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Mark Twain --- Mirror of America


He was on a world cruise. They spent the summer cruising in the Greek islands. ... deal, dealt: to give , to give out, to strike, to distribute. Who deals the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mark Twain --- Mirror of America

Lesson 9
  • Mark Twain --- Mirror of America

(No Transcript)
Objectives of Teaching
  • To comprehend the whole text
  • To lean and master the vocabulary and expressions
  • To learn to paraphrase the difficult sentences
  • To understand the structure of the text
  • To appreciate the style and rhetoric of the

Important and difficult points
  • 1.

II. Questions for Text Understanding
  • 1. What is a biography?
  • 2. If you were asked to write a biography of sb.,
    how are you going to arrange all the material
    available. What is the general way of writing a
  • 3. What kind of language do you expect to
    encounter and why?
  • 4. What is the author's appraisal of Mark Twain?

II. Questions for Text Understanding
  • 5. Who was Mark Twain ? What had he been before
    he became an author? And where did his pen name
    come from?
  • 6. Say something about the historical background
    of Mark Twain's time.
  • 7. How many stages do you think the author divide
    Mark Twain's life into?

III. Background Information
  • National Geographic Magazine, with a circulation
    of more than 10 million copies annually, is the
    third biggest only next to TV Guide and Reader's
    Digest (more than 16 million ). It is a monthly
    journal run by the National Geographic Society
    based in Washington DC, a non-profit scientific
    and educational organization.

III. Background Information
  • A biography is, by definition, an account of
    someone's life that has been written by someone
    else. Or a written history of someone's life.
  • Generally, a biography is about sb. who enjoys
    certain reputation, who has acquired certain fame
    by his / her success in certain area. The
    protagonist can be a positive or negative

III. Background Information
  • A brief outline of Tom
  • Tom lives with his younger brother Sid and Aunt
    Polly in St. Petersburg, a remote town on the
    banks of the Mississippi river. While his brother
    Sid is a model boy, Tom is quite the opposite
    of his brother.

III. Background Information
  • At school he disobeys his teacher and always
    busies himself with outside matters at the
    lessons. Toms bosom friend is Huck Finn, a boy
    deserted by his drunkard of a father and looked
    upon as an outcast in the town.

II. Background Information
  • But Tom has read many books and wants to make his
    life just as bright as it is depicted in the
    stories. He devises games in which the boys play
    the role of brave outlaws and warlike Red Indians
    who are the terror of the rich and the oppressors.

II. Background Information
  • One night the boys involuntarily witness the
    murder of Dr. Robinson. An innocent man is
    charged with the crime. But on the day of the
    trial Tom fearlessly exposes the real criminal
    the Indian Joe who escapes through an open window
    of the courtroom.

II. Background Information
  • Another night, the boys went out to dig for
    hidden treasures near a deserted house three
    miles from town. There they almost fall into the
    hands of the murderer who accidentally finds a
    box filled with gold coins.

II. Background Information
  • Shortly after the incident Tom goes to a picnic
    with a party of schoolmates. Exploring a cave, he
    gets lost with Becky Thatcher, the daughter of
    the Judge. Tom behaves like a brave boy, calms
    Beckys fears and finds the way out of the cave.

II. Background Information
  • In a few days time Tom and Huck return to the
    cave. They find the dead body of the murderer,
    who could not have found the way out of the cave
    and also the hidden treasures.

II. Background Information
  • A brief outline of Huck
  • Tom and Huck find the money. They each get six
    thousand dollars, which they deposit with Judge
    Thatcher. The Widow Douglas takes Huck for her
    son and tries to civilize him.

II. Background Information
  • In the meantime, Hucks father tries to get the
    money and succeeds in kidnapping the boy and
    imprisons him in a lonely cabin. To free himself
    from both the boring widow and the brutal father,
    Huck runs away to a deserted island in the middle
    of the Mississippi river.

II. Background Information
  • In doing so, he makes it appear that he has been
    murdered by some robbers. On the island he meets
    Jim, Miss Watsons runaway slave, and the two
    become close friends.

II. Background Information
  • They started down the river, come across all
    sorts of people and have lots of fun and
    adventures. Toward the end of the novel Jim is
    caught and imprisoned at a farm, and Huck and Tom
    make a spectacular but unsuccessful attempt to
    rescue him.

