Energy-provide energy and are efficient storage of energy
Part of all cell membranes
Transport of fat-soluble vitamins
Provide Essential fatty acids
Satiety and Mouth Feel
5 In food fat enhances
6 Triglycerides 7 Fatty Acids
Formed by a single chain of carbon
Saturation-single bonds of carbon
Chain length affects fatty acid characteristics and degree of saturation
8 Types of Fatty Acids 9 Processes with Lipids
Process used to solidify an oil
Addition of H to CC double bonds
Formation of trans fatty acid (An unsaturated fatty acid produced by the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils and present in hardened vegetable oils most margarines commercial baked foods and many fried foods. An excess of these fats in the diet is thought to raise the cholesterol level in the bloodstream.)
Breakdown of the CC double bonds by ultraviolet rays O2
Yields unpleasant odor and flavor
PUFA more susceptible (poly unsaturated fatty acids)
Limits shelf life
Prevention of Rancidity
Addition of vitamin E
Addition of Butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA) and Butylated hydroxytolune (BHT)
10 Triglycerides in Food
Fruits and vegetables
Breads cereals rice pasta and grains
Dry beans and peas nuts and seeds
Meat poultry fish
Fats oils and condiments
11 Trans Fatty Acids
Occur naturally at low levels in meat and dairy foods.
Most trans fats we eat are due to hydrogenation of vegetable oils to make shortening margarine and fats for frying.
Trans fats raise blood cholesterol levels as much as saturated fat.
Low-trans hydrogenation new technique to make products with less trans fats
12 Essential Fatty Acids
Linoleic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid found in vegetable oils whole grains and vegetables.
Alpha-linolenic acid is the leading omega-3 fatty acid found in food and it is found in canola soybean walnut and wheat germ oils. Other good sources include ground flaxseed walnuts and soy products.
The body converts alpha-linolenic into DHA and DPA (also omega-3s). DHA and DPA are found in fatty fish such as salmon and mackerel.
Americans get more than enough linoleic but not enough alpha-linolenic.
13 Essential Fatty Acids (contd)
Are vital to normal growth and development in infants and children
Maintain the structural parts of cell membranes
Have a role in the proper functioning of the immune system
Are used to make eicosanoids.
Eicosanoids made from linoleic acid tend to increase blood pressure and increase blood clotting.
Eicosanoids made from alpha-linolenic acid dilate blood vessels and reduce blood clotting and inflammation.
An odorless white waxy powdery substance.
Cholesterol is present in every cell in your body. It is needed to make bile acids to make cell membranes many hormones (such as sex hormones) and vitamin D hormone.
15 Cholesterol (contd)
Cholesterol is found only in foods of animal origin egg yolks meat organ meats poultry fish milk and milk products. Lower-fat milk products contain less cholesterol than full-fat milk products.
We take in about 200 to 400 milligrams of cholesterol daily and the liver and body cells also make cholesterol (about 700 milligrams) therefore it is not an essential nutrient.
Functions as a vital component of cell membranes.
Also acts as an emulsifier.
17 Digestion Absorption Metabolism
Mouth Lingual lipase.
Stomach Gastric lipase.
Once absorbed triglycerides are reformed.
18 Lipoproteins Protein-coated packages that carry fat and cholesterol through the bloodstream. Chylomicron Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) High-density lipoprotein(HDL) 19 Lipids and Health
Too much circulating cholesterol leads to plaque and atherosclerosis
Main source of cholesterol buildup LDL
20 Lipids and Health (contd.)
What affects cholesterol levels
Saturated fat trans fat and cholesterol in diet
Mono- and polyunsaturated fat in diet
Age and gender
21 American Heart Association Dietary Guidelines
Include a variety of fruits vegetables grains low-fat or nonfat dairy products fish legumes poultry and lean meats in your diet.
Match energy intake to energy needs with appropriate changes to achieve weight loss when indicated.
Limit foods high in saturated fat and cholesterol and substitute grains vegetables fish legumes and nuts.
Limit salt and alcohol.
22 Lipids and Cancer
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S.
Fat may be involved in certain cancers such as prostate cancer.
23 Dietary Recommendations for Fat
No RDA or AI for total fat (except for infants) saturated fat cholesterol or trans fats.
13 years old 30-40 of kcal
418 years old 25-35 of kcal
Over 18 years old 20-35 of kcal
AI set for essential fatty acids.
DGA and AHA recommend 30 or less of kcal from fat 10 or less from sat. fat and less than 300 mg of cholesterol daily.
If fat intake is higher than 30 use monounsaturates
24 Ingredient Focus Meats Poultry Fish
Percentage of kcalories from fat
27 kcal from fat x 100 19 percent
Percentage of fat by weight
25 Fat Substitutes
Modified food starch
Dextrins and maltodextrins
26 Questions 27 Next Week
Sugar Make-Over Lab
Meet In Lab
Topic Presentations will occur
Recipes will be handed out in lab
Homework 1 is due
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