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Matrl Handlng, Rigging, Cranes

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Crane Hand Signals Basic Crane Safety Do we have the right crane for the job? Is the operator qualified on that crane? Has the crane been inspected? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Matrl Handlng, Rigging, Cranes


1
New England Roofing Industry Partnership
Materials Handling, Rigging, Cranes
2
Training Objectives
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
SUBPARTS
1
H,N,O
  • After completing this unit, you will
  • Know the basic OSHA requirements for the storage
    and disposal of materials.
  • Know hazards in both mechanical and manual
    material handling.
  • Understand hazards of rigging and crane
    operations and how to minimize them.
  • Be aware of proper lifting techniques.

3
References
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
2
H,N,O
  • 29 CFR 1926.250 Subpart H, Materials Handling,
    Storage, Use, and Disposal
  • 29CFR1926.500, Subpart N Cranes, Derricks,
    Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors
  • 29CFR1926.600, Subpart O Motor Vehicles,
    Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations
  • ANSI and ASME Standards

4
Materials Handling Dangers
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
3
H,N,O
  • Unsafe storage and materials movement
  • can lead to
  • Back injuries (the number one cause of worker
    compensation claims).
  • Struck-by or crushed by falling loads due to
    rigging failures.
  • Electrocutions due to power line contact.
  • Injury from falling materials.
  • Injury from slipping, tripping and falling.

5
Moving Materials by Hand Back Facts
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
4
H, N, O
  • 8 out of 10 Americans will have a back injury
    during their life.
  • Approximately 1 out of 3 injuries at work are
    back injuries.
  • Personal pain and inconvenience can not be
    measured.
  • Back injuries cost employers an estimated 10
    billion dollars each year!

6
Preventing Back Injuries
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
5
H, N, O
  • You can avoid back injuries by
  • Using mechanical aids.
  • Using proper lifting techniques.
  • Keeping in lifting shape.
  • Working as a team when lifting.
  • Knowing the truth about back belts.

7
Proper Lifting Technique
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
6
H, N, O
  • Basic moves of a proper lift
  • Plan your lift.
  • Use a wide-balanced stance.
  • Get close to the load and keep it close to your
    body.
  • Tighten your stomach muscles.
  • Keep your back straight and use your legs.
  • Turn with with your feet dont twist your back.
  • Avoid lifting above shoulder height.

8
A Proper Lift
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
7
H, N, O
9
Keeping in Lifting Shape
SUBPART
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
8
H,N,O
  • Keeping your stomach and back muscles strong can
    help prevent back injuries.
  • Even if you dont work out in a gym, you can
    prevent back injuries.
  • Strength and flexibility exercises should be done
    at least every other day.

10
For Strength and Flexibility
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
9
H, N, O
11
Mechanical Aids
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
10
H,N,O
  • Use hand trucks, dollies, carts, wheel barrows,
    and wagons whenever possible.
  • Encourage management to include mechanical aids
    whenever possible.

12
Mechanical Aids
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
11
H,N,O
Slab carrying rig here has eliminated bending
over and has provided secure non-abrasive
hand- holds.
13
Team Lifting
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
12
H, N, O
  • Use team lifting for
  • Loads too heavy for one person.
  • Loads too bulky for one person.
  • Long loads such as pipes and rolls of material.
  • Talk to your team-mate!
  • Coordinate your lift!

14
What About Back Belts?
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
13
H, N, O
  • The National Institute for Occupational Safety
    and Health (NIOSH) says
  • Back belts may not reduce stress on the back.
  • May increase blood pressure and heart rate.
  • May make you think you can lift heavier loads
    with a belt on and you could get hurt trying to.
  • If you want to wear a belt dont wear it too
    tight and dont lift more than you usually would.

15
Material Storage
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
14
H,N, O
  • Five basic rules for safe storage
  • Keep total weight within the safe loading limits
    of the buildings floors.
  • Keep passageways clear.
  • Control materials so they do not slide, fall, or
    collapse.
  • Provide cribbing for heavy loads on unstable
    surfaces.
  • Store materials away from traffic.

16
What Does OSHA Require?
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
15
H,N,O
  • Basic requirements
  • Dont put materials within 10 feet of roof edge.
  • Dont store materials on scaffolds or runways.
  • Keep materials at least 6 feet from floor
    openings and hoistways.
  • Keep aisles clear.
  • Keep work area free from tripping, fire,
    explosion, pest and vegetation hazards.

17
OSHA Also Requires
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
16
H,N,O
  • Specific requirements
  • Stack bagged materials by stepping back the
    layers and cross-keying the bags at least every
    10 bags high.
  • Stack bricks no higher than 7 feet.
  • Taper masonry blocks back one-half block per tier
    for stacks above 6 feet.
  • Stack lumber on sills and on level solid ground -
    never exceed 16 feet high and always remove nails!

