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Awareness for Initial Response to Hazardous Materials

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Awareness for Initial Response to Hazardous Materials Incidents Standards and Regulations 1. OSHA 29 CFR: 1910.120 2. EPA 40 CFR 3. NFPA 472 (Fire Departments Only) 4. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Awareness for Initial Response to Hazardous Materials


1
Awareness for Initial Response to Hazardous
Materials Incidents
2
Before you become involved in a hazardous
materials incident, you need to understand your
role and how you may have a positive effect on
the outcome.
Become part of the solution . . . . . . not part
of the problem!
3
Standards and Regulations
  • 1. OSHA 29 CFR 1910.120
  • 2. EPA 40 CFR
  • 3. NFPA 472 (Fire Departments Only)
  • 4. SARA Title III Superfund Amendment and
    Reauthorization Act (1986)
  • 5. US DOT 49 CFR

4
Terminal Objective
  • At the end of this session, the student will be
    able to define and identify Hazardous Materials
    and pass a written exam with a score of at least
    70.

5
Enabling Objectives
  • Detect presence of a hazardous material.
  • Survey a hazardous materials incident from a safe
    location to identify the name, UN/NA
    identification number or the type of placard
    applied.
  • Collect hazard information from the current
    edition of the North American Emergency Response
    Guidebook (NAERG).
  • Initiate protective actions consistent with local
    emergency response plans, the organizations
    standard operating procedures and the NAERG.
  • Initiate the notification process.

6
Essential Attitudes
  • Hazardous materials incidents are not like
    routine calls.
  • Every responder must be realistic about
    capabilities and limitations.
  • The primary responsibility of every first
    responder is to promote safety for all.
  • Coordinate and cooperate with all agencies
    responding to hazardous materials incidents.

7
Hazardous Materials IncidentsVersus Other
Emergencies
  • Potential for doing great harm since effects are
    far reaching and severe.
  • Often have long term effects to the environment,
    people and property.
  • Responders must be specially trained and equipped.

8
Emergency Comparisons
  • Typical Emergency
  • Rush in to help
  • Have info needed
  • Can be handled by agency
  • Know what to expect
  • Little or no additional exposure
  • Completed in short time
  • Proper equipment available
  • Normally limited to one area
  • Haz-Mat Emergency
  • Need to slow down
  • Difficult to get info
  • Often requires numerous agencies
  • Never sure about reactions
  • Possibility of large additional exposures
  • May last days/weeks or longer
  • Specialized equipment required
  • May move (vapors/liquids)

9
What is a Hazardous Material?
10
Hazardous Materials(Dangerous Goods in Canada)
  • US DOT . . . Any substance that poses an
    unreasonable risk to the health and safety of
    operating or emergency personnel, the public
    and/or the environment if it is not properly
    controlled during handling, storage,
    manufacturing, processing, packaging, use,
    disposal or transportation. It covers all of the
    hazard classes/divisions.

11
Hazardous Material
  • US EPA . . .any material which, when discharged
    into or upon the navigable waters of the United
    States or adjoining shorelines, may be harmful
    to the public health or welfare of the United
    States, including, but not limited to, fish,
    shellfish, wildlife and public or private
    property, shorelines and beaches.

12
Hazardous Material
  • . . . any element, compound or combination which
    is flammable, corrosive, detonable, toxic,
    radioactive, an oxidizer, an etiologic agent or
    highly reactive, and which because of handling,
    storage, processing or packaging, may have
    detrimental effects on operating and emergency
    personnel, the public, equipment, and/or the
    environment.

13
Hazardous Material
  • . . . anything that jumps out at you when
    something goes wrong and hurts or harms the
    things it touches.
  • Ludwig Benner, N.T.S.B.
  • Former Chief of HM Investigations

14
Hazardous Substance
  • EPA term for chemicals that, if released into
    the environment above a certain amount, must be
    reported and depending on the threat to the
    environment, federal involvement handling the
    incident can be authorized.

