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PATTERN OF ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT

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PATTERN OF ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN WAYANAD (Kerala, India) with reference to RESPONSIBLE ECOTOURISM Shyju P. J. , P .V. Rajeev, P. S. Rana – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PATTERN OF ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT


1
PATTERN OF ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN WAYANAD
(Kerala, India) with reference to RESPONSIBLE
ECOTOURISM
Shyju P. J. , P .V. Rajeev, P. S. Rana (Banaras
Hindu University, Varanasi, India) Rinzing
Lama (Indian Institute of Travel Tourism
Management, New Delhi, India) pjshyju_at_gmail.com
2
  • Contents
  • Introduction
  • Pattern of tourism development in Wayanad
  • Methodology
  • Findings
  • Ecocentric Responsible Tourism
  • Implications of Future Research

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3
  • Introduction
  • International Tourist Arrivals to India have gone
    up to 5.1 million in 2009-10
  • Kerala, a state located in the southern part of
    India has been projected as a model of tourism
    development in India.
  • The state has proven that it is a all season
    destination by introducing a number of innovative
    tourism practices such Wellness tourism,
    Responsible tourism etc.
  • Marketed Health Tourism as the main product and
    Natural attractions and cultural features as
    other tourism products in India and abroad,
    Kerala has developed itself as a brand among
    other states and foreign countries.

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4
Foreign Tourist Arrivals 2005-08
Year Kerala India
2005 0.34 million 3.91 million
2006 0.42 million 4.47 million
2007 0.51 million 5.08 million
2008 0.59 million 5.28 million
FOREIGN TOURIST ARRIVAL IN KERALA 2008 TOP ORDER FOREIGN TOURIST ARRIVAL IN KERALA 2008 TOP ORDER FOREIGN TOURIST ARRIVAL IN KERALA 2008 TOP ORDER
COUNTRY NO. OF TOURISTS to the Total
U.K 141,147 23.57
France 52,239 8.72
Germany 43,468 7.26
U.S.A 43,307 7.23
Maldives 35,435 5.92
Sweden 20,666 3.45
Italy 17,385 2.90
Australia 16,968 2.83
Switzerland 15,603 2.61
Canada 13,541 2.26
U.A.E 13,334 2.23
Netherlands 12,511 2.09
Saudi Arabia 12,137 2.03
Spain 10,632 1.78
Russia 9,766 1.63
Japan 7,320 1.22
Belgium 6,899 1.15
Denmark 6,686 1.12
Austria 6,408 1.07
South Africa 6,051 1.01
Tourist Arrivals to Wayanad
Year Domestic International
2005 1,91,184 942
2006 2,25,923 2,611
2007 2,56,190 4,093
2008 2,95,465 5,638
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5
Wayanad, the Green Paradise
Hill station, located in the Western Ghats, one
of the hot green spots of the world. Exposed to
tourism activities, this beautiful destination
is facing a severe threat from unrestricted
unplanned tourism activities. Identified as a
responsible tourism destination, the focus of
tourism authorities are looking for more tourist
arrivals than a Planned Tourism Destination Face
a series threat from ecological, socio-cultural
aspects .
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6
Pattern of Tourism Development
Tourism is treated as the only future option of
source of Employment and revenue. Annual growth
of tourist arrivals have gone up by 22 percent
Wayand is projected as a pristine destination
all over Kerala and Abroad. This resulted in huge
inflow of domestic tourists and steady growth in
foreign tourist arrivals. Major attractions are --
Located at Fringe areas/Highly fragile
Water bodies Forest Area Cultural sites
Pookodu Lake Chembra Peak Edakkal Caves
Banasura Sagar Brahmagiri Hills Tirunelli Temple
Soochippara falls Kuruwa Island Jain Temple
Karalad Lake Wayanad WLS Tribal settlements
Karapuzha Dam Kambamala Plantations
Kanthanpara Falls Chethalayam Ghat Section
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7
Objectives of the study
  1. To identify the direction of growth of tourism in
    Wayanad
  2. To Evaluate the ecotourism programme implemented
    by Dept. of Forests Wildlife
  3. To analyse major impacts of tourism growth and
    the interaction of socio-ecological influences in
    tourism
  4. To propose an ecocentric approach for tourist
    attractions in Wayanad

