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Microstructure and Properties

- MSE 27-301
- Fall, 2002 (1st mini-course)
- Prof. A. D. Rollett
- http//neon.mems.cmu.edu

Course Content

- 27-301 is the first of a pair of (mini-)courses

that describe the relationship between materials

microstructure and properties. - 27-301 deals mainly with single phase

microstructures the companion course, 27-302,

deals with multi-phase microstructures. - Technological materials (except Si-based) are

multi-phase.

Cheating Policy

- Students are referred to the University Policy

About Cheating and Plagiarism (Organization

Announcement No. 297, 6116/80). It shall be the

policy in this course to discourage cheating to

the extent possible, rather than to try to trap

and to punish. On the other hand, in fairness to

all concerned, cheating and plagiarism will be

treated severely. - Cheating includes but is not necessarily limited

to - 1.Plagiarism, explained below.
- 2.Submission of work that is not the

student's own for reports or quizzes. - 3.Submission or use of falsified data.
- Plagiarism includes (but is not limited to)

failure to indicate the source with quotation

marks or footnotes, where appropriate, if any of

the following are reproduced in the work

submitted by a student - 1.A graph or table of data.
- 2. Specific language.
- 3.Exact wording taken from the work,

published or unpublished, of another person."

Jeopardy 1

1. A domain wall

4. Has low mobility because it iscomposed of

dislocations.

A1. What is the boundary between two regions

whose magnetization lies in different directions?

A4. Why is a low angle GB difficult to move?

5. Nabarro-Herring Creep

2. Discontinuous transformation

A2. What type of transformation is

recrystallization an example of?

A5. What type of deformation is controlled by

diffusion in the bulk?

3. Continuous transformation

6. Lamellar microstructure

A3. What type of transformation is grain

growth an example of?

A6. What type of microstructure does a

eutectoid reaction often give rise to?

Jeopardy 2

1. 4th rank tensor

4. Use the dot product.

A1. What kind of property is anisotropic

elasticity?

A4. How can we determine the direction cosine

between two vectors?

2. Temperature divided by melting point

5. Close packed direction

A2. What does homologous temperature mean?

A5. How can we identify the direction of slip

in a crystal (Burgers vector)?

3. Tangling and storage of dislocations

6. Critical resolved shear stress

A3. What causes work hardening?

A6. What controls the onset of plastic flow

(dislocation glide)?

Jeopardy 3

1. Magnetization is parallel to lt100gt

4. The maximum flaw (crack) size is limited by

the fiber size.

A1. To what directions does magnetoxtalline

anisotropy limit magnetization in domains in Fe?

A4. Why does the strength of glass fibers

increase as the diameter goes down?

2. Orowan bowing stress

5. A balance between energy required to create

new crack surface and elastic energy released.

A2. What do we call the stress required to

force a dislocation past a set of hard obstacles?

A5. What energies do we examine in order to

derive the Griffith equation?

3. Small enough fibers (whiskers) can be

dislocation free

6. E/2p

A6. What is an estimate of the theoretical

cohesive strength of a crystalline solid?

A3. Why do very thin metal wires/whiskers

exhibit very high strengths?

Jeopardy 4

1. Who is the funniest professor in MSE?

4. E100 and E111.

Q1. Im not going to say!

Q4. In cubic materials, which pair of directions

exhibit the largest and smallest modulus?

2. Controlled by diffusion alonggrain

boundaries.

5. Cleavage fracture.

Q5. What type of fracture leads to flat

fracture surfaces, often crystallographic?

Q2. What is the mechanism for Coble creep?

3. Size increases as the yield stress goes

down.

6. Cup and cone.

Q6. What is the term often used to describe

ductile fracture in a tensile test?

Q3. How does the plastic zone size depend on

yield stress?

Jeopardy 5

1. Leak before break

4. It works by dispersing a metastable second

phase through the material that transforms in the

vicinity of a crack tip.

Q1. What is the design philosophy often applied

to pressure vessels?

Q4. How does transformation toughening work?

2. Which professor is the best tennis player in

the dept?

