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INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE

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Title: INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE


1
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE
  • ??.??.?????? ???????????????
  • ????????????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????? ?.?????

2
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE
  • has been defined as that science and art devoted
    to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and
    control of those environmental factors or stress,
    arising in or from the workplace, which may cause
    sickness, impaired health and well-being, or
    significant discomfort and inefficiency among
    workers or among citizens of the community.

Julian B. Olishifski Fundamental of
Industrial Hygiene 1971
3
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE
  • Recognition, Identification and assessment of
    harmful factors
  • process, equipment, materials, by-products,
    working conditions
  • relationship of workplace to environment
  • Measurement and evaluation of relevant factors
  • instruments, methods, sampling strategies,
    biological samples
  • Interpretation of results
  • regulations, standards, reporting, quality
    control
  • Recommendation or design of control measures
  • regulations, standards, work practices,
    materials, engineering,
  • programs, training

4
????????????????????????????
  • ??????
  • ????
  • ??????
  • ??????????????
  • ???????????

5
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
?? ????????????? ??????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
????????????????
??????????????????????
6
?????????????????????
  • ??????????????? (Personal sampling)
  • ????????????????? (Breathing zone)
  • ???????????????????? (Area sampling)

7
??? Personal Sampler ??? ???????
8
Pump ??????? ?
9
Flow rate and volume metering instruments
  • ??????????? 3 ????? ???
  • 1. Primary standard Accuracy 0.3 or more
  • 2. Intermediate standard Accuracy 1-2
  • 3. Secondary standard Accuracy 5 or better

10
Primary standard
  • 1. Spirometer

11
2. Aspirator
12
Soap Bubble
To hand pump or squeeze bulb
13
Intermediate Standard
  • 1. Dry Gas Meter

14
2. Wet Test meter
15
  • Types of rotameter floats

16
Gas Flow Rate Measuring Devices
  • Upward force on rotameter float

17
Gas Flow Rate Measuring Devices
Venturi meter
18
???????????????????????? ????????????????????????
???????????????????????????????? ?????????????????
????????? Filter Inertial and gravitational
collector Electrostatic Precipitator Thermal
precipitators
19
??????????????????????????????
  • Size-selective methods
  • Two stages impactor Cyclone, Elutiator
  • Multi-stages impactor
  • Non-selective methods
  • Filter
  • Eletrostatic pricipitator
  • Thermal precipitator
  • Impinger

20
Typical and ideal impactor cutoff curves.
21
Size - Selective Health Hazard Sampling
22
Cyclone ?????????? Dp
  • 1. D 50
  • Cyclone dimention
  • Flow rate
  • Gas viscosity
  • 2. D 50 KQn
  • n, K empirically determined constant
  • Q Flow rate

23
(No Transcript)
24
Cyclone
  • Limitation
  • Constant Flow to achieve D50
  • Electrostatic effect (Nylon or nonconductive
    plastic cyclone)
  • Solution
  • - Metal or conducting plastic

25
Flow patterns in a cyclone collector.
26
Cyclone
  • Advantages
  • minimal particle bounce
  • minimal particle re-entrainment
  • large capacity for loading
  • Insensitivity to orientation
  • Disadvantage
  • - lack of fundamental theory

27
Electrostatic pricipitator
  • Two steps operation
  • Particle must acquire electric charges
  • Charged particle must be accelerated
  • toward an electrode of opposite polarity
  • field

28
Elutriator Horizontal Veritcal
  • Aerodynamic diameter
  • Segregation for particle gt 3 um
  • Respirable Thoracic Sampling
  • Terminal settling velocity (Vts)
    ????????????????? Dp

29
Horizontal Elutriator
  • if L/Vair gt h/Vts Fallout
  • if L/Vair lt h/Vts pass through

Note High flow rate or has not been clean may
cause re-entrainment
30
Horizontal Elutriator
  • Advantage
  • Predictable performance base on gravitational
    settling
  • Disadvantage
  • Fix orientation
  • Possible re-entrainment
  • Difficulty of miniaturization

31
Vertical Elutriator
  • Flow rate 7.4 L/min
  • Effective for removing large particle
  • Collect particle lt 15 um
  • Cotton Dust

32
Electrostatic pricipitator
  • Collection effciency
  • 1. Operating parameter
  • - current, voltage, flow rate
  • 2. Particle parameter
  • - size, shape, dielectri properties, mass
    loading
  • 3. Carier gas parameter
  • - humidity, pressure, temperature,
    composition

33
Thermal Precipitator
34
?????????????????????????????
  • 1. Grab Sampling
  • Evacuated Flasks
  • Passivated Canisters
  • Displacement Containers
  • Flexible Plastic containers

35
?????????????????????????????
  • 2. Continuous (Integrated) Sampling
  • Active sampling
  • Absorbers
  • Cold trap
  • Sampling bag
  • Solid adsorbent
  • Passive sampling

36
INSTRUMENT
Midget Impingers
Spiral and Helical Absorbers.
37
Grab Sampling
  • ????????? Grab sampling ?????
  • ???????????????????
  • ??????????????
  • ????????????????????? TWA

38
Grab Sampling
  • 2-3 ?????? ????
  • ?? Peak concentration
  • ????????????????
  • ????????????????? ? ???????
  • ????????????????????????????
  • ???? adsorb ?????????????????????????????