15
Extremely Hazardous Substances
  • EPA term for chemicals that must be reported to
    the appropriate authorities if released above the
    threshold reporting quantity.

16
Toxic Chemicals
  • EPA term for chemicals whose total emissions or
    release must be reported annually by owners and
    operators of facilities that manufacture, process
    or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical.

17
Hazardous Wastes
  • EPA term for chemicals that are regulated under
    the Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act.

18
Hazardous Chemicals
  • OSHA term that denotes any chemical that would
    be a risk to employees if exposed in the
    workplace.

19
Dangerous Goods
  • In Canadian transportation, hazardous materials
    are called dangerous goods.

20
The Life Cycle of a Hazardous Material
  • 1. Manufactured
  • 2. Stored by maker
  • 3. Transported to a producer
  • 4. Used in a product
  • 5. Stored by the producer
  • 6. Transported to a user (distributor)
  • 7. Stored by the user
  • 8. Used by the user
  • 9. Transported to a waste facility
  • 10. Stored, burned or buried

21
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22
The public, as well as the media, have become
more concerned about the safe manufacture, use,
storage, transportation and disposal of hazardous
materials.
Over 29,000 hazmat incidents reported in
1998 Over 11,000 reported transportation
incidents in 1998
23
Resulting in thousands of accidents a year
24
Whether these materials are transported, stored,
or processed, the potential for an unintentional
release exists
25
These releases can have disastrous effects
26
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27
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28
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29
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30
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31
Miamisburg, Ohio White Phosphorous
32
Crescent City, Illinois 1 of multiple LP rail
tank cars BLEVEing
33
International
Pick . . .
a Place
National
34
Pick a Year
35
Pick a Material
36
Classification of HM 9 Classes
  • Explosives
  • Gases
  • Flammable Liquids
  • Flammable Solids
  • Oxidizers and Organics
  • Poisons
  • Radioactive
  • Corrosive
  • Miscellaneous

37
Basic Properties of Hazardous Materials
38
VAPOR DENSITY (VD)
The weight of a pure vapor or gas compared to the
weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same
temperature and pressure. (comparing gases)
Hydrogen 0.1
Air 1.0
Propane 1.6
39
SPECIFIC GRAVITY (SG)
The weight of a material as compared to the
weight of an equal volume of water. (comparing
liquids)
Gasoline 0.8
Water 1.0
Tetra Ethyl Lead 1.6
40
SOLUBILITY/ MISCIBILITY
The ability of a solid, liquid, or gas, to
dissolve in another substance
41
BOILING POINT (BP)
The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a
liquid is equal to the atmosphere pressure of the
air (14.7 psi 1 atm).
Propane - 44oF
Butane 31oF
Gasoline 100 - 400oF
42
FLASH POINT (FP)
The minimum temperature at which a material
produces enough vapor in order to form an
ignitable mixture with air.
Gasoline - 45oF
Benzene 12oF
Used to define liquids Flammable vs.
Combustible FP lt 100oF (140) vs. FP gt 100oF
(140)
Kerosene 100-162oF
43
IGNITION TEMPERATURE (IT)
The minimum temperature to which a material must
be raised to initiate or cause self-sustained
combustion.
Can vary due to grade or mixture!
Benzene 928oF
Gasoline 536oF (500-999)
Kerosene 410oF (200-500)
Diesel Fuel 239oF (100-450)
44
FLAMMABLE RANGE () (FR)
The percentage range of vapor in air between its
Upper and Lower Explosion Limits which will
ignite.
Hydrogen LEL 4 UEL 74
Gasoline LEL 1.4 UEL 7.6
Propane LEL 2.1 UEL 9.5
45
Determining Hazardous Materials
  • NAERG
  • Shipping Papers
  • MSDS
  • Markings on containers
  • Emergency planning documents or Risk Management
    Plan (RMP)

