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Drawings, Tables, and Graphs

- Understanding when to use different graphs and

how to create them - Chapter 2 section 3 in your book

Different types of Graphic Representations

- Drawings these can be used to easily represent

a concept that is difficult to explain in words. - Line Graphs these can be used to show a change

of one quantity over time - Bar Graphs these can be used to show the

relationship among different categories of

variables - Circle Graphs these can be used to show the

parts of a whole

It is extremely important to choose the right

type of graph to represent your information.

Drawings

- When to use a drawing
- When you are wanting to show details.
- When you are wanting to show something you cant

usually see. - When you are wanting to show hidden things.

This drawing shows things you cant normally see

and hidden things. It is a good example of an

easy to follow drawing.

More Drawings

The drawing below was used to show something that

is normally hidden. This is a wiring diagram for

an electronic fireworks igniter. You cant

normally see these things inside a firework.

The picture above is an example of a Bohr model

of an atom. It shows something you wouldnt

normally be able to see.

Line Graph

- When to use a line graph
- When you are wanting to show the relationship

between two variables. - Each variable must be a number.
- When you are showing the change of a quantity

over time.

The graph at the left is a line graph. Notice

that both the variables along the x-axis and the

variables along the y-axis are numbers. This

graph shows that as the variable along the x-axis

increases the variable along the y-axis also

increases. This is called a positive trend or

positive relationship.

How to make a line graph

- Determine which of the variables is the

independent variable and which is the dependent

variable. (If you have time as one of the

variables it is always the independent variable.) - Place the independent variable along the x-axis

using a reasonable scale. Remember each interval

on the scale must be the same amount. - Place the dependent variable on the y-axis using

a reasonable scale. Remember each interval on the

scale must be the same amount. - Label your axes.
- Give your graph a good title.
- Plot your data and connect the data points to

form a line.

Lets make a line graph

We are going to use the data table at the left to

make a simple line graph. The table shows the

amount of rainfall at my house over a period of 8

weeks.

- Following our steps we identify the following

things - Independent Variable Time in weeks
- Dependent Variable Rainfall Total in

centimeters.

Continuing Line Graph

Notice that the independent variable (weeks) is

placed on the x-axis and the dependent variable

(rainfall) is placed on the y-axis.

Notice that a proper scale was used for the

graph. On the y-axis the scale goes from 0-12

because the data goes from 0-11. On the x-axis

the scale includes all of the data points.

Notice that each axis was given a label and the

label included measurement units where

applicable. Also notice that the graph was given

a proper title.

How are graphs graded in this class

- Anytime you are asked to create a graph in this

class it will be worth 35 points unless you are

told otherwise. That means a single graph is

often worth more than a homework assignment or

quiz. You need to take your time and do good work

on graphs that are assigned. The 35 points is

broken down as follows - 5 points for a good title
- 5 points for a correctly labeled x-axis
- 5 points for a correctly labeled y-axis
- 5 points for a reasonable scale/category labels

on the x-axis - 5 points for a reasonable scale on the y-axis
- 5 points for plotting your data accurately
- 5 points for presentation

Bar Graph

The graph below is a bar graph. Notice that the

dependent variable on the y-axis is in number

form, but the independent variable on the x-axis

is in category form. This is very typical for bar

graphs.

When to use a bar graph

1) When you have categories of information you

want to compare.

2) When only one of the variables is a number

quantity.

How To Make A Bar Graph

- Determine which of the variables is the

independent variable and which is the dependent

variable. (If you have time as one of the

variables it is always the independent variable.) - 2) Place the independent variable along the

x-axis giving each category its own spot for a

bar. Leave space in between the bars. - 3) Place the dependent variable on the y-axis

using a reasonable scale. Remember each interval

on the scale must be the same amount. - 4) Label your axes.
- 5) Give your graph a good title.
- 6) Plot your data and draw the bars up to the

proper heights to show your data.

Lets Make a Bar Graph

We are going to use the data table at the left to

make a simple bar graph. The table shows the

number of county championships won in each sport

here at Otter Creek over the last 15 years.

Following our steps we identify the following

things Independent Variable Sport Dependent

Variable Number of County Championships

Continuing Bar Graph

Notice that the independent variable (sports) is

placed on the x-axis and the dependent variable

( of championships) is placed on the y-axis.

Notice that a proper scale was used for the

graph. On the y-axis the scale goes from 0-10

because the data goes from 0-9. On the x-axis the

scale includes all of the categories.

Circle Graph

When to use a circle graph

1) When you are trying to show parts of a whole.

2) When you are going to convert all the number

quantities to percentages.

The graph above is a circle graph. Notice all of

the numbers are represented as percents.

How To Make A Circle Graph

- Determine the number of tallies within each

category of data. - Determine the total number of tallies in the

entire survey. - Divide the tallies in each category by the

tallies in the whole to determine the percentage

for each category. - Multiply the percentage by 360 to determine the

number of degrees of the circle for the category. - Use a protractor to make each section of the

circle the correct size. - Label each section with a percentage and a

category. - Give the graph a good title.

Lets Make A Circle Graph

We are going to use the data table at the left to

make a circle graph. The table shows the number

of students surveyed who voted for each of the

classes as their favorite.

The first step is to determine the total number

of students surveyed. So . 224738192444

194.

Now divide each piece of data by the total to get

the percentage for each category. For example

22 194 11 The 11 is the number we will use

in the graph.

Continuing Circle Graph

The percentages for each section should be as

follows Math 11 Science 24 Social Studies

20 Language Arts 10 Literature 12 Health 23

This is a really good spot to check your work so

far. If youve done everything right your

percentages should total very close to 100. So

112420101223 100. Sometimes you might get

99 or 101 due to rounding, but this is obviously

correct.

Now multiply each percentage by 360 to determine

the number of degrees in the circle go with that

category. For example 11 360 39.6

degrees, which I am going to round to 40.

Completing the Circle Graph

The degrees for each section should be as

follows Math 40º Science 86º Social Studies

72º Language Arts 36º Literature 43º Health 83º

This is another good spot to check your math. If

youve done it correctly, your total should be

very close to 360º. So 408672364383 360.

Here again, if youre off by 2 degrees or less

its just due to rounding. If its more than that

youve got a mistake somewhere.

Now use a protractor to make the graph and you

should get something like this.

Circle Graph

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