollo. When the Achaeans refused to return his daughter he asked Apollo for help. Apollo sent a plague on the Achaeans. Agamemnon finally agreed to return Chryseis if he was compensated with another woman. He chose Briseis. The appropriation of his war-prize angered Achilles and he refused to continue fighting without an acknowledgement of his contribution to the war. Many Achaeans try to get Achilles to return but only the death of his friend Patroclus convinces him. Timeline 30 Odysseus Odysseus is an intelligent and tricky character in mythology. He helps Tyndareus by devising the oath sworn by Helens suitors and gained one of Helens sisters as his own wife. He was the mediator in the dispute between Agamemnon and Achilles. Odysseus also devised the Trojan Horse and the plot to infiltrate and destroy Troy. Odysseus famous 10-year journey home is chronicled in The Odyssey. Odysseus red-figure vase unknown Louvrre Timeline 31 Trojan Horse The Trojan Horse was planned by Odysseus to infiltrate Troy and end the war. The Achaeans built a massive wooden horse and hid a contingent inside of it. They left one of their own Sinon behind to tell the Trojans that is was a gift to Poseidon to ensure their safe passage home. The Trojans take the horse into their city in hopes of gaining the favor of Poseidon. The Trojans threw a grand party. After the Trojans had gone to sleep the Achaeans slipped out of the horse and opened the gates of Troy to the rest of their army. Timeline Trojan Horse clipart. COM 32 Poseidon god of the seas Poseidon is one of the gods who takes human form and fights alongside the Achaeans during the Trojan War. Poseidon battles against the Trojans because when Troy was founded the first king Laomedon promised to reward the god for building the citys wall. Laomedon refused to pay after the walls were complete and Poseidon carried a grudge. Poseidons priest Laocoon realizes that the Trojan Horse is dangerous and so Poseidon sends massive sea-snakes to carry off Laocoon and his sons. Timeline Poseidon Oceanus Thetis mosaic unknown Louvre 33 Hera queen of the gods Even before the Judgment of Paris Hera hated the Trojans. Her hatred stemmed from Zeus choice of the Trojan boy Ganymede as his cup-bearer casting aside Heras own divine son Hephaestus. Hera fights for the Achaeans during the Trojan War. After Troy is destroyed Hera continues her quest to annihilate the Trojans by attempting to shipwreck Aeneas. Hera unknown Capitoline Museum Timeline 34 Athena goddess of wisdom Athena fights on the side of the Achaeans during the Trojan War for two reasons She did not win the golden apple at the Judgment of Paris and she is the patron goddess of the Achaean hero Odysseus. As the goddess of wisdom Athena appreciates Odysseus crafty approach to problems and his unique solutions such as the Oath of Tyndareus and the Trojan Horse. Timeline Athena unknown Capitoline Museum 35 TEKS 114.23. Levels III and IV - Intermediate Progress Checkpoint (c) Knowledge and skills (2) Cultures. The student gains knowledge and understanding of other cultures. The student is expected to (A) demonstrate an understanding of the practices (what people do) and how they are related to the perspectives (how people perceive things) of the cultures studied.
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