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8
Methodology
  1. The study include both primary and secondary
    data. Sites were visited personally, conducted
    interviews with local people, visitors, people
    who are directly or indirectly associated with
    tourism trade. Interactions were made with
    approximately 500 people in various locations.
  2. The observations are based on the collective
    opinion of authorities and a comparative
    evaluation of hosts community.
  3. Informal interviews were organised with the
    Resort owners and homes stay owners in order to
    get a true picture of the study. 50 resorts and
    home stay owners were consulted in this regard.
  4. This study is n out come of a long term
    observations since 1996 since then changes taken
    place in the lifestyle, climate and social
    changes have closely been noticed and evaluated.

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9
Methodology
  • Press and Media reports are also used to
    complete the study
  • The population of the study include all the
    resort owners and home stay providers.
  • Sampling framework used for the study is
    convenient sampling.
  • The variables used in the study include the
    various factors identified to have a significant
    impact on the promotion of ecotourism with a view
    to sustainability.
  • The various statistical tools used in the study
    include, Regression,
  • t- Test, ANOVA, Factor Analysis etc. using
    SPSS 16.

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10
Findings
  1. It is observed that the revenue from tourism play
    a major deciding role to accept tourism as an
    alternative activity. This proves that the
    increased no. of home stay owners and small scale
    resorts charge more for accommodation and the
    main intention of the host is to earn more income
    from the visiting guests who are mainly from an
    upper income group.
  2. The study finds that local people can serve
    better in the improvement of ecotourism
    activities
  3. Local people are on the opinion that the present
    way of tourism development is not benefiting them
    The benefit goes to the owners of resort and home
    stays who have good connection with tour
    operators and tourism market.

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11
Findings continues.
  1. The local community is also on the opinion that
    present way of tourism promotion is not at all
    agreeable. Expectation of earnings from tourism
    blinded the operators and it resulted in excess
    charges for rooms and food.
  2. The visitors opinion shows that they are quite
    unhappy with the facilities available in many
    attractions. This indicates that the expectation
    of visitors are not matching with their visits.
  3. Another interesting point is the main purpose of
    the visit is to just fun and excitement, rather
    than making it as a learning and experiencing the
    nature. This lead to visitors dissatisfaction and
    at he same time misunderstanding on the efforts
    of officials.

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12
Findings continues.
  1. It is felt that resource management is a
    multifaceted activity rather than community
    driven approach. But the local community has a
    greater role as awareness creation among the
    visitors are as important as awareness among the
    hosts.
  2. The local NGOs and Students have a greater role
    in awareness creation and responsible ecotourism
    activity.
  3. The local community has a strong feeling that
    government authorities are not sincere and not
    even explored the opportunities of ecocentric
    tourism though many destinations are located in
    the wild life areas.
  4. The analysis proves that the alternative is
    accepted and alternative hypothesis is accepted .
    A sustainable approach has to be followed to
    highlight the destinations, improve the tourist
    facilitation centre and tourist/hosts awareness
    campaign on environmental front.

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13
Impacts
Direct Impacts New Constructions, mushrooming
of hotels and resorts Changes in landscapes,
riverside and, hills Piling up of urban
waste Increased vehicular traffic and Traffic
problems
Induced impacts Price rise of commodities Incre
ase in land value Migration, attack of wild
animals on local people Commercialization
Every one want a share of tourism
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14
Visitors Impact
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15
Responsible Ecotourism- the Future of tourism in
Wayanad
  1. Wayanad, is a hill station and tourism is a new
    entrant. Majority of people are basically
    involved in agriculture and related jobs. Unlike
    other districts in Kerala here natural resources
    are not exploited for industries but tourism is
    the main media of exploitation. Dept. of Forest
    and Wildlife enforce strict guidelines and
    regulations for tourism activity, but the
    District Tourism Promotion Council and Dept. of
    Tourism has little interest in this area.