39
Continuous Sampling
  • ????/?? ????????????????????
  • ??????????????????
  • ?????????????????????
  • adsorb ?????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????? lt 100

40
Silica Gel
  • Amorphous of silica
  • Sodium silicate Sulfuric acid
  • Electrically polar

41
Silica Gel
  • Advantage over activated charcoal
  • Polar contaminants are easily removed
  • Extactant does not usually interfere
  • Amine some inorganic
  • Avoid using CS2
  • Disadvantage
  • Adsorb H2O
  • Polar substance attracted active sites

42
Activated Charcoal
  • Adsorption Capacity depend on
  • Sampling rate
  • Quantity of sorbent
  • Sorbent surface area
  • Density of active site
  • Bulk density
  • Volatility of contaminant
  • Concentration of contaminant

43
Desorption Efficiency (DE)
  • Affected by H2O vapor other contaminant
  • NIOSHDE gt 75
  • Ideally DE gt 90
  • CS2 charcoal heat reaction drive off volatile
    component
  • Solution add charcoal slowly in precooled CS2
  • - transfer charcoal in vial with teflon septum
    cap then inject CS2 in vial

44
Solid Adsorbents
  • Activated Charcoal
  • Wood, nutshell, animal bone
  • Liquid purification, decolorization, air
    purification, air sampling
  • Activated in steam at 800 - 900 C
  • Internal surface area 1000 m2/gm

45
Thermal desorption
  • Carbon molecular sieves, Tenax, Chromosorb 106,
    Polarpak Q
  • Direct to G.C. or Spectrophotometer
  • One shot
  • DE 100 for substance with 50 250 C boiling
    point

46
?????????????? TLVs ??? BEIs
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????? ??????????????????????
    I.H.
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????????????????
    ACGIH ????????????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????? ????????????????????????????

47
???????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????? I.H.
    ????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????? ?
  • ??????????????????????????????? I.H.
    ?????????????
  • ?????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????
  • ACGIH ?????????????? ? ??????????????? TLVs ???
    BEIs

48
TLV
  • ???????????????????????????? ?????????????????????
    ???? ???????? ????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????????????
    ????????????? ??????????????? (susceptibility)
    ???????????????????????
  • ?????????? ACGIH
  • ????????????? ? ??????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????

49
TLVs 3 ????
  • 1) ????????????????????????? (TLV-TWA )
  • 2) ????????????????????????????????? ?
    (TLV-STEL)
  • ??????????
  • ????????????????????????????????????????????
  • ??????
  • ?????????????????? TLVTWA
  • 3) ?????????????? (TLV-C)

50
TLV ???????? ??????? (Skin Notation)
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????
  • ????????????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?

51
???????????????????? ( BEI )
  • ???????????????????????????????
  • ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????? ???????????????????
    ??????????????????
  • ???????????????????? ??????? ?????
    ????????????????????????? ?

52
???????????????????? ( BEI )
  • ????????????????????????? ????????????????????????
    ? ???????????????????????????????????????????????
    ? ????????? ????????????????????
    ??????????????????????
  • BEI ?????????????????? 8 ???????/??? 5
    ???/???????
  • ??? BEI ??????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????

53
???????????????????????
  • ???????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????
  • ????????????????????
  • ??????????/???????????????????
  • Work Practice
  • PPE

54
?????????????????????????????? (PPE)
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????
  • ??????? PPE ????????????????????????
  • ???????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????
  • ??? PPE ?????????????????????????????????????????
  • ????????????????????? ?

55
????????????????????????????????????
  • ???????????????????????? ??????????????????
  • ???????????????????????? PPE ??????????
  • ????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?? ???????
  • ???????????????? ?????, ?? ?????????, ????,
    ??, ???,
  • ?????????????????, ????????????????