5. Flat, crystallographic surfaces with river

lines.

Q5. What fracture morphology do you associate

with brittle fracture (in metals)?

Q2. Fruehan

3. Micro-cracking

6. Too large particles will transform on

cooling, before any stress is applied to them.

Q3. Which toughening mechanism in ceramics

relies on a weak second phase?

Q6. Why is there a critical size for particles

for transformation toughening?

Jeopardy 6

1. Each phase experiences the same strain

4. Upper bound in strength.

Q1. What does isostress mean in estimating the

modulus of a composite?

Q4. What do we call the limit that specifies the

maximum value of a property?

Q2. What was originally housed in the clean room

in Hamerschlag basement?

5. High modulus and simple lattice.

Q5. What properties of non-metallic materials

are associated with high thermal conductivity?

2. A coal-fired power plant

3. The modulus is the arithmetic mean of the

component moduli.

6. Ductile-to-Brittle-Transition-Temperature.

Q3. What average does the isostrain model lead

to for composite modulus?

Q6. What is the temperature at below which many

materials become brittle?

Jeopardy 7

1. DiamondgtAlNgtSiC

4. Rule of Mixtures.

Q1. Name three adamantine compounds that are

excellent thermal conductors and their ranking?

Q4. What rule can we apply as a first

approximation to composite properties?

2. Where is the least politically correct

inscription on a CMU building?

5. Reuss, Voigt

Q5. What names are associated with the isostress

and isostrain assumptions for composite modulus?

Q2. On Margaret Morrison!

3. Hill average

6. K C v l.

Q3. Whose name is associated with the average of

the isostress and isostrain models?

Q6. What is the basic equation for thermal

conductivity?

27-301 web site

- Go to neon.mems.cmu.edu
- Click on Faculty
- Click on Rollett
- Click on Educational Activities
- Click on 27-301 (bottom of the list)
- Download powerpoint, word files of lecture

notes, lab manuals, homeworks etc. - Blackboard will have on-line gradebook, quizzes.
- http//neon.mems.cmu.edu/ABET/student.epl?semester

F02 is the link for feedback on course outcomes

(ABET).

lecture notes are only preliminary until the

day of the lecture!

Homework, Test Review

- Mid-course Test/ Q1. What is the rule for

determining the slip direction in a close-packed

material?Close packed directions have the

smallest Burgers vector and therefore correspond

to the direction of slip. - Mid-course Test/ Q4. For a steel with 0.8

carbon (by weight), sketch the microstructures

that you would expect to observe based on the

following thermal histories.(a)Slow cooled

(normalized)(b)Quenched from 1030K (into

water)(c)Quenched from 1030K (as in part b), then

tempered (annealed) at 820K.(d)Quenched from

1030K (as in part b), then tempered at 970K.

Homework, Test Review, contd.

- Mid-course Test/ Q8. 10 points A specimen of

Al and a specimen of Fe are deformed to the same

stress at room temperature. The shear modulus of

Al is 27GPa, and the shear modulus of Fe is 80

GPa. Assume that the Taylor factor is the same

in both materials. The Burgers vector of Al is

0.283 nm and the Burgers vector in iron is 0.249

nm. Assume that any other constants are

unity.(a) What is the ratio of their dislocation

contents (densities)? Express your answer as

?(Al)??(Fe) xy(b) Based on your answer to

(a), what is the ratio of the stored energies in

the two specimens? Express your answer as

E(Al)E(Fe) xy.Answer (a) the ratio of

dislocation densities is given by ?(Al)??(Fe)

(GFebFe/GAlbAl)2 (80x0.249)/(27x0.283)2

2.6072 6.80(b) The ratio of stored energies

is given by the ratio of shear moduli

E(Al)E(Fe) ? GAlbAl2?Al GFebFe2??Fe

(GAlbAl2/GFebFe2) x (GFebFe/GAlbAl)2 GFe/GAl

80/27 2.96.

Homework 4 Review, contd.