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16
Responsible Ecotourism- the Future of tourism in
Wayanad
  1. Dept. of Forest and Wild Life involves the local
    community who live near that area. Eco
    Development Committee (EDC), Vana Samrakshana
    Samiti (VSS) are formulated to take up the
    wildlife preservation and ecotourism programe.
    This help both the Dept. and the community.
    Natural resources are protected and at the same
    time people are aware to protect their nature in
    order to make their livelihood.
  2. Ecotourism programme by Dept. of Forests and Wild
    life is a well appreciable gesture as the main
    focus is preservation of ecosystem rather than
    income generation. Emphasis on preservation
    result in dissatisfaction among the visitors as
    their expectations are not fulfilled.

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17
Discussion
  • Mass Ecotourism is not an encouragable tourism
    option. A destination like Wayanad, needs a very
    systematically planned development.
  • All tourist attractions in the district are owned
    by Dept. of Forests Wildlife or Dept. of
    Irrigation, and Dept. of Fisheries. Tourism came
    as an intruder to these places and taken over the
    complete control, but the main purpose is
    remained only to earn as much as income rather
    than protecting that places from environmental
    degradation.

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18
Discussion cont
  • Over crowding, lack of waste management, and lack
    of proper control over visitors behaviour
    resulted in exploitation rather than
    conservation.
  • Absence of a price control mechanism results in
    price hike for many products. If a person from a
    different language background visit this
    destinations, the shop owners usually take
    advantage of the client, which results in
    commercialization.

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19
Discussion cont
  • Loss of green cover of Wayanad over last few
    years resulted in a rapid changes in the annual
    rainfall and increasing temperature levels. This
    results indirectly the lifestyle of people, where
    the major portion of the agriculture land is
    converted to commercial crops than the
    traditional crops.
  • Life of common people are affected by a sharp
    increase in price of the land , which are located
    in river side, lake side, near to forest land or
    any other scenic spot which as enough tourist
    potential. Land value has gone up multiple times
    and a common
  • man cant own a small house as the earning wont
    match with the financial requirements.

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20
Discussion cont
  • Tourist activity should be controlled in places
    like Kuruwa Island and other highly ecofragile
    areas. Regulations in visit to eco sensitive
    areas, will result in conserving the natural
    resources for future generation, and at the same
    time efforts should be made to create awareness
    among the visitors to inform them about the
    bio-diversity of the area they are visiting .
  • It is found that the visitor interpretation
    centres are not properly working as there is a
    sever shortage of manpower and lack of proper
    maintenance. Taking things casually , will
    affect the reputation of the destination as well.

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21
Discussion cont
  • Benefits from tourism are shared by few players
    in the district who are well established . Local
    people have greater expectations when an
    attraction is developing as a tourist centre.
    But, other than seeing the rise of some local
    resorts, the local people are ignored greater
    extend. The authorities also fails to
    recognise the need of local people where
    combined effort of local people authorities are
    scarcely seen.
  • Local organisations, academic institutions have a
    greater role to do. Activities taken up by the
    eco club, tourism club members in the district is
    worth to appreciate as it shows a well rehearsed
    move to involve and encourage the young to orient
    their future towards the future.

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22
Discussion cont
  • The responsibility also falls on the visitor and
    the service provider to protect our environment
    from further degradation. A tourist is not a
    consumer here. But an active participant of
    conserving the nature and his surroundings.
  • Effective coordination is required among the
    government officials as there is a clear
    indication of lack of cohesion among the
    government departments. This results in creating
    obstacles on the path of planning, implementation
    of various programmes .

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27
Thank you
28
Review of Literature
Impacts of Tourism was a major concern for Hosts
community, Academicians , Government authorities
and planners since long back. Several case
studies on Bali, Thailand, etc. which have
already shown the impacts of tourism Noronha
(1979), Pleumarom (2002). Defensive Tourism,
Alternative Tourism, Natural Tourism, Green
Tourism, Low Impact Tourism, Soft Tourism are
some of the terms came up in the debate of
Sustainability issues. Krippendorf (1982), Jones
(1987) Mader (1999) Sustainable Tourism ws
highly appreciated and projected as the
alternative to Impacts of Tourism WCED (1987),
Hunter, Butler (1992) Ecotourism is treated as
a form of sustainable tourism for many
researchers Dernoi (1988), Mieczkowski (1995),
Allcock (1994), Honey (1999), Weaver
(2001) Here , a modified form of Responsible
Tourism, i.e Responsible ecotourism is proposed
against existing practices in Wayanad
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