46
RECOGNITION IDENTIFICATION
Two part process 1. Recognizing that you have
an incident
and 2. Identifying what you have
47
Clues for Detection
48
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49
What Clues can we use ?
50
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51
What Clues can we use ?
52
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53
What Clues can we use ?
54
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55
Typical Locations ContainingHazardous Materials
  • Warehouses
  • Tank farms
  • Weapons depots
  • Hospitals
  • Laboratories
  • Truck terminals
  • Flight line area
  • Maintenance facilities
  • Homes
  • Stores
  • Trash dumpsters
  • Landfills
  • Abandoned buildings
  • Farms

56
Pre-Incident Planning
  • People developing pre-incident plans should
    seek assistance from facility managers and use
    their GRTK-312 Reports and RMPs in identifying
    hazardous materials locations and record them on
    the plan in a way that will be useful to the
    first arriving responders.

57
REMEMBER!!!!!
  • Hazardous materials that are manufactured,
    stored, processed or used at a particular site
    are NOT subject to regulations affecting
    transported materials.

58
Typical Container ShapesThat May
IndicateHazardous Materials
59
Radioactive Container Shapes
  • Protective Overpacks
  • Cylindrical configuration
  • Boxlike configuration
  • Casks
  • Rigid metal packaging
  • Reinforcing rings and cooling fins

60
Steel Drums
FiberboardWooden Boxes
61
Radioactive Cask
62
Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)
Something new that will soon be seen in Georgia
are WIPP shipments. The shipments contain
transuranic waste, and are being transported to
Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP corridor
counties are located along Interstates 20, 59 and
285 (South Loop).
63
Pressurized Container Shapes
  • Cylinders
  • MC-331 tank trailer
  • Pressure tank car
  • Tube trailers, tube modules, high pressure tube
    cars

64
Pressurized Products - Cylinders
65
MC-331
MC-331 High Pressure Tank
117
66
Pressurized Tank Car
Pressurized Tank Car Compressed Liquefied Gases
67
High Pressure Tube Trailer
Compressed Gas/Tube Trailer
117
68
Cryogenic Containers
  • Tank within a tank or thermos bottle design
  • Absence of top fittings on most containers
  • MC 338
  • Cryogenic tank car

69
MC 338
MC-338 Cryogenic Liquid Tank
117
70
Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car
Low Pressure Tank Car Liquids
131
71
Corrosive Containers
  • Carboy
  • Glass or plastic bottles
  • Encased in a protective box
  • MC-312
  • Long thin tank with stiffener rings
  • Working platform on top

72
Corrosive Containers
Carboys
Boxes
73
MC-312
MC-312 Corrosive Liquid Tank
137
74
Flammable Liquid Containers
  • Drums
  • Jerricans
  • MC 306
  • Non-pressure tank car

75
Flammable Liquid Containers
Jerricans
Drums
76
MC 306
MC-306 Non-pressure Liquid Tank
131
77
Non-Pressure Tank Car
Low Pressure Tank Car Liquids
131
78
Dry Bulk Carriers
  • Pneumatic hopper carriers
  • V shaped bottom
  • Rounded sides and sloping ends
  • Pneumatically unloaded hopper car
  • V shaped bottom
  • Flat/rounded sides and flat/angular sides

79
Dry Bulk Carriers
Hopper Car Dry Bulk
140
80
Markings and Colors
  • Labels and Placards
  • Intermodal
  • Military
  • Hazard Communications
  • Pipeline
  • Container

81
Labels and Placards
Basic Colors
RED Flammable substances
GREEN Non-Flammable substances
ORANGE Explosives
YELLOW Oxidizers
BLUE Water Reactives
WHITE Poisons
82
Placards
  • UN/NA Class numbers (bottom of placard)
  • Hazard class or ID number on placard or orange
    panel
  • Symbols and colors
  • Name of material