56
?????????????
  • Luminance Photometer ?????????????????????????/?
    ??????
  • Illuminance Photometer ???????????????????????
  • Photovotaic cell meter
  • ??????????????????? Selenium ???? Silicon cell
  • ????????????????????????????????? ??????
    ???????????????????? Microammeter ???? Galvanomete

57
Photovotaic cell meter
  • ??????????????????????????? ???????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????
  • Spectral response ????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????? ? ??????????????
    ??????????????? Color correction cell ????
  • Transient Effect photo cell ?????????????????
    ??????????????????????????? 2-3 ????
    ???????????????

58
Photovotaic cell meter
  • Effect of Angle of Incidence ?????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????????????????? 25
    ????????????????????????????????????????
  • Effect of temperature ???????? gt 50 oC
    ??????????????????
  • Photometer Zeroing

59
????????????????????
  • ???????????????????
  • ?????????????????? 2x2 ????????
  • ??????????? 30 ???????????
  • ??? Photo cell ????????
  • ??????????????????????????????? -
    ???????????????????????
  • ????????????????
  • ??? Photo cell ?. ??????????

60
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SAMPLING ANALYSISPHOH
414/11??????????????????????????????
  • ??.??. ?????? ???????????????
  • ????????????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????? ?.?????

61
?????????????????
62
(No Transcript)
63
????????????? (Effective temperature)
  • ??????????? ?????????
  • ????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????????????
  • NIOSH 30 oC
  • WHO 30 oC ?????? 28 oC o??????? 26.5 oC ????
    (2 oC Heat Acclimatize)

64
Heat Stress Index HIS
  • HIS Ereq / Emax
  • ???????? ???????????????????? 1 ????/??.
  • ??????????? 35 oC
  • ???????? ??????????????????
  • ?????????????????????????

65
???????????????????????? (WBGT)
  • ??????? 0.7 tnwb 0.3 tg
  • ???????? 0.7 tnwb 0.2 tg0.1 ta
  • ???????????????????????????????????

66
(No Transcript)
67
(No Transcript)
68
????????? WBGT
  • Avg. WBGT WBGT1 x t1 WBGT2 x t2
    WBGTn x tn
  • t1 t2
    .. tn
  • ????? WBGT1 , WBGT2 ??? WBGTn ??? WBGT
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????? t1 , t2 ??? tn ???????????? (????)
    ?????????????????????????? ?????????????????????
    ?????????????? ???????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????? ??????????????????????
    ????? ??????????????????????????????? ???????
    t1 t2 .. tn 60 ???? ????????????????????????
    ????????????? ? ??????????????????????????? 2
    ??????? ??????? t1 t2 .. tn 120 ????

69
??????? ?????????
???????????????????????????????????????????
??????????? ????????????????????????
????????????????? ???????? ???????? ?.?. 2549
??????? ?????????????? WBGT (oC)
?????? 34
?????????? 32
??????? 30
70
??????????????????? (Noise Dosimeter)
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????? ? ???? 1, 3, 6 ???? ???????? ?
    ?????????????????????????????? ??????? ???
    ???????????????????????????????????? (Dose, D)
    ????????????????????????????????? ( Dose)
  • 100 ???????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????
  • ??????????????? (??) ???
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????

71
????????????? Noise Dosimeter
72
????????????????????????????????????
73
?????? 13
74
  • Criterion level ??? ????????????????????????????
    ??? (????????? ????????????????????????? ?) ????
    90 dBA ( 8 ??.) ????????????????????????????????
    A ????????????????????????????????????????????
    100
  • Exchange rate (???? Doubling rate) ???
    ??????????? ?????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????? ??? Exchange
    rate ?????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????? ??? 3, 4, ??? 5 ???????
  • OSHA - 5 ????????? EPA - 3 ?????????
    ??????????? - 4 ????????? NIOSH - 3 ?????????

75
  • Threshold level ????????????????????????????
    (???????????????? A) ??? ?????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????? ???????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????? Threshold level 90 ???? 80 dBA
    ????????????????????????????????? ????????
    ????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????? 90 dBA
    ?????????? 8 ??. ??? Threshold level
    ????????????? 90 dBA ???????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????? ??? Threshold level
    ????????????? 80 dBA ???????????????????? ???
    Threshold level ??????????????????????????????????
    ?????

76
?????????????????? DOSE
  • LA C 16.61 log (D/100)(8/T)
  • LA C 16.61 log (D/12.5T)
  • TWA 90 16.61 log D/100
  • T 8 / 2 (L-90)/5
  • ????? T ??????????????????? ??.

77
90 8 85 8
95 4 88 4
100 2 91 2
105 1 94 1




78
OSHA
  • ??????? 1 ?????????? 90 dBA ?????????????
    4 ??
  • 2 95
    1
  • 3 85
    3
  • (4/8) (1/4)(3/16) .95
  • L 90 16.61log .95
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