II. Background Information
  • At last it turns out that Hucks father has died
    and Miss Watson has also died, but not before
    setting Jim free in her will.

III. Detailed study of the text
  • 1. Mirror of America
  • A mirror reflects or reveals the truth of
    something or somebody.

III. Detailed study of the text
  • 2. Most Americans remember Mark Twain as the
  • Father metaphor.
  • Endless hyperbole.
  • The whole sentence parallelism.

III. Detailed study of the text
  • Mark Twain is famous to most Americans as the
    creator of Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer. Huck's
    sailing / travel on the river was so
    light-hearted, carefree and peaceful that it made
    his boyhood seem to be infinite, while Tom's
    independent mind and his exciting and dangerous
    activities made the summer seem everlasting.

III. Detailed study of the text
  • 3. idyllic i / ai a simple happy period of
    life, often in the country
  • an idyllic setting, holiday, marriage

Detailed study of the text
  • 4. cruise A cruise is a holiday during which you
    travel on a ship and visit lots of places. When
    it is used as a verb, it means to move at a
    constant speed that is comfortable and unhurried.

Detailed study of the text
  • He was on a world cruise.
  • They spent the summer cruising in the Greek
  • The taxi cruised off down the Chang'an Avenue.
  • cruise missile
  • cruiser a large fast warship.

Detailed study of the text
  • 5. every bit asas infml, just asas, quite
  • He is every bit as clever as you are.
  • I'm every bit as sorry about it as you.

Detailed study of the text
  • 6. cynical A cynical person believes that all
    men are selfish. He sees little or no good in
    anything and shows this by making unkind and
    unfair remarks about people and things.

Detailed study of the text
  • cynic n. a person who believes that people do
    not do things for good, sincere or noble reasons,
    but only for their own advantage
  • a cynical remark, attitude, smile
  • They've grown rather cynical about democracy, ie
    no longer believe that it is an honest system.

Detailed study of the text
  • 7. deal, dealt to give , to give out, to
    strike, to distribute
  • Who deals the cards next?
  • to deal sb. a blow

Detailed study of the text
  • 8. obsess to worry continuously and
  • If sth. obsesses you or if you are obsessed with
    it or by it, you keep thinking about it over a
    long period of time, and find it difficult to
    think about anything else.
  • She is obsessed by the desire to become a great

Detailed study of the text
  • 9. frailty a weakness of character or behaviour.
  • One of the frailties of human nature is laziness.
  • That chair looks too frail to take a man's
  • There is only a frail chance that he will pass
    the examination.

Detailed study of the text
  • 10. tramp a person who has no home or permanent
    job and very little money. A woman who is thought
    to have sex with a lot of men is cursed to be a
  • There's a tramp at the door begging for food.

Detailed study of the text
  • 11. pilot a person who with special knowledge of
    a particular stretch of water, esp. the entrance
    of a harbour, and who is trained and specially
    employed to go on board and guide ships that use

Detailed study of the text
  • 14. prospector a person who examines the land in
    order to find gold, oil, etc.
  • 15. starry full of stars in the sky, indicating
    sparkling, glowing, and flashing.

Detailed study of the text
  • starry-eyed full of unreasonable or silly hopes.
  • If you are starry-eyed, you are so full of dreams
    or hopes or idealistic thoughts that you do not
    see how things really are.
  • We were all starry-eyed about visiting London.

Detailed study of the text
  • 16. acid-tongued If sb. is acid-tongued, he
    makes unkind or critical remarks.
  • 17. range to travel without any definite plan or

Detailed study of the text
  • 18. digest
  • If you digest information, you think about it,
    understand it, and remember it.
  • The report contains too much to digest at one
  • He reads rapidly but does not digest very much.

Detailed study of the text
  • adopt to take and use as one's own
  • The US government decided to adopt a hard line
    towards terrorism.
  • Having no children of their own they decided to
    adopt an orphan / dog.
  • adopt a name, a custom, an idea, a style of dress

Detailed study of the text
  • cf
  • adept (in sth) (at/in doing sth)
  • He's an adept in carpentry.
  • adapt make sth suitable for a new use,
    situation, etc.
  • This novel has been adapted for TV from the
    Russian original.
  • Our eyes slowly adapted to the dark.

