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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)


Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) Presentation by Larrah Selby & Sandi Colvin CNED 5303 Publisher University of Minnesota Press Distributed by ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
  • Presentation by
  • Larrah Selby Sandi Colvin
  • CNED 5303

  • University of Minnesota Press
  • Distributed by Pearson Assessments (formerly
    known as National Computer Systems Assessments,
  • www.pearsonassessments.com

  • The MMPI was developed in the late 1930s and
    first published in 1942
  • Original authors were Starke Hathaway and J. C.
  • 1100 original items and was cut down to 566 by
    the time it was first published
  • MMPI-2 released in 1989
  • Authors and consultants of MMPI-2 are Yossef
    Ben-Porath, James Butcher, W. Grant Dahlstrom,
    John Graham, and Auke Tellegen

Background (cont.)
  • Revised in 2001-Version being reviewed
  • 84 of the original items are in new version in
    original or revised form
  • Some test elements revised
  • Added new clinical and validity scales
  • MMPI-A
  • Version used for adolescents age 14 to 18

  • Originally used to assess psychopathology
  • Current purpose to assess a number of the major
    patterns of personality and emotional disorders
    Mental Measurements Yearbook 11
  • Profile Analysis is the main interpretative
    framework of MMPI and MMPI-2

Publishers recommended useswww.pearsonassessment
  • Assess major symptoms of social and personal
  • Identify suitable candidates for high-risk public
    safety positions
  • Criminal justice Correctional Departments -
    support classification, treatment and aid in
    making management decisions
  • Courtrooms - provides strong empirical foundation
    for a clinicians expert testimony

Recommended uses (continued)
  • Medical settings - assess patients and aids in
    designing effective treatment strategies,
    especially for pain management
  • Substance abuse programs aids in evaluating
    participants and selecting appropriate treatment
  • College and career counselors aids in helping
    their clients with career choices and
  • Marriage and family counselors provides insight
    for clients

Available Formats
  • Available in English, Spanish, Hmong, and
    Canadian French
  • Paper-and-pencil, audiocassette recording,
    compact disc recording, box form (with each item
    on a separate card client separates cards into
    true false categories), and computer

  • Software - 89 plus annual licensing fee
  • Manual - 50
  • Basic service report
  • English softcover test booklets - 32 (10 in
  • Other languages sold individually at 6 a piece
  • Hardcover test booklet available only in English
    - 42
  • Answer sheets (packages of 25) - 20.50

Pricing (continued)
  • Audiocassette - 80 available in English,
    Spanish, and Hmong
  • Compact Disc - 50 only available in English
  • Each Basic Service Report ranges from 7.50 to
    9.00 depending on quantity ordered
  • If ordering less than 4 reports there is an
    additional fee of 4 per report

Respondent Characteristics
  • 18 years or older
  • At least 6th grade reading level
  • Should be able to read and comprehend test
    questions for the paper/pencil and computer tests
  • Recommended IQ of 80 or higher

Administrator Qualifications
  • Must be licensed to practice psychology
  • OR
  • Have a graduate degree in psychology or a
    closely-related field and either graduate courses
    in tests and measurement or completion of a
    Pearson Assessments-approved workshop or other
    approved course
  • OR
  • Provide proof as to the right to administer this
    type of test in jurisdiction

Administration procedures
  • Quiet room
  • Good lighting
  • Comfortable chair and table
  • Before administration begins, provide information
    regarding nature of the test and give complete,
    clear instructions
  • Completion time 60 to 90 minutes

MMPI-2 Content
  • 567 true/false items
  • Numerous scales
  • 7 validity scales
  • 10 clinical scales
  • 15 supplementary scales
  • 15 content scales
  • 34 other subscales

  • Five major validity scales
  • 3 original
  • Lie (L)
  • Infrequency (F)
  • Correction (K)
  • 2 new
  • Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN)
  • True Response Inconsistency (TRIN)
  • Examples of Clinical Scales
  • Depression (D)
  • Psychopathic Deviate (Pd)
  • Schizophrenia (Sc)
  • Masculinity-Femininity (Mf)
  • Source of much debate/controversy

Types of Scores Derived/Reported
  • Raw scores are translated into T scores with a
    mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10
  • T score of 65 or higher is interpreted as
  • (L) Scale and (F) Scale raw score of 4 is mean,
    t score is 50
  • TRIN Scale scores lt6 and gt12 suggest
    inconsistent responding a t score of gt80
    suggests profile invalidity
  • VRIN Scale a t score of gt80 suggests
    inconsistent responding and profile may be

