Newtons Law of Gravitation and Keplers Laws failed to explain why Mercurys elliptical orbit rotated as observed.
Einsteins General Relativity accurately predicts this shift to within 0.1 error. Not Bad!!
Light from a distant star should be bent by the suns gravitational field
Tested and verified by Eddington in 1919
Heavily publicized and made Einstein famous
Clocks in a stronger gravitational field should run slower than in a weaker field.
Verified in 1960 with atomic clocks between the top and bottom floors at a building at Harvard.
Re-verified in 1976 and confirmed Relativity predictions to within 0.02! WOW!!
16 Gravitational Redshift
Spinning Turntable Example
Observers looking at clocks in a stronger gravitational field will notices those clocks running slower.
Ex If we could look at a clock near the sun we would see it run slow.
Observers looking at clocks in a weaker gravitational field will notice those clocks running faster.
Ex Look at a clock that is on the moon it will run faster.
Where do we age the fastest on top of skyscrapers or at street level
Black hole effects
17 Other Consequences of Gen. Relativity
Extremely dense objects will bend space-time to a point of infinite curvature.
Radius of a Black Hole 2 GM/c2
For our sun radius 2900 m
For earth (M 6 x 1024 kg) r
Gravitational Waves or 2
Accelerating masses should produce waves in space-time. Two stars (or pulsars) rotating around each other (or Binary pulsar) should emit waves large enough to detect.
LIGO or LIGO
Thinking in 4-D is TOUGH!!
Calculations using General Relativity require the use of 4-D descriptors and operators known as Tensors (kinda like matrices)
Gab (8pG)Tab !!
In other words The rate at which a small ball of freely falling test particles begins to shrink is proportional to its volume times the energy density at the center of the ball plus the pressure in the x direction at that point plus the pressure in the y direction plus the pressure in the z direction.
Therefore most illustrations and examples are simplified to 2-D or 3-D
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