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Title: CROSS CULTURAL BUSINESS ETIQUETTES ACROSS ASIA


1
CROSS CULTURAL BUSINESS ETIQUETTES ACROSS ASIA
2
WHAT IS CULTURE?
  • A system of values
  • and norms shared
  • among a group of
  • people and, when
  • taken together,
  • constitute a design
  • for living.

3
DIMENSIONS OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES TASK
RELATIONSHIP ORIENTATION
Relationship/ Emotions- Orientation
Task/ Function-Orientation
Mexico
U.S.
U.K.
France
Brazil
Saudi Arabia
Japan
China
Germany
India
  • Task-Orientation
  • Focuses on whether an organisation places
    importance on completing the job
  • Result/ goal oriented
  • Relationship-Orientation
  • Focuses on devoting time to building
    relationships among
  • business associates
  • Process oriented

4
DIMENSIONS OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES INDIVIDUAL
GROUP
Group/ Interdependence
Individual/ Independence
India
Mexico
U.S.
France
China
U.K.
Saudi Arabia
Brazil
Japan
Germany
  • Individual
  • More frequently use the I form
  • Individual focused
  • Decisions made on the spot by representatives.
  • People ideally achieve alone and assume
    personal responsibility
  • Competition valued
  • Group
  • More frequently use the WE form
  • Self-worth determined by group ascription
  • Decisions referred back by delegates to
    organisation
  • People ideally achieve in groups which assume
    joint responsibility
  • Harmony valued

5
AGENDA
  • Japan
  • China
  • India
  • South North Korea

6
BUSINESS PROTOCOLS
  • Attire and Appearance
  • Dining and Wining
  • Conversation and Gestures
  • Hospitality
  • Business cards
  • Greetings
  • Gift giving
  • Trivia

7
JAPAN Land of the Rising Sun
8
INTRODUCTION
  • Traditional Japanese etiquette had its origins in
    ancient Shinto rituals.
  • Japan's samurai warrior class , drew its
    spiritual and practical philosophy from Zen
    Buddhism.
  • The official language is Japanese.
  • Culturally, the Japanese tend to be somewhat
    introverted in their ways.
  • Loyalty is paramount for conducting business.
  • Japan is a more collectivist culture.

9
ATTIRE AND APPEARANCE
  • Japanese Philosophy Dress to impress
  • Dark conservative suits for men, typically black
    or grey.
  • Slip-on Shoes are desirable as they need to be
    removed often.
  • Women should dress conservatively with jewellery,
    perfume, and makeup used only sparingly.
  • Low-heeled shoes are preferred to avoid towering
    over men.
  • Remember the Japanese phrase The nail that
    sticks up gets hit with the hammer

10
CONVERSATION AND GESTURES
  • Extensive gesticulation should be avoided like
    using large hand gestures, unusual facial
    expressions and dramatic movements.
  • The "OK" sign in Japan means money.
  • When beginning a dialogue with a group, it is
    polite to direct all of your first remarks to the
    most senior member and then to appropriate
    individuals.
  • Since the Japanese live in such a densely
    populated area, personal
    space is valued.

11
CONVERSATION AND GESTURES (contd..)
  • A smile can have double meaning either joy or
    displeasure.
  • It is considered polite to frequently say Im
    sorry.
  • While dealings with Japanese remain indirect no
    accusations or direct refusals.
  • Maybe, probably, or I'm thinking about itYES
    I'll consider itNO.
  • Use Japanese sentences as much as possible.
  • Instead of pointing, which is considered rude,
    wave your hand with the
    palm facing up.

12
DINING AND WINING
  • Seating arrangement.
  • Avoid pointing the chopsticks at another person.
  • Slurping noodles is perfectly acceptable, in fact
    it exhibits
    enjoyment of food.
  • When finishing a meal, leave a small portion of
    food on your plate to indicate that the meal was
    satisfying.
  • Business discussions might take place at dinner
    during these events.
  • Drinking is an important part of Japanese culture
    as it is believed to be a stress reliever.
  • The word for toasting is kampai (kahm-pie), also
    when toasting the glass is never left unfilled.

13
HOSPITALITY
  • Most business entertaining is done in
    restaurants, ryokan (inn style restaurants) or
    bars after business hours.
  • Japanese rarely entertain at home, but in case
    invited it should be considered a great honour
    and appreciated thoroughly.
  • It is a custom to be fashionably late,
    punctuality is not a facet of the Japanese
    neither is it accepted from others.
  • "itadakimasu" to be used at the beginning of
    dinner, and "gochisou-sama-deshita" at the end.
  • Let the host order the meal and pay.
  • Customarily, the host is the first to begin
    eating.
  • Money shouldnt be displayed openly.