Scoring Options Procedures
  • MICROTEST QTM Assessment system software
    Enables the administrator to score assessments,
    report results, and store and export data on
    their own computer.
  • Mail-in Scoring Service Answer sheets are
    mailed to the publisher for processing and
    results are returned back to the administrator
    within 24-48 hours of receipt.
  • Hand Scoring Answer keys are available for the
    administrator to score the answer sheets.
  • Optical Scan Scoring Allows administrator to
    score assessments at his/her site using special

Normative Data
  • Normative sample consists of 1,138 males and
    1,462 females between the ages of 18 and 84 from
    several regions and diverse communities within
    the U.S.
  • From six states and included active duty military
    personal, college students, inpatient psychiatric
    patients, chronic pain patients, inpatient
    substance abuse patients, airline pilot
    applicants, and Native American adults on a
    federal reservation in Washington state
  • Ethnicity data Men 11 African American, 84
    Caucasian, 3 Hispanic, and 2 other
  • Women 13 African American, 82 Caucasian, 3
    Hispanic, and 2 other.
  • 50 of males and 42 of females in the
    restandardization group reported a bachelors
    degree or higher compared to 1980 census data of
    20 males and 13 of females
  • 20 of males and 13 of females reported
    professional occupations compared to census data
    of 16

Validity Information
  • Construct Validity
  • Content Scales are face valid
  • If test taker leaves more than 30 items
    unanswered, then the test is considered invalid
    and should not be interpreted.
  • Validity scales should be within normal limits
  • Validated against various samples of individuals
    with mental illness
  • Criterion group method of inventory construction
  • The validity of the revised scales has not been
    thoroughly established in clinical settings

Reliability Information
  • Stability Reliability (test/retest)
  • Split-half Reliability on some of the subscales
  • Personality tests have lower validity and
    reliability coefficients than achievement and
    ability tests and produce a larger Standard Error
    of Measurement

Statistical Information
  • Manual includes T score conversion tables and
    uniform linear score tables

Interesting Facts
  • Most widely used and researched personality
  • Some reasons respondants might omit an item or
    items on the validity scale
  • Item is considered offensive or personal
  • Reading difficulties
  • Rebelliousness
  • Carelessness
  • Confusion
  • Obsession or overideation resulting in
  • Severe psychomotor retardation resulting in
    insufficient energy to complete the task
  • Desire to look good
  • Lack of trust in the examiner

Limitations of MMPI-2
  • Influenced by variables
  • Hard to generalize to other populations
  • Some experts argue that research on MMPI cannot
    be generalized to MMPI-2 and that they may not be
    equivalent measures need more research on
  • Misuse
  • Culturally biased?

Advantages of Using MMPI-2
  • The different formats are made available to reach
    as many persons as possible blind, illiterate,
    learning disabled, different languages, etc.
  • Has Scales that detect if test taker is
    responding in a socially desirable way or faking
    (K scale)
  • Backed by extent of empirical research
  • Has depression scale and anxiety scale in same
    test first personality inventory to do so

Evaluation of MMPI-2
  • Hard to use for every population
  • Extremely long and consuming may be hard to
    convince clients to take it
  • Clients may be hesitant to take it if they have
    heard that it is only for crazy people
  • It is very comprehensive and could be a good
    diagnostic tool when combined with other
    interviews (e.g. MSE)

  • And now for some fun..

  • Austin, J. T. (1994). Minnesota Multiphasic
    Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) Review of
    MMPI-2 Electronic Version. Measurement
    Evaluation in Counseling Development, 27,
  • Butcher, J. N., Williams, C. L. (2000).
    Essentials of MMPI-2 and MMPI-A Interpretation
    (2nd ed.). Minneapolis University of Minnesota
  • Craig, R. J. (1999). Interpreting personality
    tests A clinical manual for the MMPI-2,
    MCMI- III, CPI-R, and 16PF. New York John Wiley
    Sons, Inc.
  • Drummond, R. J. (2004). Appraisal procedures for
    counselors and helping professionals (5th ed.).
    Upper Saddle River, NJ Pearson Education.
  • Kramer, J. J., Close-Conoley, J. (Eds.).
    (1992). The Eleventh Mental Measurements
    Yearbook. Lincoln University of Nebraska Press.
  • Niolon, R. (n.d.). The Minnesota, Multiphasic
    Personality Inventory 2. Retrieved November 10,
    2004, from http//www.psychpage.com/objective/mmp
  • Pearson Assessments. (n.d.). MMPI-2 (Minnesota
    Multiphasic Personality Inventory- 2). Retrieved
    November 9, 2004, from http//www.pearsonassessme

  • Questions??????
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