1 Chapter 23Southwest Asia 2 (No Transcript) 3 (No Transcript) 4 History of the Region
Characterized by conflict between Christians Jews and Muslims.
Roman Empire 200 B.C. to 106 A.D. Removed Christians from Palestine.
Byzantine Empire 400 A.D. after Western Roman Empire collapsed. Capital in Constantinople. Eastern Orthodox Church.
Muslims took over Palestine Mesopotamia Persia in 600.
5. Crusades 1095 and 1200s
a. Arabs invaded Jerusalem and got close to Constantinople.
b. Arabs kept control of Jerusalem
6. Ottoman Empire in 1300s
b. Held Middle East until World War I
c. former Ottoman territories controlled as mandates territories placed under another countrys rule by Britain and France.
7. British divided Palestine then pulled out.
8. Israel created in 1947 by the U.N. Jews voted to form their own government.
9. U.S. recognition in 1948.
10. Egypt Syria Jordan attacked Israel but beaten. Israel gained more territory.
11. 800000 Palestinian refugees.
12. 1967 War
a. non-violent aggression towards Israel which struck preemptively.
b. Israel won the West Bank Golan Heights Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula.
c. Jerusalem in West Bank video of Israeli troops praying at Western Wall.
13. 1973 War
a. Egypt and Syria achieved a surprise attack but failed.
b. Egypt did get back eastern side of Suez Canal
Palestine and Israel
1. Israel used to be the area of Palestine.
Palestine is important to three religions Jewish Christianity Islam.
Zionismmovement in late 1800s for Jewish homeland in Palestine.
Jews faced discrimination because some thought they were responsible for crucifixion of Christ and money-lending.
5. Jews fled to Palestine during World War I and during the Holocaust.
6. Camp David Accords
a. Egypt recognized Israel got back Sinai Peninsula.
b. lead to assassination of Sadat
6. Peace Process and Current Issues
a. Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). Yasser Arafatdied 2004.
Independent Palestinian State
b. Settlement and territorial issues over West Bank and Gaza Strip.
Gaza Strip given back in 2006
c. West Bank provides 40 of Israels water. Palestinians are forced to use less water. Sea of Galilee in Golan Heights provides water.
d. Israel attacked Lebanon in July 2006.Hezbollah.
11 Jordan Lebanon Syria IraqSection 3
1. Independence in 1946
2. Gained West Bank in 1946
a. Provided water for irrigation
b. 1/3 of GDP by 1966.
3. Economy hurt by Palestinian refugees.
4. King Hussein and son introduced successful reforms but
12 Jordan Lebanon Syria IraqSection 3
5. smallest economy in Middle East
6. high poverty
7. rely on foreign assistance
1. Paris of the Middle East
2. Civil War began in 1975 and lasted 16 years
a. Muslims demanded bigger stake in the government
b. Economic inequality
13 Jordan Lebanon Syria IraqSection 3
3. Attempting to regain stability
a. Infrastructure rebuilt after civil war then damaged in 2006 by Israeli invasion.
b. Substantial debt
c. Government interference hampers investment.
14 Jordan Lebanon Syria IraqSection 3
1. Bashar Assad attempting to modernize economy.
2. However government still has tight control.
3. Money to farmers to modernize farming.
4. Water shortages because of irrigation and dispute with Turkey over a dam.
15 Jordan Lebanon Syria IraqSection 3
1. Mesopotamiabetween Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Aka Fertile Crescent
2. Oil discovered in 1920s oil money used to develop the country.
3. War with Iran in 1980
a. Fought to a draw
b. Destroyed its economy
16 Jordan Lebanon Syria IraqSection 3
4. Gulf War I
a. Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990.
b. Pushed out by U.S. lead forces in
c. Embargo placed on Iraq after the war.
-severe restriction on trade
-slashed oil income
17 Jordan Lebanon Syria IraqSection 3
5. Second Gulf War
-U.S. and British invasion in 2003
-supposed possession of weapons of mass destruction
-bombing by insurgents
-Elections were held in 2004 and
- but Sunni minority refused to participate
18 Jordan Lebanon Syria IraqSection 3
-New constitution in October 2005
-Fighting between Sunni and Shia Muslims. Sectarian violence vs. civil war.
-Shia outnumber Sunnis two to one.
-2007 troop surge reduced violence.
