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Lathe and drilling machines

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Lathe and drilling machines Unit V Length of the work should not be extended more than 1.5 times the diameter of the work piece. Knurling Operation performed on lathe ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lathe and drilling machines


1
Lathe and drilling machines
  • Unit V

2
Manufacturing process
  • It is a process which involves the conversion of
    raw materials into desired product.

3
Methods involved
  • Material removal
  • Assembly or joining process
  • Finishing process

4
Material removal operation
  • It involves removal of extra material from the
    given material to obtain required dimension of
    product.
  • Material removal can be in small scale or large
    scale
  • small scale fitting, craftwork etc
  • large scale industrial products.

5
Tool
  • A tool is a device use to carry out various
    manufacturing operation.
  • Hand tools.
  • Machine tools

6
Hand tools
  • Tools which are used manually by human effort.
  • Files
  • hacksaw

7
Machine tools
  • Defined as power driven machine which
    accomplishes the cutting operation or machining
    operations.

8
Lathe
  • A lathe is machine tool employed generally to
    produce circular objects.
  • Operations
  • Drilling
  • Grinding
  • Shaping
  • Milling

9
Classification of lathe
  • Engine lathe
  • Speed lathe
  • Turret lathe
  • Capstan lathe
  • Automatic lathe
  • Computer numerically controlled lathe.

10
Lathe principle of working
  • A lathe works on the principle that a cutting
    tool can remove chips from the rotating work
    pieces to produce circular objects.

11
  • Figure shows a work holding device known as chuck
    and is rotated a very high speed.
  • A V-shaped cutting tool is held against the work
    piece.
  • When the tool is moved parallel to axis of work
    piece material is removed.

12
Lathe
13
Major components
  • Bed
  • Head stock
  • Tail stock
  • Carriage assembly
  • Main drive

14
  • Bed
  • It is the foundation part of lathe and supports
    all its parts.
  • Top of bed has a guide way which is machined to
    precision.
  • Head stock
  • Main spindle projects out from headstock.
  • Housing comprises of feed gear box and cone
    pulley.
  • Rigidly mounted on bed.

15
  • Tail stock
  • Movable part of the lathe that carries dead
    centre.
  • Main function is to support the free end of the
    work piece.
  • Also used to clamp tools like twist drill and
    reamers for making holes.
  • Tailstock is mounted loosely on guide ways can be
    moved and locked in position.

16
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17
Carriage assembly
  • Saddle
  • Cross slide
  • Compound rest
  • Apron
  • Tool post

18
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19
  • Saddle
  • H shaped casting that slides over the outer set
    of guide ways
  • Serves as base for cross slide.
  • Cross slide
  • It is mounted on the saddle.
  • Enables lateral movement of cutting tool
    laterally by means of cross slide handwheel.

20
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21
  • Compound rest
  • Mounted on top of cross slide and supports the
    tool post.
  • It can be swiveled at an angle to perform taper
    turning operation.
  • Tool post
  • It is used to clamp the tool holder in position.

22
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23
  • Apron
  • It is the part which is fitted saddle, facing
    operator.
  • It houses levers, hand wheels mechanism for
    manual and automatic movement of carriage
    assembly.

24
  • Main drive
  • It is an electric motor which drives the spindle
    through transmission system.

25
Other component
  • Lead screw
  • It is a rod which runs longitudinally in front of
    lathe bed.
  • The rotation of lead screw moves the carriage to
    and fro longitudinally during thread cutting
    operation.

26
Lathe specifications
  • Maximum diameter of the workpiece that can be
    revolved over the lathe bed.
  • Maximum diameter and width of the workpiece that
    can revolve over gap in bed.

27
  • Maximum length of workpiece that can be mounted
    between centers.
  • Overall length of the bed.

28
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29
Lathe operations
  • Turning
  • Taper turning
  • Facing
  • Thread cutting
  • Knurling

30
Turning
  • It is an operation in which the workpiece is
    reduced to the cylindrical section of required
    diameter.

31
  • Operation is carried out with a single point
    cutting tool.
  • Work piece is supported between the two centers
    permit rotation of workpiece.

32
  • Tool is fed perpendicular to the axis of
    workpiece to a known depth and then moved
    parallel to axis of work.

33
Facing
  • An operation performed on lathe to generate flat
    surface.
  • Direction of feed is perpendicular to the axis of
    the lathe.

34
  • Length of the work should not be extended more
    than 1.5 times the diameter of the work piece.

35
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36
Knurling
  • Operation performed on lathe to generate serrated
    surface.
  • Tool used is called as knurling tool.

37
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38
  • Tool consist of one upper roller and one lower
    roller which contains the impression.
  • Tool is set in such a way that both rollers touch
    the work.

39
  • Low speed of about 60 to 80 rpm and feed is 0.38
    to 0.78mm/revolution.

40
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41
Taper Turning
  • It is the operation of reducing the diameter of
    the workpiece gradually along its length.
  • Different types of Taper turning
  • Compound slide swivelling method
  • Tailstock offset

42
Taper Turning by Swiveling the Compound Rest
43
  • Axis of the tool is moved inclined to produce the
    required taper.
  • Compound rest which supports tool post is
    swiveled at required taper angle and locked.

44
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45
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46
Taper Turning by Tailstock offset
47
  • In this method the workpiece is inclined with
    respect to the lathe axis.
  • Tool movement is in line with the lathe axis to
    produce taper.
  • Tail stock is shifted by a small distance called
    offset.

48
Thread cutting
  • A thread is a helical shaped groove formed on
    cylindrical surface of workpiece.
  • Thread cutting is an operation performed on lathe
    to produce threads by using a tool whose shape
    will be same as that of thread.

49
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50
Drilling
  • Drilling is an operation to produce a cylindrical
    hole in workpiece.
  • Tool used is called as drill bit.
  • Tool is held on the tailstock and stationary.
  • Work is held in chuck.
  • Tool is fed against the revolving work by
    rotating hand wheel.

51
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