Detailed study of the text
  • signal a sign, gesture, sound, etc. that conveys
    a message
  • a signal made with a red flag
  • She flashed the torch as a signal.
  • They signaled their discontent by refusing to
  • This is an event signaling a change in public

Detailed study of the text
  • 20. navigable deep and wide enough to allow
    ships to travel
  • 21. popularity the quality of being well liked,
    favoured, or admired
  • 22. attest to show to be true, to give proof of,
    to declare solemnly
  • Historic documents and ancient tombstones all
    attest to the fact that this is a historic

Detailed study of the text
  • 23. artery blood vessel that carries blood from
    the heart to the rest of the body
  • vein any of the tubes carrying blood from all
    parts of the body to the heart

Detailed study of the text
  • 24. keel a long bar along the bottom of a boat
    or ship from which the whole frame of the boat or
    ship is built up.
  • 25. raft floating platform made from large
    pieces of wood, oil-drums, etc, that are tied
    together. Also rubber raft.

Detailed study of the text
  • 26. commerce the buying and selling of goods,
    trade. Here commodities.
  • 27. lumber tree trunks, logs or planks, timber

Detailed study of the text
  • 28. delta country Delta is the 4th letter of the
    Greek alphabet, which is shaped like a triangle.
    Therefore anything in the shape of a delta, esp.
    a deposit of sand and soil formed at the mouth of
    some rivers is called a delta.

Detailed study of the text
  • 29. molasses a thick dark to light brown syrup
    that is separated from raw sugar
  • cf syrup a thick sticky solution of sugar and
    water, often flavoured

Detailed study of the text
  • 30. westward expansion
  • The massacre of the native Indians
  • The 1803 Louisiana Purchase from Napoleon's
  • The 1845 Texas Annexation
  • Also the California Gold Rush in 1848

Detailed study of the text
  • 31. basin
  • the Yellow River Basin
  • The basin made up 3/4 of the populated area of
    the US of that time.

Detailed study of the text
  • 32. drain to cause to become gradually dry or
  • Boil the vegetable for 2 minutes and then drain
    the water.
  • brain drain
  • 33. cub the young of various types of
    meat-eating wild animals, such as lion, bear

Detailed study of the text
  • 34. cast of characters the cast of a play or a
    film consists of all the people who act in it
  • 35. cosmos the whole universe considered as an
    ordered system.

Detailed study of the text  
  • 36. feud long-lasting and bitter quarrel or
    dispute between two people or groups
  • the feud between Romeo's family and Juliet's
  • 37. piracy robbery of ships on the high seas
  • pirate a robber on the high seas
  • copy right piracy

Detailed study of the text  
  • 38. lynch (esp. of a crowd of people) to attack
    and put to death, esp. by hanging, a person
    thought to be guilty of a crime without a lawful
  • 39. slum an area of a city where living
    conditions are very bad and where all the houses
    are overcrowded and need to be repaired.

Detailed study of the text
  • 40. soak up to draw in by or as if by suction or
  • The soil soaked up a huge volume of water very

Detailed study of the text
  • he absorbed and digested the colourful language
    with an astonishing good memory which seemed to
    be able to record things like a phonograph /

Detailed study of the text
  • 41. teem with
  • If a place teems with animals or people, it is
    very crowded and the animals or people are moving
    around a lot.
  • The water teems with fish and shrimps.
  • His mind teems with plans.

Detailed study of the text
  • 42. humanity human beings in general
  • 43. flotsam rubbish, wreckage such as bits of
    wood, plastic, and other waste materials that is
    floating on the sea, parts of a wrecked ship or
    its cargo found floating in the sea

Detailed study of the text
  • 44. hustler a person who tries to earn money or
    gain an advantage from any situation they are in,
    often by using dishonest or illegal method.
  • This market teems with hustlers.
  • (US sl) prostitute

Detailed study of the text
  • 45. thug a person who is very violent and rough,
    esp. a criminal , hooligan or villain
  • 46. keen a. sharp
  • b. (with the 5 senses, the mind) good, strong,
    quick at understanding
  • My hearing is not as keen as it used to be.
  • He has a keen brain.