- HWK4/ Q1e. The orientation of several grains has

been characterized in a polycrystal their

orientations with respect to the tensile axis are

259, 001, 011 and 111. Calculate their

Schmid factors and calculate their average in

order to estimate the yield stress of the

polycrystal. Answer the average Schmid factor

(0.490.430.4250.275)/40.405. Therefore the

polycrystal should yield at 190/0.405 469 MPa. - HWK4/ Q2a. The expected answer was that the

Orowan stress would become larger than the

Hall-Petch stress. This suggests that

generating/nucleating dislocations inside each

grain will eventually become more difficult than

propagating them from one grain to the next. - HWK4/ Q2b. The expected answer was that you

would find out that the creep rate is far too

large for the high strength at small grain size

to be useful!

Homework 3 Review

- HWK 3/ Q4. The Goss orientation, 110//ND,

lt001gt//RD, was chosen so as to place a soft

direction in the rolling plane which itself is a

low index plane. This simplifies the domain

structure considerably. It also is

representative of a technologically significant

material, i.e. transformer steel. - HWK 3/ BQ1. The difficulty here is (a) to

associate matrices with symmetry operations and

(b) to do the matrix arithmetic correctly. Much

better to use a Math package. Training in

Mathematica needed? - B2. 10 points (a) The thermal conductivity of a

material has been measured .. (b) Comment on

how you might design such an experiment. Hint a

sketch would be useful.The key here is to

realize that you must impose the thermal gradient

in one direction and simultaneously measure the

heat flow in different direction!

27-301 Labs

- Lab 1 Investigation of recrystallization with

measurement of grain size (comparison of area

versus line intercept methods). Purpose of the

lab illustration of basic method of influencing

microstructure development, microstructure

quantification. - Lab 2 Investigation of mechanical properties as

a function of microstructure, as illustrated by

different heat treatments of two steels. Purpose

of the lab learn about how strongly

microstructure affects properties in a classical

(and useful) system. Also to learn how to

quantify (mechanical) properties.

301 Lab 2 Grading

- The grading will be according the following-

35 presentation skills (facing the audience,

speaking clearly, explaining each slide)- 20

technical content of presentation (correctness of

introduction, procedures, results, discussion)-

20 answering questions from audience and

instructor- 25 quality of the slides set (as

the written documentation of the Lab report)

this part of the grade is common to all members

the group if a single submission is made by the

group.

Test, Exams, Grading Policy

- Homeworks 1 per week 100 points
- Quizzes 1 per week 20 points
- Exams two see weighting below
- Grading Policy A gt 85 B gt 75 C gt

65 D gt 55 - The instructor will request an Oral exam in

borderline cases. - Weighting ()Homeworks 15Quizzes 5Lab 30E

xams 50 - Notes the distribution between the two exams is

to be determined. The quizzes are mainly there

to encourage students to stay on top of the

material. The 30 weighting for the Lab (or

Project) reflects the number of units assigned to

the Lab part of the class.

Calendar 301

- See the 301 Calendar posted on the website

Exam Rules

- Mid-course test on Friday 27th Final exam on

Oct. 18th (AM). - Topics for 27th microstructure grain growth

recrystallization stereology relating

microstructure to phase diagrams examples of

microstructures in steel as a function of thermal

history magnetism (especially soft ferromagnetic

materials) domains and domain walls grain size

(Hall-Petch, N-H creep) dislocations, plastic

yield (Orowan bowing stress) critical resolved

shear stress Taylor equation creep

(Nabarro-Herring, Coble) Griffith equation. - No books no lecture notes no computers
- One cheat sheet with notes (both sides if you

like) hand in the the cheat sheet with the exam

paper/book. - Calculator OK

Mid-course evaluations

301 Final Exam Rules

- Exam on Friday Oct. 18th.
- Topics for final all topics discussed in class.

A few topics were for information and do not need

to be understood in detail (effect of symmetry on

4th rank elastic tensor properties anything in

the handouts that was not discussed in class). - No books no lecture notes no computers
- One cheat sheet with notes (both sides if you

like) hand in the the cheat sheet with the exam

paper/book. - Calculator OK

301 Final Exam topics

- You may safely neglect the following topics
- to be posted

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