18
Setting Materials on the Deck
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
17
H,N,O
What could happen to these stacked materials?
19
Disposal of Waste Material
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
18
H,N,O
  • OSHA requirements
  • Scrap lumber, waste and trash must be regularly
    removed from the work area.
  • Burning must meet local regulations.
  • Materials dropped more than 20 feet require a
    chute.
  • Solvent waste, oily rags, and flammables must be
    kept in fire resistant containers until removed.
  • If the waste is considered hazardous, your
    employer will have to follow federal, state, and
    local regulations.

20
Debris Chutes
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
19
H ,N, O
Objectives in using a chute material control,
dust control and protection of workers and
bystanders note the differences here.
21
Mechanical Materials Handling
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
20
H, N, O
  • Depending on the job, you might use or work
    around
  • Buggies
  • Roof Hoists
  • Conveyors
  • Skid-steers (Bobcats)
  • Rough Terrain Forklifts (Lulls)
  • Cranes

22
Buggies
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
21
H, N, O
What are the safety concerns while moving
materials with these?
23
Mechanical Equipment on Flat Roofs
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
22
H, N, O
  • Will the deck support the weight of the
    equipment?
  • Has the equipment been inspected?
  • Are all equipment guards in place?
  • Is the operator trained?
  • See Subpart C - .20(b)(4)
  • Are all aware that the equipment is not to be
    operated outside warning lines due to the fall
    hazard?
  • See Subpart M - Fall Protection -.502
  • Closest approach is 6 feet parallel and 10 feet
    perpendicular to direction of travel.

24
Roof Hoists
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
23
H, N, O
What are the manufacturers instructions for set
up use? What does OSHA say?
25
Roof Hoist Safety Concerns
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
24
H, N, O
  • .552(a)(1) Compliance with manufacturers
    specifications and limitations.
  • .552(a)(2) Load capacity, hazard warnings and
    instructions must be posted.
  • .552(a)(3)(i-iv) Wire rope replacement
  • criteria.
  • .552(a)(4) Hoist rope is to be installed in
    accordance with manufacturers instructions.
  • .501(b)(3) Fall Protection (Subpart M) in
  • hoist area.

26
Is the Hoist Operator Protected?
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
25
H, N, O
27
Using Conveyors to Move Materials
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
26
H, N, O
28
Safety Concerns In Conveyor Use
SUBPART
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
27
H, N, O
  • Set up and used in accordance with the
    manufacturers instructions?
  • Guards in place on pinch points?
  • Power line clearances maintained?
  • Maintenance program in place?

29
Safety Concerns In Conveyor Use
SUBPART
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
28
H, N, O
  • No riders on conveyor!
  • .555(a) Means for stopping motor at
  • operators station and start up warning.
  • .555(a)(5) Protection for workers below against
    falling objects.
  • .555(a)(7) Lockout/Tagout for maintenance.

30
Using Conveyors to Move Materials
SUBPART
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
29
H, N, O
Power line clearance? Back up alarm or signal
person? Fall protection for roof workers?
31
Using Skid Steers
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
30
H, N, O
  • If on the roof will it take the load?
  • Is the operator qualified?
  • .20(b)(4) Again! Training is available from
    some manufacturers.
  • Skid Steers are powerful, work in close quarters
    with people and are very quick, with large areas
    where the operator cannot see (the no-zone).
  • Is the work area adequately barricaded?

32
Skid Steer Loader
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
31
H, N, O
What do we need to know about this operator?
33
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
32
H, N, O
Operator sight distances from eye level to ground
The NO-ZONE
11 7
Eye level 5 ft - 5 in above ground level
11 5
21 8
4 10
6 1
3 1
Vehicle S-44 Bobcat
6 3
34
Using Forklifts to Move Materials
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
33
H, N, O
  • What do we need to know?
  • Is the operator trained?
  • See .602(d)
  • Has the machine been inspected and properly
    maintained?
  • Is the backup alarm audible?
  • Are ground personnel protected?
  • Is the balanced load within capacity?
  • Are workers on roof protected from falls?

35
Getting Materials to the Roof
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
34
H, N, O
How can we protect against falls in these
situations?
36
Using Forklifts
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
35
H, N, O
What precautions need to be taken around the
machines operating area?
37
TS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
SUBPARTS H, N, O
36
N, O
Eye level 7 ft - 3 in above ground level
Operator sight distances from eye level to ground
85 0
18 2
10 9
7 9
3 0
39 0
The NO-Zone
21 2
14 10
Vehicle R-14793 High Reach Fork Lift
38
Platforms on Forklifts
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
37
H, N, O
  • If you work off of some attachment it must
  • (1) Be secured to forks.
    (2) Have a guardrail.
  • (3) Have a Personal Fall Arrest
    System tie-off.
  • (4) Used only while the
    operator is in the seat.

39
Rigging and Crane Safety
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
38
H, N, O
  • Rigging is the lines or cables used to lift and
    move materials by hoisting with a crane.
  • A rigger is a skilled mechanic who prepares heavy
    equipment or loads of material for movement.

40
Examples of Rigging
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
39
H, N, O
41
The Hazards of Rigging
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
40
H, N, O
  • Possible contact with power lines.
  • Rigging failures due to overloaded, improper, or
    defective rigging.
  • Out of control loads.
  • Being struck by the cranes swing radius.