Detailed study of the text  
  • 47. perception natural understanding
  • extra sensory perception
  • perceive realize, notice, see or hear sth. esp.
    when it is not obvious to other people
  • Just as a good artist must have good perception
    of colour, a good musician must have good
    perception of sound.
  • Alcohol reduces your perception of pain.

Detailed study of the text
  • 48. trade job, esp. one needing special skill
    with the hands
  • I am a fisherman by trade.
  • They work in the cotton / tourist / shoemaking /
    jewellery trade.
  • trade union

Detailed study of the text
  • 49. acknowledge recognize the fact, agree to the
  • If you acknowledge a fact or situation, you
    accept or admit that it is true or that it
  • This is a fact even our enemies abroad have to
  • He is an acknowledged expert on

Detailed study of the text
  • express thanks for sth.
  • His services to the country were never officially
  • acknowledgement
  • We are sending you some money in acknowledgement
    of your valuable help.
  • If you quote somebodys theory, you must send him
    your acknowledgement.

Detailed study of the text
  • 50. acquaint cause to know personally, make
    familiar with,
  • You must acquainted yourself with your new
  • be acquainted with
  • I have heard about your friend but I am not
    acquainted with him.

Detailed study of the text
  • make acquaintance of sb. / make sb's acquaintance
  • Where did you make his acquaintance?
  • Very pleased to have made your acquaintance.
  • nodding acquaintance / bowing acquaintance

Detailed study of the text
  • 51. motley having or composed of many different
    or clashing elements
  • a motley crowd / crew, ie a group of many
    different types of people
  • 52. band a group of people joined together for a
    common purpose (derog.) 

Detailed study of the text
  • 52. succumb a. (fml) stop resisting (temptation,
    illness, attack, etc)
  • He finally succumbed to the temptation to have
    another cigarette / drink.
  • The city succumbed after only a short offence.
  • Several children have measles(??), and the others
    are bound to succumb to it.  

Detailed study of the text
  • b. to die (because of)
  • He succumbed to Sars.
  • 53. epidemic the occurrence of a disease which
    affects a very large number of people living in
    an area and which spreads quickly to other people
  • an influenza epidemic
  • Football hooliganism is now reaching epidemic

Detailed study of the text
  •  54. flirt
  • a. If you flirt with someone, you behave as if
    you are sexually attracted to them, in a not very
    serious way.
  • Don't take her seriously, she is only flirting
    with you.
  • She flirts with every man in the office.

Detailed study of the text
  • b. If you flirt with the idea of doing or having
    sth. , you consider doing or having it, without
    making any definite plans.
  • We flirted with the idea of going abroad but
    decided against it.

Detailed study of the text
  • 55. rebuff refuse unkindly and contemptuously
  • cf refuse
  • The friendly dog was rebuffed by a kick.
  • He refused / rebuffed the suggestion.
  • He can't refuse (vi.) / rebuff (vt.) if you ask

Detailed study of the text
  • 56. broke adj. sl. complete without money,
    penniless, bankrupt
  • 57. endure continue to exist without any loss in
    quality or importance
  • His fame will endure eternally.
  • enduring memories / peace
  • His influence was the most enduring of all.

Detailed study of the text
  • 58. mining strike sudden discovery of mine
  • strike sudden discovery of oil, gold,etc.
  • a lucky strike fortunate discovery
  • 58. hone n. a stone used to sharpen knives and
  • v. to sharpen
  • to hone one's wit

Detailed study of the text
  • 59. scathing (of speech or writing) bitterly
    cruel in judgement, sharp and hurtful cutting,
  • She could be...scathing in her criticism.
  • his scathing rejection of violence

Detailed study of the text
  • 60. column a. one of two or more vertical
    sections of printed material on a page
  • Each page of this dictionary has two columns of
  • b. part of a newspaper or regularly dealing with
    a particular subject or written by the same
  • the fashion / financial column

Detailed study of the text
  • columnist journalist who regularly writes an
    article commenting on politics, current events,
    etc. for a newspaper or magazine
  • a political columnist

