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Cells

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Cells By: Marcos Soriano Kristin Beringson Jen Gallagher Maureen Flynn Ribosomes Structure Ribosomes are composed of proteins and RNA in two subunits (One large and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cells


1
Cells
  • By Marcos Soriano
  • Kristin Beringson
  • Jen Gallagher
  • Maureen Flynn

2
RibosomesStructure
  • Ribosomes are composed of proteins and RNA in two
    subunits (One large and one small)
  • There are many of these organelles in the cell.

3
RibosomesLocation
  • Bound ribosomes occur attached to the endoplasmic
    reticulum
  • Ribosomes also occur in the cytoplasm alone or in
    groups.
  • These groups are called polyribosomes

4
RibosomesFunction
  • Ribosomes perform protein synthesis, which is the
    assembly of amino acids in proteins

5
RibosomesFunction (Cont.)
  • Ribosomes in the cytoplasm synthesize proteins to
    be used in the cell by organalles like
    mitochondria and chloroplasts
  • Ribosomes on the endoplasmic reticulum synthesize
    proteins that are eventually secreted by the cell

6
RibosomesHow They Work
  • Once the two large and small subunits are joined
    by the RNA from the nucleus, the ribosomes
    translate the RNA into a specific sequence of
    amino acids, called polypeptide chains.

7
RibosomesImportance
  • Our cells and bodies need protein to survive
    without ribosomes, we wouldnt get any protein
  • Without the ribosomes amino acids wouldnt be
    synthesized into proteins which plays a vital
    role in our body. Proteins make up our hair,
    nails and connective tissues.

8
MitochondrionStructure
  • Size of a bacteria
  • Has a double membrane
  • The outer membrane is fairly smooth
  • Inner membrane is twisted

9
MitochondrionLocation
  • Mitochondrion can be found in the cell, outside
    the nucleus, in the cytoplasm
  • There could be more than one mitochondrion in a
    cell, as shown below

10
MitochondrionFunction
  • Performs cellular respiration They convert
    chemical energy of glucose into chemical energy
    of ATP(Adenosine Triphosphate primary source of
    energy)
  • The process burns up oxygen and gives off carbon
    dioxide and water.

11
MitochondrionImportance
  • Without mitochondrion ATP production would cease
    and the cells would not be able to function.

12
LysosomesStructure
  • Membranous vesicle containing digestive enzymes

13
LysosomesLocation
  • Lysosomes can be found in the cell, in the
    cytoplasm
  • There could be more than one lysosome in a cell,
    as shown below

Lysosomes
Plant Cell
14
LysosomesFunction
  • Digests macromolecules, old cell parts and
    microorganisms
  • This takes place when a food vacuole combines
    with a lysosome to form a digestive vacuole
  • Lysosomes also help cells renew themselves. The
    human liver recycles itself each week from
    lysosomes

15
LysosomesImportance
  • If lysosomes start to break apart they will leak
    and a large amount of leakage can destroy cells

16
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