83
Placards
  • Required as of November 1981
  • Numbers are keyed to NAERG
  • Numbers can be found
  • Placard
  • Orange marking next to placard
  • Plain white square on point configuration
  • On the consist, shipping paper or bill of lading
  • Some ID are assigned to more than 1 product
  • Placed on both sides and both ends

84
Table 1 Materials
85
REMEMBER!!!
  • 1001 Pound Exception
  • No placards required on shipments of less than
    1000 lbs. aggregate weight of Table 2 materials.
  • Exception does not apply to bulk packaging or
    haz-mat which requires subsidiary placarding.
  • Not always visible
  • Identification by class
  • No placarding required
  • ORM-D
  • Small quantities shipment
  • Limited quantities transportation
  • Non-bulk combustible liquid packages

86
Hazard Classes and Divisions
  • DOT has classified hazardous materials according
    to their primary hazard and assigned standardized
    symbols to identify the classes.
  • NOTE Materials are grouped by their major
    hazardous characteristics and many will have
    other hazards as well.

87
Class 1 - Explosives
  • Major Hazard Explosion
  • Any substance or article, including a device,
    that is designed to function by explosion (i.e.,
    an extremely rapid release of gas and heat) or
    that, by chemical reaction with itself, is able
    to produce an explosion.
  • Divided into 6 divisions

88
Class 1.1
  • Mass explosion that affects almost the entire
    load
  • Black powder
  • Dynamite
  • T-N-T
  • Blasting caps
  • Nitroglycerin

89
Class 1.2
  • Projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard
  • Aerial flares
  • Detonation cord
  • Power device cartridges

90
Class 1.3
  • Fire hazard and either a minor blast or minor
    projection hazard
  • Liquid-fueled rocket motors
  • Propellant explosives

91
Class 1.4
  • Presents a minor explosion hazard
  • Practice ammunition
  • Signal cartridges
  • Electric detonators

92
Class 1.5
  • Very insensitive explosives with mass explosion
    hazard
  • Prilled ammonium nitrate fertilizer
  • Blasting agents

93
Class 1.6
  • Extremely insensitive explosives
  • Does not have a mass explosion hazard
  • Detonation fuses
  • Common fireworks
  • Small arms ammunition

94
Class 1 Placards
Multiple Hazards Blast overpressure Shock
waves Fragmentation Additional fires
95
Class 2 - Compressed Gases
  • Major Hazard BLEVE
  • Sub Hazards
  • Flammable Oxidizer
  • Poisonous Nonflammable
  • Any material or mixture having, in the container,
    an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 70F or
    having an absolute pressure exceeding 104 psi at
    130F.
  • Divided into 3 divisions

96
Common Forms of Gases
Forms Liquefied Non-Liquefied Compressed in
Solution Cryogenic
Description Partially liquefied under pressure at
68F Gaseous under pressure at 68F Gases
dissolved in a liquid Gases cooled below boiling
points (lt-130F)
Examples Propane, Methyl Chloride, Anhydrous
Ammonia Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Methane,
Oxygen Acetylene LOX, LNG, Hydrogen, Nitrogen,
Carbon Dioxide
97
Class 2.1 - Flammable Gases
  • A material that is a gas at 68F or less at 14.7
    psi or has a boiling point of 68F or less at
    14.7 psi.
  • Ignitable at 14.7 psi when in a mixture of 13 or
    less by volume with air
  • Has a flammable range at 14.7 psi with air of at
    least 12 regardless of the lower limit.
  • Examples
  • Inhibited butadienes, propane, methyl chloride,
    methane, hydrogen

98
Class 2.2 - Nonflammable, Nonpoisonous Gases
  • Any material/mixture that exerts an absolute
    pressure of 41psi at 68F.
  • Compressed gases, including liquefied gas,
    pressurized cryogenic gas compressed gas in
    solution
  • Anhydrous ammonia, cryogenic argon, carbon
    dioxide, helium, compressed nitrogen, neon