Detailed study of the text
  • 61. ring familiarly in modern world accustomed to
    trend setting on the West Coast
  • produce a familiar impression on people in modern
    world. People in the modern world (people in the
    settled United States, people on the East coast
    and along the Mississippi River) are now used to
    following the ways of doing things of the West

Detailed study of the text
  • be accustomed to be in the habit of, be used to,
    be familiar with
  • He is accustomed to working hard.
  • You will soon get accustomed to that kind of
  • He was not accustomed to LEAVE home during the

Detailed study of the text
  • Notice
  • a. Be accustomed to can be followed by a verb.
  • He was not accustomed to leave home during the
  • He is not accustomed to work under such noisy

Detailed study of the text
  • b. Accustomed can be used as an attribute
  • He sat in his accustomed chair.
  • her accustomed smile
  • his accustomed attitude of optimism
  • c. accustom oneself
  • He has to accustom himself to the cold weather.

Detailed study of the text
  • 62. trend a general direction or course of
    development, fashion, tendency
  • Today's trend is toward less formal clothing.
  • Young women are always interested in the trends
    of fashion.

Detailed study of the text
  • If someone sets a trend, they do something that
    becomes accepted or fashionable, and that is
    copied by a lot of other people.
  • trendy very fashionable and modern
  • He was into jazz long before it became trendy.

Detailed study of the text
  • 63. get up arrange or perform
  • If you get something up, you organize something
    such as a public event, esp. with very little
  • Who is going to get up the concert?
  • The students got up a countrywide campaign in
    support of the nuclear disarmament.

Detailed study of the text
  • 64. astound to shock with surprise
  • 65. enterprise a plan, business, task, something
    daring and difficult
  • 66. rush through to complete (a job) hastily
  • We will try to rush your order through before

Detailed study of the text
  • 67. dash a combination of bravery and style,
    enthusiasm and courage
  • She conducted the orchestra with a great deal of
    fire and dash.
  • other meanings
  • 100-meter dash
  • The dash is longer than the hyphen. 

Detailed study of the text
  • 68. reck (neg. or inter. only) care or mind
  • They recked little of the danger.
  • reckless
  • Someone who is reckless shows a complete lack of
    care about danger or about the results of their
  • Many young motorcyclists are very reckless.

Detailed study of the text
  • 69. consequence result, outcome
  • The rise in lung cancers is a consequence of
    cigarette smoking.
  • The consequence of the flood is still under
  • Some films may have / produce bad consequences.

Detailed study of the text
  • cf
  • The results of the research are to be published
  • The result of the match was 1 - 0.
  • The consequence of the war is doubtful.(??)
  • The outcome of the war is doubtful. (??)

Detailed study of the text
  • consequence (fml) importance
  • Someone or sth. that is of consequence is
    important or valuable.
  • He may be a man of consequence in his own
    country, but hes nobody here.

Detailed study of the text
  • 70. all over in every respect, thoroughly
  • She is her mother all over.
  • That sounds like my sister all over.

Detailed study of the text
  • It was these pioneers that brought California a
  • California was made famous for organizing
    surprising businesses
  • and developing them with great bravery and
    courage, without caring cost or result.

Detailed study of the text
  • And California keeps this fame until now. When
    she makes plans for a new surprise, the dull,
    solemn, dignified people in other parts of the
    States smile as usual and say Well, that's
    typical of California, that's just California

Detailed study of the text
  • 71. notations a brief note jotted down, as to
    remind one of something
  • The Duchess found the notation left by the Duke.
  • 72. genius (pl. geniuses) exceptionally great
    mental or creative ability
  • a man of genius
  • Einstein was a mathematical genius. 

Detailed study of the text
  • 73. celebrated well-known, famous
  • a celebrated actress, writer, pianist, etc.
  • Burgundy is celebrated for its fine wines.
  • celebrity famous person
  • celebrities of stage and screen

Detailed study of the text
  • 74. slope an area of rising or falling ground
  • mountain slopes
  • the slope of a roof
  • The field slopes (away) to the east.
  • Does your handwriting slope forwards or

Detailed study of the text
  • 75. distinct easily heard, seen, or understood
  • The footprints are quite distinct they must be
  • (from sth) different in kind
  • Although they look similar, these plants are
    actually quite distinct.
  • Mozart's style is quite distinct from Haydn's.