14
BUSINESS CARDS
  • In Japan, business cards are called meishi.
  • Japanese give and receive meishi with both hands.
  • No writing on the card, putting the card in the
    pocket or wallet, examine the card carefully as a
    show of respect.
  • Present the card with your home country
    language side up and Japanese on
    the other.
  • Business cannot begin until the meishi
    exchange process is complete.

15
GREETINGS
  • The customary greeting is the bow ,ojigi
    oh-jee-ghee, but sometimes Japanese may use a
    weak handshake.
  • A bow for a bow depth of a bow determines the
    status of the relationship.
  • Suffix the word san which means Mr. or Ms. to a
    persons last name while introducing.
  • Japanese prefer not to use the word NO.

16
GIFT GIVING
  • The emphasis in Japanese culture is on the ritual
    of gift-giving, rather than the gift itself.
  • A wrapped gift is carried inside a shopping bag
    to avoid ostentation.
  • Present gifts with both hands.
  • The best time to present a gift is toward the end
    of your visit.
  • Gifts in pairs are considered lucky.
  • It is a mistake to give the same gift to

    two or more Japanese of unequal rank.
  • Before accepting a gift, it is polite to

    modestly refuse at least once or twice.
  • Flowers, cakes or candy are the best gifts when
    invited home.

17
TRIVIA
  • The Japanese tend to be rather direct in their
    questioning of foreigners. You may be asked
    extremely personal questions such as how much
    money do you earn, what is your education level,
    how is your family life or how large is your
    house?

18
CHINA The Golden Dragon
19
INTRODUCTION
  • China is believed to have the oldest continuous
    civilization.
  • It has nearly 4,000 years of verifiable history.
  • Most business people speak English.
  • Except for those educated in the West, Chinese
    business people largely rely on subjective
    feelings
    personal experiences in forming opinions.
  • Communist party has dominant influence
    in all aspects of life.

20
ATTIRE AND APPEARANCE
  • For men Conservative suits with subtle colors are
    the norm.
  • Tuxedos are not a part of Chinese culture.
  • For women conservative suits or dresses, short
    sleeved blouses to be avoided
    and high necklines to be preferred
    as they frown on women who display too
    much.
  • Flat shoes or very low heels are the main
    footwear options for women.
  • Men and women can wear jeans on casual
    occasions but not for
    business meetings.

21
CONVERSATION AND GESTURES
  • Large hand movements should be avoided.
  • Personal contact is taboo.
  • 'Small talk' is considered especially important
    at the beginning of a meeting
  • During a meal, expressing enthusiasm about the
    food you are eating is a welcome, and usually
    expected, topic of conversation.
  • In Chinese culture, the question 'Have you
    eaten?' or 'Where have you been?' is the
    equivalent to 'How are you?'

22
CONVERSATION AND GESTURES (contd)
  • Bowing or nodding is the common greeting,
    sometimes a handshake may be offered but it is
    advisable to wait for the Chinese to make the
    first move.
  • Applause is common when greeting a crowd the
    same is expected in return.
  • Punctuality is vital and expected.
  • Appointments are a must for business.
  • The decision making process is slow
    and quick conclusion of
    business is unlikely.

23
DINING AND WINING
  • Business and meals are not to be mixed.
  • As a cultural courtesy, all dishes offered should
    be tasted.
  • Rice is usually served after the meal is over.
  • Leaving a 'clean plate' is perceived to mean that
    not
    enough food was given.
  • Women do not usually drink at meals.
  • Slurping and belching at the table is perfectly
    acceptable perceived as a signal that the meal
    is being appreciated.
  • Tea drinking ritual known as 'yum cha' is used
    to establish rapport before a meeting or during
    meals.
  • Personal relationship 'guanxi' in Chinese are
    forged by actively participating in the strong
    drinking culture.
  • Two popular toasts are 'ganbei' (bottoms up) and
    kai wei (starting the appetite).

24
HOSPITALITY
  • Evening banquets are the most popular occasions
    for business
    entertaining.
  • Home entertaining is also very popular in China.
  • There is a seating etiquette based on hierarchy
    in Chinese culture.
  • It is quite common for a host to order enough
    food for ten people at a table of five else he or
    she loses face if there are not plenty of
    left-overs at the end of a meal.
  • Wait for the host to start (eat or drink) and
    then proceed.
  • During a meal, as many as 20-30 courses can be
    served.
  • Tipping is considered insulting.

