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crane

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Crane Operations With many cranes including overhead electric travelling, mobile jib and Construction Tower Cranes, the safe moving of loads relies on team effort ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: crane


1
CRANES
2
Identification and Capacity The manufacturer must
issue a Test Certificate for every crane he
produces, identifying it and specifying the Safe
Working Load (SWL) which must be clearly marked
on the Crane structure.
3
In large organisations which have their own
system of plant identification it should relate
to the Manufacturers Certificate.
4
Maintenance Apart form Statutory Inspections,
Cranes should be inspected regularly by the
users own staff and preventative maintenance
schedules followed. Records should be kept of
these checks and of any work done, especially if
it is in response to a Statutory Inspection
requirement.
5
Safety Measures To protect both the Operator and
the Crane itself, a number of safety devices are
incorporated in the design of the Crane and these
include
6
  • Overtravel Switches
  • To prevent the hook or sheave block from being
    raised right up to the cable drum, a robust limit
    switch should be fitted to the crab or upper
    sheave block. Checks of this limit switch should
    be included in routine inspections.

7
2) Protection of Bare Conductors Where bare
pick-up conductors are used to carry the power
supply they must be shielded form accidental
contact particularly if near cabin access.
Suitably worded notices, e.g. WARNING BARE LIVE
WIRES, should be posted on the walls or building
structure. The power supply isolating switch
posted on the walls or building structure. The
power supply isolating switch should be provided
with means for locking-off during maintenance
work.
8
3) Controls The controls of Cranes, whether
cabin, pendant or radio, should be clearly
identified to prevent inadvertent operation. On
Overhead Electric Travelling (OET) cranes with
electric pendant controls the directions of
travel should be unambiguously marked. Controls
should be of the Dead-Man type.
9
  • 4) Load Indicators
  • Load Indicators are required to be fitted to jib
    cranes and can be used with benefit on all
    cranes.
  • There are two types
  • A load / radius indicator that shows the radius
    at which the crane is working and the safe load
    at that radius. It must be clearly visible to the
    driver.
  • B) An automatic Safe Load Indicator that warns,
    either visually or audibly, that the load is
    approaching the maximum safe level or that it has
    exceeded that value.

10
5) Safety Catches Wherever practicable, crane
hooks should be fitted with safety catches9 to
prevent slings, chains, ropes, etc. from
jumping off the hook.
11
6) Emergency Escape Where, on travelling cranes,
access to the cab is not an integral part of the
crane, suitable escape equipment should be
provided to enable the driver to reach the ground
quickly and safety in an emergency.
12
7) Safe means of access should be provided to
enable a) the Driver to reach his operating
position b) the necessary inspections and
maintenance work to be carried out safely.
13
8) Operating Position The arrangement of the
drivers cab should ensure a) a clear view of
the operating area and loads b) all controls
are easily reached by the driver without the
need for excessive movements of arms or
legs c) all controls are clearly marked as to
their function and method of operation.
14
9) Passengers No one, other than the driver,
should be allowed on the Crane when it is
operating unless there is a special reason for
being there and it has been authorised. Riding
the hook is prohibited but should it be
necessary to carry persons, the properly designed
and approved chair or cradle should be used.
15
Harness to be clipped to hook of crane NOT to
basket.
Man Basket must be of an approved type. (Bureau
veritas inspected)
16
10) Safe Working Load All cranes should be marked
with their Safe Working Load which must never be
exceeded except for test purposes. If there is
any doubt of the weight to be lifted, advice
should be sought.
17
Crane Operations With many cranes including
overhead electric travelling, mobile jib and
Construction Tower Cranes, the safe moving of
loads relies on team effort involving the driver,
slinger and sometimes a separate Signaller (or
Banksman).
18
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19
Only one person, the Signaller or if there is no
Signaller the Slinger, should give signals to the
Driver and these should be clearly understood by
both. Slingers, Signallers and Driver should be
properly trained, medically fit and of a steady
disposition.
20
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21
Safe operating techniques for Cranes There are
certain basic techniques that must be practiced
to ensure the safest possible operation of the
Crane. These techniques include
22
1) The driver carrying out a brief check of the
Crane at the beginning of his shift. The items
checked may vary in different factories, but they
should be agreed locally.
23
2) Loads should NOT be left hanging on the hook
at the end of a shift. 3) Those working above
floor level who are likely to be struck by the
crane or its load MUST BE WARNED.
24
4) The crane must not approach nearer than 7
meters to anyone working on the trench.
25
5) Loads should not be carried over
people. Assaluyeh Site Regulations state. Drop
zone (length of JIB radius) PLUS () 10 meters
MUST be barriered and vacated of ALL personnel.
26
6) Loads must be lifted vertically-the crane must
not be used to drag a load.
27
7) Power to the Crane should be switched off when
the Crane is left unattended.
28
Mobile jib Cranes present extra hazards in use.
Particular points requiring attention
include 8) The travelling height of the Crane
with jib lowered and raised should be marked on
the Crane.
29
9) Overhead obstructions or hazards should be
clearly identified and marked with the maximum
clearance height. 10) Care should be taken to
ensure that no one is trapped by counter-balance
weight, etc., as the crane slews.
30
11) The condition of the ground should be checked
before lifting with a mobile crane and it should
not approach close to excavations.
31
12) Tandem lifts should be avoided if possible.
If they must be undertaken, it must be by a fully
trained gang under the a Strict Control of a
Competent Person.
32
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33
Crane Check List
34
Whilst work is in progress Check that there is
an up-to- to-date Test Certificate.
35
Check that the daily/weekly inspections are being
carried out.
36
Ensure that the Crane is operating from planned /
approved position only.
37
Ensure that the Banksman is working in the
correct manner.
38
Ensure that the correct Lifting Gear is being
used.
39
Ensure that outriggers are being used, and are
adequately supported.
40
Check that the safe load / radius indicator is
in working order.
41
Check that the Tyres / Tracks are at the correct
pressure and in good, clean condition.
42
Check that the Crane is kept at a safe,
predetermined distance from open excavations, etc.
43
Check that, when travelling, the load is carried
as near to the ground as possible and that hand
lines are being used.
44
Check that when travelling on sloping ground the
driver changes the radius to accommodate the
moving of the load OR !
45
SHOCK LOADING !
Shock loading a Boom can result in this ! Fall
of three people 20 m.
20 Meter
46
Check that loads are not being slewed over
persons and that persons and that persons are not
standing or walking under the load.
47
Automatic safe load indicator All Cranes with a
lifting capacity in excess of 1 ton must be
fitted with an approved type of automatic safe
load indicator.
48
It is the responsibility of the operator to (a)
Determine the type of Indicator fitted (b)
Determine how the adjustments are made (c)
Ensure that it is correctly adjusted for the
various lifting duties (d) Ensure that the
electrical circuit is tested for
serviceability (e) Take immediate action when an
overload is indicated.
49
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50
The red light will be supported by a bell to give
an audible warning of overload.
51
Always use Tag Lines !
52
Certification
53
Certification
54
Certification
55
THANK YOU
for your attention
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