42
Can Anyone Rig or Lift Loads?
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
41
H, N, O
  • Rigging must be done under the supervision of a
    Competent Person.
  • The crane operator must be highly qualified and
    certified.
  • Improper rigging or unqualified operators can be
    deadly!

43
The Riggers Duties
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
42
H, N, O
  • The rigger selects the rigging.
  • The rigger sets-up the rigging.
  • The rigger directs the lift.

44
OSHA Rigging Requirements
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
43
H, N, O
  • All slings and hardware must be manufactured to
    meet demanding specifications which include
    safety factors.
  • All web or alloy chain slings must be clearly
    stamped, marked, or labeled, for capacity.
  • OSHA prohibits job made slings, hooks, links,
    and fasteners formed from bolts.
  • Before each use all components must be inspected
    by a Competent Person.

45
Safe Working Load (SWL)
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
44
H, N, O
  • The maximum load allowed on rigging is the Safe
    Working Load (SWL).
  • The sling may actually be able to hold 5 times
    the SWL.
  • A safety factor is the ratio of the ultimate
    strength to the SWL.
  • If a rigger exceeds the SWL, then they lose some
    of the safety factor.

46
Knowing Safe Working Loads
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
45
H, N, O
47
Sling Angle
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
46
H, N, O
  • The safest sling angles are greater
  • than 450 from the horizontal.

48
Rigging the Load
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
47
H, N, O
Sling angles lt450, load unstable, worker
not protected.
Balanced load sling angle gt600
49
Working Safely Around Rigging
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
48
H, N, O
  • General safety practices
  • Keep at least ten feet away from power lines up
    to 50 kV.
  • Increase power line clearance distance by .4 per
    kV gt50kV
  • Never hoist loads over workers.
  • Never stand too close or under a load.
  • Never ride a load.

50
Working Safely Around Rigging2
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
49
H, N, O
  • General safety practices
  • Use tag lines to control loads while lifting.
  • Test lift the rigging.
  • Use proper equipment, make sure it is marked, not
    home-made, and in good shape.

51
Crane Hand Signals
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
50
H, N, O
Only a qualified rigger will give hand signals.
52
Basic Crane Safety
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
51
H, N, O
  • Do we have the right crane for the job?
  • Is the operator qualified on that crane?
  • Has the crane been inspected?
  • Is the crane set up on solid ground?
  • Full outriggers with cribbing?
  • Level, with tires off the ground?
  • Are power line clearances known?
  • Do we know the weight of the load?
  • Is everyone aware that a lift is being made?

53
Basic Crane Safety2
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
52
H, N, O
  • Is the load properly rigged for a stable,
    vertical lift?
  • Is there a high wind condition?
  • Is the swing radius barricaded?
  • Can a tagline be properly used?
  • Can the crane make the lift and set the load
    without interference?

54
Truck-Mounted Cranes/Boom Trucks
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
53
H, N, O
55
Case Study What went wrong?
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
54
H, N, O
Two employees were moving structural steel
building beams to a storage area. After setting
the fourth beam on the crib, the signal man
signaled the crane operator to pull the sling
from around a cribbed structural beam which was
set on its flange side. The second employee then
attempted to remove the shackle from the beam
when the swaged fitting of the sling apparently
caught and caused the steel beam to roll off the
cribbing, crushing the second employee.

56
Materials Handling(1926.250 - 252)
SUBPARTS H, N,O
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
55
  • Common OSHA Citations
  • .251(a)(1) Rigging equipment inspection
  • and removal from service.
  • .251(e)(8) Synthetic Web Slings removal from
    service.
  • .252(a) Exterior drop chutes
  • .251(a)(4) Rigging capacity not marked not
    proof- tested.
  • How can the hazards addressed by these Standards
    best be corrected, controlled, or eliminated?

57
Review Questions
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
56
H, N, O
  • True or False?
  • Back injuries are the number one cause of worker
    compensation claims.
  • Using proper lifting techniques, staying in
    shape, using mechanical aids, and team lifting
    are the best ways to avoid back injuries.
  • Using a back belt almost always prevents a back
    injury.
  • Anyone can hook-up a sling and be a rigger.

58
Review Questions
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
57
H, N, O
  • True or False?
  • Job-made slings, hooks, links, and fasteners
    formed from bolts are allowed if a Competent
    Person says so.
  • Proper knots are permitted in web-slings.
  • Slings should be inspected before each use and
    pulled from service if found defective.
  • The safest sling angles are less than 45 degrees
    from the horizontal.

59
Review Questions
SUBPARTS
Materials Handling, Rigging Cranes
58
H, N, O
  • True or False?
  • Cranes and rigging must stay at least 10 feet
    from power lines.
  • Materials can be stored within 10 feet of the
    roofs edge.
  • Materials dropped more than 20 feet require a
    chute.
  • Materials must be kept at least 2 feet from
    floor openings and hoistways.
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