25
BUSINESS CARDS
  • Present and receive cards with both hands with
    the card facing the recipient.
  • Never write on a business card or
    put it in your wallet
    or pocket.
  • Carry a small card case.
  • The most important member of the company or group
    should lead important meetings. Chinese value
    rank and status.
  • Present the Chinese side face up if such cards
    are available.
  • Titles are usually not given, verbally-read from
    name card.

26
GREETINGS
  • Chinese names appear in this order
    a family, generational, and
    first name.
  • e.g Deng Xiaoping
  • Address with a title and the last name.
  • Absence of a professional title, use Mr.,
    Madam, Miss.
  • Address a married Chinese woman by her maiden
    name.
  • Unless a Communist, never refer to someone as
    Comrade.

27
GIFT GIVING
  • Official policy in Chinese business culture
    forbids giving gifts bribery, an illegal act.
  • Gifts can only be given privately symbol of
    friendship.
  • Chinese will decline a gift 3 times before
    finally accepting, so as not to appear greedy.
  • Preferably wrap gifts in red paper, which is a
    lucky colour.
  • The most acceptable gift is a bouquet.
  • Scissors, knives, or other sharp objects should
    be avoided
    severing of a relationship.

28
TRIVIA
  • Scorpions, locusts, snake skin, bile, dog meat,
    soft-shell tortoise and blood are considered
    delicacies in Chinese cuisine!!!

29
INDIA Unity in Diversity
30
INTRODUCTION
  • India is a melting point of many cultures and
    religions.
  • Indians are polychronic people, i.e., they tend
    to deal with more than one task at the same
    time..
  • A large part of Indian businesses are
    family-owned or 'owned' by members of different
    social communities. Among these, Parsi, Marwari,
    Gujarati and Chettiar communities are the
    prominent ones, and have controlling interests in
    some of the largest Indian business houses.

31
ATTIRE AND APPEARANCE
  • Men generally expected to wear suit tie, and
    may remove the jacket in warm weather.
  • Women should wear conservative dress or
    pantsuits. The neckline should be high and the
    knees covered.
  • Neutral colours, which are subdued and not
    bright.
  • In very warm weather Indian safari suit and

    sandals or Chappals can be worn.
  • For casual wear men women may wear

    short sleeves long pants.
  • For and Indian wedding ceremony or event,

    Indian dress is seen as a sign of friendship

    Salwar Kameez for women and Kurta Pajama
    for men.

32
CONVERSATION AND GESTURES
  • In business meetings, it is common to start
    discussions with small talk or other unrelated
    issues.
  • Discussing one's family and personal life is
    normal among Indians.
  • Complimenting and showing appreciation is common
    among Indians.
  • Open disagreement is likely to be

    interpreted as being hostile and aggressive.
  • It is advisable to steer clear of discussions
    on Pakistan.

33
CONVERSATION AND GESTURES (contd..)
  • Respect age, authority, and seniority.
  • Allow women and guests to proceed before yourself
  • Avoid conversing with women in public.
  • Use gestures with palm DOWN not UP.
  • Avoid folding of the hands or hands
    in the pockets.
  • Do not allow feet to touch others.
  • Be sure not to make continuous eye contact.

34
DINING AND WINING
  • Eating and drinking are intimately tied to Indian
    customs and religions.
  • For most Indian Hindus, eating meat is a
    religious taboo, so preferences should be
    inquired.
  • Many Hindus keep a fast once a week, during this
    time they can eat only fruits.
  • Indians are very particular about cleanliness.
  • Offering food from your plate to another person
    is not culturally acceptable.
  • When eating with hands use only the right hand,
    as the left hand is considered unclean.
  • It is better to ask your guest 'What would you
    like to drink?' rather than 'Can I get you a
    beer?'

35
HOSPITALITY
  • Hospitality is a key value in Indian culture, and
    the guest is considered the equivalent to a god.
    Athiti Devo Bhava
  • A foreigner visiting India is likely to receive
    social invitations from even minor acquaintances.
  • It is normal among Indians to 'drop in' for a
    social visit.
  • It is common practice to offer beverages (tea,
    coffee etc)
    with some light snacks/refreshments

    to a guest, even in business settings.
  • A direct refusal to an invitation is likely

    to be seen as impolite, or even

    arrogant.

36
BUSINESS CARDS
  • Always use the right hand to give and receive
    business cards.
  • Business cards need not be translated into Hindi
    as English is widely spoken within the business
    community.
  • If there is a university degree or any
    honour, it should be mentioned on

    the business card.

37
GREETING
  • Namaste or Namaskar with a slight bow and palms
    together.
  • Shake hands only when initiated by others.
  • Hi or Hello is alright sometimes.
  • Avoid physical contact, especially with the
    opposite sex.

