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Rocket Power

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Rocket Power Introduction to Rockets and Missiles Scott Schoneman Agenda What is a rocket? Definitions and Equations Types of Rocket Propulsion Launch Vehicles and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Rocket Power


1
Rocket Power
  • Introduction to Rockets and Missiles
  • Scott Schoneman

2
Agenda
  • What is a rocket?
  • Definitions and Equations
  • Types of Rocket Propulsion
  • Launch Vehicles and Missiles

3
What is a Rocket?
  • Any of a type of jet-propulsion device carrying
    either solid or liquid propellants that provide
    both the fuel and oxidizer required for
    combustion - Encyclopedia Britannica
  • Produces thrust by expelling propellant at a
    high velocity

4
Key Rocket Terms
  • Thrust, T Force Generated By a Rocket
  • Measured in pounds (lbf) or Newtons
  • Impulse (or Total Impulse), I Total Energy
    Produced by a the Rocket
  • Impulse, I Thrust x Time
  • Specific Impulse, Isp Measure of Rocket Motor
    Efficiency
  • Amount Of Energy In One Unit Of Propellant Mass
  • Isp Thrust/ Weight Flow per Second)

5
Key Rocket Terms, Contd
  • Effective Exhaust Velocity Average Velocity at
    Which Propellant is Ejected
  • Mass Ratio Total Mass at Liftoff Divided by
    Total Mass At Burnout
  • Indication of Rocket Performance Less Empty Mass
    and More Propellant Are Good
  • Mass Fraction Percentage of vehicle (or motor)
    that is propellant

6
Rocket Thrust
  • Combination of Reaction to Mass Ejection and
    Pressure at Nozzle Exit Plane

Force
Ma
7
Types of Rocket Propulsion
  • Liquid Propellant Rockets
  • Solid Propellant Rockets
  • Hybrid Rockets
  • Exotic Rockets

8
Liquid Propellant Rockets
  • Separate Liquid Fuel and Liquid Oxidizer
  • Typical Fuel/Oxidizer Combinations
  • Kerosene/Liquid Oxygen (LOX)
  • Liquid Hydrogen/LOX
  • Alcohol/LOX
  • Kerosene/Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Hydrazine/Nitrogen Tetroxide (Hypergolic)

9
Saturn V Stage 1 (F-1) Motor
  • Length 5.6 meters (18 feet, 4 inches)
  • Maximum diameter 5.6 meters (11 feet, 11 inches)
  • Weight 8200 kilograms (18,000 pounds)
  • Maximum thrust at sea level 690,000 kilograms
    (1,522,000 pounds)
  • Propellants Liquid oxygen and kerosene
  • Manufactured by Rocketdyne
  • Each Saturn V Stage 1 Used Five!
  • (1.15 Billion lb-sec Impulse!)

10
Solid Propellant Rockets
  • Fuel and Oxidizer Combined in Single Compound
  • Blend of Fuels, Oxidizer, Binders to Give Desired
    Characteristics
  • Black Powder (Model Rocket Motors)
  • Aluminum Powder (Fuel)/Ammonium perchlorate
    (Oxidizer)/Binder(Hydroxy-terminated
    polybutadiene, HTPB)

11
Orion Solid Rocket Motors
  • Built by ATK, Utah
  • Used for Orbitals Pegasus, Taurus, Minotaur and
    other Vehicles
  • Composite Case
  • Diameter
  • 50 in. (Orion 50)
  • 38 in. (Orion 38)

12
Hybrid Rocket Motors
  • Combine Solid Propellant With Liquid or Gaseous
    Oxidizer
  • Provides Benefits of Solid Motor (Storable) with
    Some Liquid Motor Benefits (Stop-Start, Variable
    Thrust)
  • Typical Propellant Rubber, PVC
  • Typical Oxidizer LOX, Nitrous Oxide

13
Exotic Motors Have Higher Isps(But Much Lower
Thrusts)
14
Launch Vehicles vs. Missiles
  • Launch Vehicle Goes to Orbit
  • Missile Suborbital and/or Stays In Atmosphere
    (Usually at a Target)

Space Launch Vehicle (Sea Launch)
Missile (Standard Missile)
15
A Couple Missiles.
AMRAAM
AIM-9X
16
Pegasus Space Launch Vehicle
  • Manufacturer Orbital Sciences Corp
  • 1000 lbm to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) (100 nm)

17
Sea Launch Space Launch Vehicle
  • Integrator Boeing
  • Uses Russian Zenit Launch Vehicle

18
Delta Launch Vehicles
  • Manufacturer Boeing
  • Delta II - 891 to 2,142 kg (1,965 to 4,723 lb)
    GTO and from 2.7 to 6.0 metric tons (5,934 to
    13,281 lb) to low-Earth orbit (LEO).
  • Delta III - 3,810 kg (8,400 lb) to GTO (Approx 2x
    Delta II)
  • Delta IV (EELV)
  • Medium 4,210 kg (9,285 lb) to GTO
  • Heavy 13,130 kg (28,950 lb) to GTO

19
Atlas Space Launch Vehicles
  • Manufacturer Lockheed Martin
  • Atlas II - payloads mass from 6,200 lb (2,812 kg)
    to 8,200 lb (3,719 kg) to geosynchronous transfer
    orbit (GTO).
  • Atlas III - payloads up to 9,920 lb (4,500 kg)
    to GTO.
  • EELV Atlas V family is capable of lifting
    payloads up to 19,114 lb (8,670 kg) to GTO.

20
Titan Launch Vehicles
  • Manufacturer Lockheed Martin
  • Titan II Up to 4,200 lb (1909 kg) into polar
    low-Earth orbit
  • Titan II w/ GEM Strap-Ons Up to 7,800 lb (3545.5
    kg) to polar low-Earth orbit
  • Titan IV gt47,800 lb into LEO or gt 12,700 lb
    into geosynchronous orbit

21
Ariane Space Launch Vehicles
  • Manufacturer Arianespace (European Consortium)
  • Ariane 5 10,000 kg (22,000 lbm) to GTO
  • Launches from French Guiana

22
Soyuz Launch Vehicle
23
Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS)
  • Manufacturer Orbital
  • Raises Spacecraft from Shuttle Orbit to Higher
    Orbits (or Escape Velocity)

24
Orbital Launch Vehicle Family
100
Suborbital and Target Vehicles
Space LaunchVehicles
InterceptorVehicles
80
60
Length(Feet)
40
20
0
Short-RangeTargetVehicle
Medium-RangeTargetVehicle
Long-RangeTargetVehicle
Missile DefenseInterceptorBoost Vehicle
Pegasus SpaceLaunch Vehicle
Minotaur SpaceLaunch Vehicle
Taurus SpaceLaunch Vehicle
25
Minotaur Space Launch Vehicle
  • Upper Stack Assembly (USA)
  • 50 In. Pegasus Payload Fairing
  • OSP-Standard Avionics
  • Inertial Guidance
  • Modular Avionics Components
  • Pegasus Avionics Structure and RCS
  • Orion-38 Insertion Stage 4
  • Orion-50XL Stage 3
  • Interstage
  • Lower Stack Assembly (LSA)
  • Minuteman II Boosters Stages 1 2
  • Solid Rocket Motors
  • Unmodified, GFE Systems

26
Minotaur Stacking Flow
27
Minotaur Mission Profile
28
Inaugural Minotaur Launch JAWSAT Mission - 26
Jan 2000
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