Detailed study of the text
  • 76. sort type, kind
  • He's the sort of person I really dislike.
  • What sort of paint are you using?
  • of a sort / of sorts (infml. derog.) of a poor
    or inferior type
  • They served coffee of a sort.
  • It was a meal of sorts, but nobody enjoyed it.

Detailed study of the text
  • 77. -logue (also) log comb. form
  • a. forming ns talk or speech
  • dialogue
  • monologue
  • b. -logist,
  • ideologue (ideologist) ???
  • Sinologue Sinologist, ???  

Detailed study of the text
  • 78. sore (of a part of the body) hurting when
    touched, painful aching
  • a sore knee, throat, etc
  • My leg is still very sore.
  • She feels sore about not being invited to the
  • Your financial help is sorely needed.

Detailed study of the text
  • 79. unimpressed
  • If you are unimpressed by sb. or sth, you do not
    think they are very good, or worth your
  • impress sb (with sth) have a favourable effect
    on sb
  • We were most impressed with / by your efficiency.

Detailed study of the text
  • 80. debunk (infml) to point out the truth about
    (over-praised people, ideas, etc).
  • If you debunk an idea or belief, you show that it
    is false or not important.
  • debunk fashionable opinions
  • bunk sl. nonsense
  • Don't talk bunk!
  • de to remove from
  • debunk to remove the nonsense 

Detailed study of the text
  • 81. revered (fml) to give great respect and
    admiration to
  • He was a revered figure with a great national
  • They revered him. 

Detailed study of the text
  • 82. version a form of sth in which certain
    details are different or have been changed from
    the previous forms
  • Did you read the short or full version of the
  • There have been several translations of the
    Bible, including the Authorized Version and the
    Revised Version. 

Detailed study of the text
  • 83. innocent simple, not able to recognize evil
  • An innocent is a person who is inexperienced and
    ignorant about the more complex, evil or
    unpleasant aspects of life.
  • He was a financial genius but a political
  • One is innocent before found guilty.

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Detailed study of the text
  • 84. earnest determined and serious, perhaps too
  • Are you joking or in earnest?
  • It soon began to snow in real earnest.

Detailed study of the text
  •  85. classic having the highest quality of the
    first or highest class or rank
  • cf
  • classical being in accordance with ancient Greek
    or Roman models in literature or art(??)
  • classical music as opposed to popular, jazz, or
    folk music.  

Detailed study of the text
  • ??(??,??,??,??) The Four Books (The Great
    Learning, The Doctrine of Mean, The Analects of
    Confucius and Mencius)
  • ??(??,??,??,??,??) The Five Classics (The Book
    of Songs, The Book of History, The Book of
    Changes, The Book of Rites, and The Spring and
    Autumn Annals) 

Detailed study of the text
  • 86. shape outer form or appearance
  • He's a devil in human shape.
  • She's in good shape after months of training.
  • shape give a shape or form
  • to shape the wet clay on a potters wheel
  • to shape the sand into a castle

Detailed study of the text
  • 87. mischievous eager to have fun, esp. by
    playing harmless tricks
  • cf
  • naughty behaving badly disobediently
  • A mischievous child is often naughty but does not
    do any real harm.
  • He was called in before the principal for his
    mischievous deeds. 

Detailed study of the text
  • 88. ingenuity cleverness in arranging things
  • The boy showed ingenuity when solving the
    difficult maths problem.  

Detailed study of the text
  • 89. puritan (usu. derog.) person who is
    extremely strict in morals and who tends to
    regard pleasure as sinful
  • 90. flight (distance covered in) a journey

Detailed study of the text
  • 91. panorama
  • a. a complete view of a wide stretch of land
  • b. continuously changing view or scene
  • c. a thorough representation in words or picture
  • This book gives a panorama of life in Shenzhen.

Detailed study of the text
  • 92. pace speed, esp. of walking or running
  • She slowed down her pace so I could keep up with
  • He gave up his job in advertising because he
    couldn't stand the pace, ie found the pressure of
    work too great.
  • Are wages keeping pace with inflation?  

