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Bloodborne Pathogens Basic Principles A bloodborne pathoge

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Title: Bloodborne Pathogens Basic Principles A bloodborne pathoge


1
Bloodborne Pathogens
  • Basic Principles

2
Bloodborne Pathogens
  • A bloodborne pathogen is a microorganism such as
    a virus or bacteria that is carried in most body
    fluids and can cause a variety of diseases in
    people.

3
Bloodborne Pathogens
  • They include
  • Malaria,
  • Syphilis,
  • Brucellosis,
  • Hepatitis B C(HBV, HCV), and
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

4
  • Hepatitis B and C(HBV and HCV)
  • About 300,000 people are infected with HBV or HCV
    each year worldwide.
  • Hepatitis infects the liver first.
  • Hepatitis is normally transmitted through "blood
    to blood" contact.
  • Hepatitis can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer
    and death.

5
Because of this, these viruses are a primary
concern for housekeepers, custodians, and laundry
personnel in motels, hotels, dry cleaners,
laundries and schools.
  • Hepatitis viruses can survive in dried blood up
    to 7 days.

6
  • Symptoms of Hepatitis
  • Mild flu-like symptoms fatigue, stomach pain,
    loss of appetite, and nausea.
  • Hepatitis infected people may not show symptoms
    for 1-9 months.

7
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
  • AIDS - Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is
    caused by HIV. They are not the same.
  • HIV attacks the body's immune system, weakening
    it so that it cannot fight other deadly diseases.
  • AIDS is a fatal disease. While treatment for it
    is improving, there is no known cure.

8
  • Symptoms of HIV
  • Symptoms of HIV infection include weakness,
    fever, sore throat, nausea, headaches, diarrhea,
    a white coating on the tongue, weight loss, and
    swollen lymph glands.

9
HBV, HCV and HIV are transmitted through
  • Sexual Contact
  • Sharing of infected needles
  • From mothers to their babies at or before birth
  • Accidental puncture from contaminated needles,
    broken glass, or other sharps
  • Contact between broken or damaged skin and
    infected body fluids
  • Contact between mucous membranes and infected
    body fluids

10
  • Skin forms an impervious barrier against
    bloodborne pathogens.
  • However, infected blood can enter your system
    through
  • Open sores
  • Cuts
  • Abrasions
  • Acne
  • Any broken skin sunburn or blisters

11
  • Mucous Membranes
  • Bloodborne pathogens can also be transmitted
    through the mucous membranes of the
  • Nose
  • Mouth
  • Eyes

12
Universal Precautions
  • Treat all blood, body fluids and potentially
    infectious materials as if they are infectious!

13
If it is wet, and not yours
Dont touch it!
14
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Rules to follow
  • Always wear PPE in exposure situations.
  • Remove and replace PPE that is torn or punctured.
  • Remove PPE before leaving the work area.

15

Gloves
  • Should be made of latex, nitrile, rubber or other
    water-impervious materials.
  • Double glove if you feel more comfortable doing
    so.
  • Cover cuts or sores on your hands with a bandage
    before putting on your gloves.
  • Inspect your gloves for tears or punctures.
  • If a glove is damaged, don't use it!
  • Use proper procedure when taking gloves off.
    Don't touch the outside of the gloves.
  • Dispose of them properly.

16
  • Always
  • Check your gloves for damagebefore using them.

17
Goggles
  • Anytime there is a risk of splashing of
    contaminated fluids, goggles and/or other eye
    protection should be used to protect your eyes.
  • Splashing could occur while cleaning up a spill,
    during laboratory procedures, or while providing
    first aid or medical assistance.

18
Face Shields
  • Face shields can be worn in addition to goggles
    to provide additional face protection.
  • A face shield will protect against splashes to
    the nose and mouth.

19
Aprons
  • Aprons can be worn to protect your clothing and
    to keep blood or other contaminated fluids from
    soaking through to your skin.

20
Hygiene Practices
  • Handwashing is one of the most important (and
    easiest) practices used to prevent transmission
    of bloodborne pathogens.
  • Hands should also be washed immediately (or as
    soon as feasible) after removal of gloves or
    other personal protective equipment.

21
When in an area where there is a reasonable
likelihood of exposure, You should never
  • Eat
  • Drink
  • Smoke
  • Apply cosmetics or lip balm
  • Handle contact lenses

22
Decontamination and Sterilization
  • Clean and decontaminate all equipment before
    servicing or putting back into use.
  • Decontamination can be done by using a solution
    of 5.25 bleach diluted between 1 and 10 bleach
    to water. Remember, just use at least a quarter
    cup of bleach to each gallon of water.

23
Summary
  • Protect yourself - on and off the job - know the
    facts
  • Practice good personal hygiene
  • Follow work rules, use gloves and protective
    clothing
  • Wash your hands often, after work or exposure
  • Keep areas clean - report problems immediately to
    supervisors
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