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Classification of Matter
Classification by Physical State
A gas is a state of matter in which the matter has no fixed volume or shape.
A liquid is a state of matter in which the matter has a fixed volume that takes on the shape of its container.
A solid is the state of matter with both fixed volume and shape.
Classification by Composition
Pure Substances have a fixed composition and distinct properties.
Compounds made up of two or more elements.
Mixtures are combinations of two substances that have a composition that can vary.
Homogeneous mixtures or solutions have the same composition throughout their volume.
Heterogeneous mixtures have a composition that varies throughout their volume.
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Properties of Matter
Chemical properties of matter describe how one kind of matter interacts with another kind of matter.
Examples butane burns in air water does not burn in air
Physical properties of matter are not dependent on how one kind of matter interacts with another kind of matter.
Examples temperature color the state of matter at a temperature
Extensive properties of matter depend on the amount of matter - the extent of the sample of matter - under investigation.
Examples mass volume
Intensive properties are properties of intensity and do not depend on the amount of matter in the sample under investigation.
Examples color temperature density chemical properties
Physical and Chemical Change
Physical Change does not involve a change in the chemical identity of a substance even though it may have changed its physical state or gross size and shape
Heating a sample of matter to a higher temperature
Melting a substance
Evaporating a liquid
Chemical Change involves converting one or more substances into other substances
Reacting hydrogen with oxygen 2H2(g) O2(g) 2H2O(l)
Combustion of methane with oxygen CH4(g) 2O2(g) CO2(g) 2H2O(l)
Units of Measure
Le Système International dUnités - The SI Units
7 Base Units
Length meter (m) - the distance light travels in 1/199792458 seconds.
Mass kilogram (kg) - the mass of a standard block of Pt-Ir alloy in Paris.
Time second (s) - the duration of 9192631770 oscillations of the light emitted from Cs atoms.
Amount of Substance mole (mol) - the mass of sample containing the same number of fundamental particles as are in exactly 12 grams of
Temperature kelvin (K) - a change in temperature of 1 K is the same as 1 ºC. 0 K is defined at the temperature of the triple point of water - the condition when gaseous liquid and solid water are in equilibrium. This turns out to be 0.01 ºC and 273.16 K. Therefore K ºC 273.15 because the freezing point of water is 0 ºC or 273.15 K.
Electric current ampere (A)
Luminous intensity candela (cd)
Unit prefixes indicate a multiplier or divisor of the base unit
kilo (k) 1000 103
mega (M) 1000000 106
giga (G) 1000000000 109
deci (d) 10-1
centi (c) 10-2
milli (m) 10-3
micro (m) 10-6
nano (n) 10-9
pico (p) 10-12
12 Derived Units Volume (length) x (length) x (length) (length)3 m x m x m m3 cm x cm x cm cm3 mL dm x dm x dm dm3 L Force mass x acceleration ma F kg x newton Energy force x distance mass x acceleration x distance mad E newton x m kg x x m joule
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