Detailed study of the text
  • 93. energy-sapping
  • sap gradually weaken sb/sth by taking away
  • I was sapped by months of hospital treatment.
  • She's been sapped of her optimism.
  • Stop sapping her confidence!

Detailed study of the text
  • 94. clamour a continuous strong demand or
  • The government has made a decision in defiance of
    the public clamour.
  • The public are clamouring for a change of
  • The baby clamoured to be fed.  

Detailed study of the text
  • 95. edge sharp cutting part of a knife
  • a knife with a sharp edge
  • renew our edges to remodel, re-sharpen our
    edges, to recharge the battery

Detailed study of the text
  • 96. haunt to visit, appearing in a strange form
  • The old house is said to be haunted by a headless
  • A spirit haunts the castle.
  • The memory still haunts me.

Detailed study of the text
  • 97. -itis disease or inflammation
  • bronchitis
  • appendicitis
  • hepatitis

Detailed study of the text
  • 99. Bitterness fed on the man who
  • Bitterness exhausted, used up all the energy of
    the man
  • 100. pad to make more comfortable by filling
    with soft material
  • a jacket with padded shoulders
  • He padded the seat of the chair with some foamed

Detailed study of the text
  • 101. Now the gloves came off with biting satire
  • the gloves are off ready for a fight
  • biting causing a smarting pain
  • a biting wind
  • satire ridicule or irony or sarcasm that is
    used to show how foolish or wicked some people's
    behaviour or ideas are. 

Detailed study of the text
  • Now Mark Twain threw away the pretended softness
    and gentleness he used to adopt and became
    outspoken, bitter and sarcastic.
  • 102. illusion the condition of seeing things
  • The magician made us think he cut a woman in
    half, but it was an illusion.
  • Perfect happiness is an illusion. 

Detailed study of the text
  • 103. vanish to disappear, go out of sight
  • The thin mysterious woman passenger vanished.
  • As soon as you put the dog-skin plaster on, your
    pain will vanish. 

Detailed study of the text
  • 104. crumble be broken into very small pieces
  • crumble one's bread
  • Their marriage is crumbling.
  • 105. lament
  • If you lament sth., you express your sadness,
    regret or disappointment about it.
  • They lamented the death of their mother.
  • His examination results were lamentable.

V. Structural Analysis
  • Part 1 (the first para.)
  • Introduction
  • Part 2 (Tramp printer...renew our edges)
  • Section 1. (Tramp printer... the settled United
  • the setting, background knowledge

V. Structural Analysis
  • Section 2. (Young Mark...that invented
  • early years of life on the Mississippi and as a
    Confederate guerrilla
  • Section 3. (He went
  • On his way to success
  • Section 4. (At the age...renew our edges.)
  • Comments on his best works.

V. Structural Analysis
  • Part 3 (Personal tragedy...forget them forever.)
  • Personal tragedy and conclusion.

VI. Devices of figuration
  • Metaphor
  • Mark Twain --- Mirror of America
  • saw clearly ahead a black wall of night...
  • main artery of transportation in the young
    nation's heart
  • the vast basin drained three-quarters of the
    settled United States
  • All would resurface in his books...that he soaked

VI. Devices of figuration
  • Hyperbole
  • through eternal boyhood and ...endless
    summer of freedom...
  • The cast of characters--- a cosmos.

VI. Devices of figuration
  • Personification
  • life dealt him profound personal tragedies...
  • the river had acquainted him with ...
  • literature's enduring gratitude...
  • Bitterness fed on the man...
  • America laughed with him.

VI. Devices of figuration
  • Antithesis
  • ...between what people claim to be and what they
    really are...
  • ...took unholy verbal shots at the Holy Land...
  • ...a world which will lament them a day and
    forget them forever

VI. Devices of figuration
  • Euphemism
  •'s final release from earthly struggle
  • Alliteration
  • ...the slow, sleepy, sluggish-brained sloths
    stayed at home
  • ...with a dash and daring...
  • ...a recklessness of cost or consequences...

VI. Devices of figuration
  • Metonymy
  • ...his pen would prove mightier than his pickaxe
  • Synecdoche
  • Keelboats,...carried the first major commerce.

The End