19 Section 4The Arabian Peninsula
a. Saudi Arabia has 20 of known reserves.
b. OPECOrganization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. -Controls prices by controlling supply. Having trouble keeping up right now.
20 Section 4The Arabian Peninsula
-Created in 1960
Original members Iran Iraq Kuwait
Saudi Arabia Venezuela.
-Membership expanded to countries
in Southwest Asia Africa Latin
America and Southeast Asia.
c. Oil supplies expected to dry up
sooner than later.
21 Section 4The Arabian Peninsula
d. Oil paid for modernization of
e. Saudi Arabia spent billions on
2. Expanding economies
a. Too dependent on oil
b. Bahraininternational banking
c. Saudi Arabia Qatar UAEsteel and
3. No single body of water making it scarce.
22 Section 4The Arabian Peninsula
3. Saudi Arabia
a. Mountains on western edge of Arabian
b. Rubal Khali desert
-250000 square miles
-size of Texas
23 Section 4The Arabian Peninsula
c. Balancing modernization with
-No public entertainment
-Women only allowed in professions
where there are no men.
-Conservative Muslims angered at
U.S. troop presence after first Gulf
24 Section 4The Arabian Peninsula
-home to Islams holiest cities Mecca
-2 million pilgrims a year to Mecca to
d. Unskilled labor force hurts
e. However Saudi Arabias per capita
GDP is 20000.
25 Section 4The Arabian Peninsula
4. Yemen and Oman
a. Yemen is the poorest country on the
b. 25 of GDP is oil but revenues are
c. Essentially a failed state with terrorist
d. Formed in 1990 when North and South
26 Section 4The Arabian Peninsula
1. Most diverse economy in the Middle East.
2. Oil still accounts for 11 of GDP.
27 Turkey and Iran
1. Turks not Arab even though theyre
2. Ottoman Empire was last empire of the
Finished after WWI.
3. Mustafa Kemal
a. Father of the Turks
b. Lead a revolution against the Sultan in 1923.
c. Established a secular government.
d. Laws based on European legal system.
28 Turkey and Iran
e. Outlawed use of veil and fez.
4. Modern Turkey
a. Multiparty democracy since Kemal sometimes unstablemilitary coups in 1960 1971 and 1980.
b. Problems with debt and inflation since 1960s.
c. Modern industrial economy yet 25 still agriculture
d. Becoming a conduit for oil from the Caspian Sea.
e. Associates more with Europe.
29 Turkey and Iran
1. Known as Persia until 1935.
2. Persian Empire controlled territory as far west as Libya and east as Pakistan.
3. Iranians Persians not Arabs even though theyre Islamic.
a. Reza Khan and Reza Pahlavi
30 Turkey and Iran
b. Oil profits used to modernize infrastructure agriculture and education.
c. Adopted Westernization
d. Ayatollah opposition
- stricter observance of Islam
- criticized extravagance of the Shah while poverty existed.
e. Shah Pahlavi ousted by Islamic clerics in 1979 lead by Ayatollah Khomeni
31 Turkey and Iran
5. The Revolution brought a theocracy a government based on religion.
6. Western practices banned. Alcohol banned.
7. Iran Today
a. Since 2000 effort to seek liberalization of Islamic law.
b. Clerics resisted
32 Turkey and Iran
c. 2005 election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad as presidentconservative.
d. Nuclear development
-Iran claims for energy.
-U.S. and others claim for weapons.
e. Deemed a state sponsor of terrorism.
f. Strong government control over the economy.
g. Brain drainyounger people leaving the country to find work.
33 Misc. Physical
1. Tectonic Activity frequent earthquakes Red Sea is getting wider
2. Exotic Riversbegin in humid areas travel thru dry areas
3. Iran is mountainous with large plateau in the centerPlateau of Iran
4. Hindu Kush Mountains in Afghanistan
34 Misc. Physical
5. More humid climates found in the mountains because of orgographic effect from Caspian Sea
6. Arabian lowlands are hotsubtropical high pressure
7. Vegetation highlandsgrasslands
trees in mountains
35 Misc. Physical
8. Turkey is in Europe and Asia. Anatolia Peninsula is Asia Dardanelles area is Europe.
9. Rift Valley in Israel in which lies the Jordan River. Jordan River runs through the Dead Sea minus 1312ft.
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