38
GIFT GIVING
  • Gift giving is customary in India, and is seen as
    a sign of friendship.
  • Use red, yellow, green or blue coloured wrapping
    paper white and black colours are considered
    inauspicious.
  • Normally, gifts are not opened in the presence of
    the giver.
  • If you are visiting an Indian during a festival,
    it is customary to carry a box of sweets.
  • When giving money as a gift, do remember that 11,
    51, 101, 501, etc. are considered auspicious.
  • Leather item as a gift may not be acceptable,
    since many
    Hindus are vegetarians.

39
TRIVIA
  • Do not be surprised if some of the Indian guests
    bring their own guests. Such behavior is
    considered as a sign of their close informal
    relationship with the host, and not bad manners.
    In such situations, the host is expected to
    remain warm, gracious and accommodating.

40
Korean Culture
41
North Korea Democratic People's Republic of
Korea
  • Capital Pyongyang
  • Official Language- Korean
  • GDP (on PPP)- 27.26 billion (2005 est.)
  • Currency-North Korean won
  • Religions
  • Traditionally Buddhist
  • Christian
  • Syncretic Chondogyo
  • Literacy
  • Total population 99
  • Male 99.
  • Female 99
  • Government type
  • Authoritarian Socialist one-man Dictatorship

42
South Korea Republic of Korea
  • Capital Seoul
  • Official Language- Korean
  • GDP (on PPP)- 983.3 billion (2005 est.)
  • Currency- South Korean won
  • Religions
  • Christian 49,
  • Buddhist 47,
  • Confucianist 3
  • Literacy
  • Total population 98.1
  • Male 99.3
  • Female 97

43
INTRODUCTION
  • Koreans culture is known as unified and stable
  • Korean people are feel pride in their
  • Toughness and ability to survive in hard times.
  • country's achievements and rightly
  • Follows Confucious teachings means respect for
    superiors and parents, duty to the family,
    loyalty to friends, sincerity and courtesy its
    hierarchical nature.
  • welfare of the group then individual e.g.
    employee loyalty obedience to its employer
  • Regulated by rituals and formalities
    encompassing courtesy in behavior to others.
  • Koreans are very modest and deny their part in a
    gracious manner when personally complimented
    about their personal achievements

44
ATTIRE AND APPEARENCE
  • In Korean business culture Conservative dress
    prevails
  • Attire for men includes a dark suit, white
    shirt, and conservative tie.
  • In initial meeting conservative colors are
    preferred can slowly introduce bright colour
    after you build credibility and relationships.
  • Women typically wear very conservative skirt and
    blouse or business dresses.
  • Sleeveless tops and miniskirt considered
    unprofessional in business settings. As a guest,
    dress conservatively even for very informal
    occasions,

45
Mens Hanbok
Women's Hanbok
Special Clothing
Funeral
Wedding ceremony
46
CONVERSATION AND GESTURES
  • Over gesticulation should be avoided like using
    large hand gestures, unusual facial expressions
    and dramatic movements.
  • Korean are very sensitive lose face Having face
    means a measure of personal dignity.
  • When beginning a dialogue with a group, it is
    polite to direct all of your first remarks to the
    most senior member and then to appropriate
    individuals.
  • During presentation Speak at a moderate rate of
    speed and use correct grammatical English do not
    try to speak "broken English" repeat key points
    for emphasis, provide written materials and/or
    copies of your presentations. During a verbal
    presentation, it may be advisable to.

47
CONVERSATION AND GESTURES (contd..)
  • Handshake
  • Differences between the Korean and Western
    handshake
  • Duration The Western handshake tends to be quite
    brief while the Korean handshake is often longer.
  • Firmness Koreans usually shake hands rather
    loosely while the Western handshake is very firm
    with both persons using a firm grip.
  • Politeness The use of the left hand indicates
    degrees of politeness and formality for Koreans.
  • Inclusion of a bow The traditional oriental bow
    and the Western handshake have been combined in
    Korea.
  • Dont put your hands in your pockets when
    talking.
  • Eating in the street is rude
  • Blowing your nose in public is rude

48
CONVERSATION AND GESTURES (contd..)
  • Women should cover their mouths when they laugh.
  • Prolonged direct eye contact is considered
    impolite and even intimidating.
  • The open hand or the middle finger is used for
    pointing .
  • laughter is used to disguise many emotions
    anger, frustration, and fear.
  • Loud talking or laughing is usually avoided.
  • Periods of silence are common and accepted, even
    during dinners.
  • Address people by their title alone or by both
    their title and their family name unless you are
    asked to address them by their first name

