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Rocket Power

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Rocket Power Introduction to Rockets and Missiles Scott Schoneman Agenda What is a rocket? Definitions and Equations Types of Rocket Propulsion Launch Vehicles and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Rocket Power


1
Rocket Power
  • Introduction to Rockets and Missiles
  • Scott Schoneman

2
Agenda
  • What is a rocket?
  • Definitions and Equations
  • Types of Rocket Propulsion
  • Launch Vehicles and Missiles

3
What is a Rocket?
  • Any of a type of jet-propulsion device carrying
    either solid or liquid propellants that provide
    both the fuel and oxidizer required for
    combustion - Encyclopedia Britannica
  • Produces thrust by expelling propellant at a
    high velocity

4
Key Rocket Terms
  • Thrust, T Force Generated By a Rocket
  • Measured in pounds (lbf) or Newtons
  • Impulse (or Total Impulse), I Total Energy
    Produced by a the Rocket
  • Impulse, I Thrust x Time
  • Specific Impulse, Isp Measure of Rocket Motor
    Efficiency
  • Amount Of Energy In One Unit Of Propellant Mass
  • Isp Thrust/ Weight Flow per Second)

5
Key Rocket Terms, Contd
  • Effective Exhaust Velocity Average Velocity at
    Which Propellant is Ejected
  • Mass Ratio Total Mass at Liftoff Divided by
    Total Mass At Burnout
  • Indication of Rocket Performance Less Empty Mass
    and More Propellant Are Good
  • Mass Fraction Percentage of vehicle (or motor)
    that is propellant

6
Rocket Thrust
  • Combination of Reaction to Mass Ejection and
    Pressure at Nozzle Exit Plane

Force
Ma
7
Types of Rocket Propulsion
  • Liquid Propellant Rockets
  • Solid Propellant Rockets
  • Hybrid Rockets
  • Exotic Rockets

8
Liquid Propellant Rockets
  • Separate Liquid Fuel and Liquid Oxidizer
  • Typical Fuel/Oxidizer Combinations
  • Kerosene/Liquid Oxygen (LOX)
  • Liquid Hydrogen/LOX
  • Alcohol/LOX
  • Kerosene/Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Hydrazine/Nitrogen Tetroxide (Hypergolic)

9
Saturn V Stage 1 (F-1) Motor
  • Length 5.6 meters (18 feet, 4 inches)
  • Maximum diameter 5.6 meters (11 feet, 11 inches)
  • Weight 8200 kilograms (18,000 pounds)
  • Maximum thrust at sea level 690,000 kilograms
    (1,522,000 pounds)
  • Propellants Liquid oxygen and kerosene
  • Manufactured by Rocketdyne
  • Each Saturn V Stage 1 Used Five!
  • (1.15 Billion lb-sec Impulse!)

10
Solid Propellant Rockets
  • Fuel and Oxidizer Combined in Single Compound
  • Blend of Fuels, Oxidizer, Binders to Give Desired
    Characteristics
  • Black Powder (Model Rocket Motors)
  • Aluminum Powder (Fuel)/Ammonium perchlorate
    (Oxidizer)/Binder(Hydroxy-terminated
    polybutadiene, HTPB)

11
Orion Solid Rocket Motors
  • Built by ATK, Utah
  • Used for Orbitals Pegasus, Taurus, Minotaur and
    other Vehicles
  • Composite Case
  • Diameter
  • 50 in. (Orion 50)
  • 38 in. (Orion 38)

12
Hybrid Rocket Motors
  • Combine Solid Propellant With Liquid or Gaseous
    Oxidizer
  • Provides Benefits of Solid Motor (Storable) with
    Some Liquid Motor Benefits (Stop-Start, Variable
    Thrust)
  • Typical Propellant Rubber, PVC
  • Typical Oxidizer LOX, Nitrous Oxide

13
Exotic Motors Have Higher Isps (But Much Lower
Thrusts)
14
Launch Vehicles vs. Missiles
  • Launch Vehicle Goes to Orbit
  • Missile Suborbital and/or Stays In Atmosphere
    (Usually at a Target)

Space Launch Vehicle (Sea Launch)
Missile (Standard Missile)
15
A Couple Missiles.
AMRAAM
AIM-9X
16
Pegasus Space Launch Vehicle
  • Manufacturer Orbital Sciences Corp
  • 1000 lbm to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) (100 nm)

17
Sea Launch Space Launch Vehicle
  • Integrator Boeing
  • Uses Russian Zenit Launch Vehicle

18
Delta Launch Vehicles
  • Manufacturer Boeing
  • Delta II - 891 to 2,142 kg (1,965 to 4,723 lb)
    GTO and from 2.7 to 6.0 metric tons (5,934 to
    13,281 lb) to low-Earth orbit (LEO).
  • Delta III - 3,810 kg (8,400 lb) to GTO (Approx 2x
    Delta II)
  • Delta IV (EELV)
  • Medium 4,210 kg (9,285 lb) to GTO
  • Heavy 13,130 kg (28,950 lb) to GTO

19
Atlas Space Launch Vehicles
  • Manufacturer Lockheed Martin
  • Atlas II - payloads mass from 6,200 lb (2,812 kg)
    to 8,200 lb (3,719 kg) to geosynchronous transfer
    orbit (GTO).
  • Atlas III - payloads up to 9,920 lb (4,500 kg)
    to GTO.
  • EELV Atlas V family is capable of lifting
    payloads up to 19,114 lb (8,670 kg) to GTO.

20
Titan Launch Vehicles
  • Manufacturer Lockheed Martin
  • Titan II Up to 4,200 lb (1909 kg) into polar
    low-Earth orbit
  • Titan II w/ GEM Strap-Ons Up to 7,800 lb (3545.5
    kg) to polar low-Earth orbit
  • Titan IV gt47,800 lb into LEO or gt 12,700 lb
    into geosynchronous orbit

21
Ariane Space Launch Vehicles
  • Manufacturer Arianespace (European Consortium)
  • Ariane 5 10,000 kg (22,000 lbm) to GTO
  • Launches from French Guiana

22
Soyuz Launch Vehicle
23
Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS)
  • Manufacturer Orbital
  • Raises Spacecraft from Shuttle Orbit to Higher
    Orbits (or Escape Velocity)

24
Orbital Launch Vehicle Family
100
Suborbital and Target Vehicles
Space Launch Vehicles
Interceptor Vehicles
80
60
Length (Feet)
40
20
0
Short-Range Target Vehicle
Medium-Range Target Vehicle
Long-Range Target Vehicle
Missile Defense Interceptor Boost Vehicle
Pegasus Space Launch Vehicle
Minotaur Space Launch Vehicle
Taurus Space Launch Vehicle
25
Minotaur Space Launch Vehicle
  • Upper Stack Assembly (USA)
  • 50 In. Pegasus Payload Fairing
  • OSP-Standard Avionics
  • Inertial Guidance
  • Modular Avionics Components
  • Pegasus Avionics Structure and RCS
  • Orion-38 Insertion Stage 4
  • Orion-50XL Stage 3
  • Interstage
  • Lower Stack Assembly (LSA)
  • Minuteman II Boosters Stages 1 2
  • Solid Rocket Motors
  • Unmodified, GFE Systems

26
Minotaur Stacking Flow
27
Minotaur Mission Profile
28
Inaugural Minotaur Launch JAWSAT Mission - 26
Jan 2000
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