49
Cultural Opposites
  • Topics to Avoid
  • Korean politics/local politics
  • The Korean War
  • Socialism
  • Communism
  • your host's wife
  • Japan development and history
  • Welcome Topics of Conversation
  • Cultural heritage
  • South Korea's economic success
  • South Korea's international accomplishments
  • Sports especially the Olympics personal hobbies
  • Kites


50
DINING AND WINING
  • Korea has one of the highest per capita rates of
    alcohol consumption in the world weeknights,
    heavy drinking often continues late into the
    night.
  • The person of lower status, or the host of the
    event, will offer a glass to the most honored
    person
  • Korean food is not served in courses, but instead
    is placed on the table
  • simultaneously.
  • South Koreans generally prefer to concentrate on
    their food while they are eating and talk later
    over coffee/tea after a meal is finished.
  • When you are invited to a home, wandering around
    and looking into rooms such as the kitchen will
    not be appreciated
  • Use both hands when handing something to
    someone.
  • Be polite to refill your neighbor's cup and soy
    sauce bowl when empty
  • The person who extends the invitation is expected
    to pay for the meal

-
51
HOSPITALITY
  • Remove shoes when entering a Koreans home or a
    temple
  • The best seat usually the center seat facing the
    door should always be offered to the most senior
    person present in the room
  • Sometimes, a hostess may not join the party for
    the meal she will be in the kitchen preparing
    food. Instead, she may join the group at the end
    of the evening for singing and drinks
  • Koreans usually prepare many dishes when inviting
    guests.
  • Elderly people are highly respected, so it is
    polite to greet and speak to them first, then
    spend a few minutes with them
  • Business entertaining is reserved for the
    parties directly involved in the negotiations and
    not to spouses.
  • Eating at a low table, sitting on soft cushions
    set on the floor is common in Korean homes and
    restaurants.

52
Business card
  • Always carry business cards and give them out
    immediately upon being introduced
  • When receiving another person's card, always take
    a few seconds to study it in their presence and
    never place it immediately into your pocket
  • Follow strict hierarchical code, generally meet
    to discuss business with persons of the same,
    parallel rank. preferably bilingual)
  • Chinese characters, which Koreans can generally
    understand, so a business card written in
    Chinese characters can serve for a business trip
    to Korea, China and Japan.
  • Don't write comments on the other person's
    business card, in their presence
  • Never give a card, or anything else for that
    matter, with the left hand as it shows
    disrespect.
  • Never hand a Korean person a business card with a
    Japanese translation of your name and corporate
    position, as this is considered highly insulting

53
BUSINESS CARDS
  • Third party introduction is needed to get an
    appointment with a new business
  • Use titles rather than first names
  • Business-related entertainment is very important
    Koreans do not easily express their feelings.
  • Generally, business hours are 900 a.m. to 500
    p.m. Monday through Friday

54
GREETINGS
  • Bowing is the traditional form for both greeting
    and departing .
  • Avoid hugging and kissing when greeting.
  • Women usually do not shake hands, especially with
    men, but usually just nod slightly.
  • The senior person offers to shake hands first,
    but the junior person bows first

Jeol Korean Bow
55
GIFT GIVING
  • Gifts to a civil servant with a value exceeding
    US100 must be reported to the authorities, under
    the country's Civil Servant Ethics Law.
  • Never give gift which come in a set of four, a
    denomination of four, eg. 40,000 won. Korean
    people association it to death
  • Red in Korea Blue in South Korea is a lucky
    colour for a gift or for wrapping paper.
  • Appropriate gift for a Korean wedding, the is a
    cash contribution of approximately US25
    presented in a red envelope.
  • When visiting a family, suitable gifts include
    crafts from your home region, fruit, cake,
    chocolates, flowers, imported coffee.
  • When you plan to give a gift to several people
    within an organization, be sure to give a gift of
    greater value to the senior person.
  • Whenever a person receives a gift, it is
    customary for the recipient to give another gift
    of similar value in return in later time.

56
Useful Sayings
  • Good morning
  • Ahn nyong, ha ship nee ka (ah-nee-yong
    hah-sim-NEE-kah)
  • Thank you
  • Kahm sah hap nee da (kumh-sah ham-NEE-dah)

57
TRIVIA
Koreans generally appreciate a foreigner's effort
in expressing a thank you (gam-sa-ham-ni-da) or a
hello (an-yang-ha-say-yo) in the Korean language.
For Koreans, relationships are all important
"cold calls" don't work--introductions are
crucial! Koreans want to do business with people
with whom they have formed a personal connection
or whereby a mutual intermediary has made an
introduction.
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