99
Class 2.3 - Poisonous Gas
  • Vaporize easily and very dangerous to life, even
    in small amounts.
  • Known to be so toxic to humans as to pose a
    hazard to health during transportation.
  • Presumed to be toxic because of laboratory
    testing.
  • Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, arsine, diphosgene,
    chlorine, methyl bromide, cyanide gas,
    hydrocyanic acid

100
LC-50(Lethal Concentration, 50)
  • Concentration of a material, expressed in parts
    per million which kills half of the lab animals
    in a given length of time.
  • Significant in determining the toxicity of a
    material the lower the value, the more toxic the
    substance

101
Class 2.4 - Corrosive Gas
This class in used in Canada.
102
Class 2 Placards
Multiple Hazards BLEVE . . . Explosion Asphyxiati
on . . . Toxicity Frostbite . . .
Corrosiveness Reactivity
103
Class 3 - Flammable Combustible Liquids
  • Major Hazard Burns readily
  • Flammable liquids
  • Combustible liquids
  • Pyrophoric liquids

104
Flammable Liquids
  • Any liquid having a flash point (FP) of not more
    than 141F.
  • Three Divisions
  • Division 3.1 FP lt 0F
  • Division 3.2 FP 0 to lt 73F
  • Division 3.3 FP 73 to lt141F
  • Examples
  • Acetone, gasoline, amyl acetate, methyl alcohol,
    toluene

105
Combustible Liquids
  • Any liquid that does not meet the definition of
    any other hazard class and has a FP above 141F
    and below 200F.
  • NOTE A flammable liquid with a FP at or above
    141F that does not meet the definition of any
    other hazard class except 9, may be reclassified
    as combustible.
  • Examples
  • Mineral oil, no. 6 fuel oil, diesel fuel,
    kerosene, cleaning solvents

106
CLASS 3 - Liquids
Cleaning Solvents
107
Pyrophoric Liquids
  • Any liquid which ignites spontaneously in air
    within 5 minutes of air contact
  • Aluminum Alkyls
  • Alkyl borane

108
Class 3 Placards
Multiple Hazards Fire . . . BLEVE Combustion
Explosion Toxicity . . . Reactivity Contaminate
H2O Vapors heavier than air
109
Class 4 - Flammable Solids
  • Major Hazard Rapid combustion with a liberation
    of mass quantities of smoke (toxic)
  • Divided into 3 divisions

110
Class 4.1 - Flammable Solids
  • Three types
  • Wetted explosives
  • Self-reactive materials
  • Readily combustible solids
  • Examples
  • Magnesium (pellets, turning, ribbons),
    nitrocellulose, safety matches, sulfur

111
Wetted Explosives
  • Explosives wetted with sufficient water, alcohol
    or a plasticizer to suppress explosive properties.

112
Self-Reactive Materials
  • Materials that are likely to undergo, at
    normal or elevated temperatures, a strongly
    exothermic decomposition caused by excessively
    high transport temperatures or by contamination.

113
Readily Combustible Solids
  • Solids that may cause a fire through friction
    and any metal powders that can be ignited.

114
Class 4.2 - Spontaneously Combustible Materials
  • Ignites in the presence of air due to
    self-heating
  • Pyrophoric Materials
  • Self-Heating Materials
  • Aluminum alkyls, charcoal briquettes, magnesium
    alkyls, phosphorus

115
Pyrophoric Materials
  • A solid that even in small quantities and
    without an external ignition source, can ignite
    within 5 minutes after coming into contact with
    air.

116
Self-Heating Materials
  • A material that, when in contact with air and
    without an energy supply is liable to self-heat.

117
Class 4.3 - Dangerous When Wet Materials
  • Material that, by contact with water, is liable
    to become spontaneously flammable or to give off
    flammable or toxic gas at a rate of greater than
    1 L/kg per hour.
  • Calcium carbide, sodium hydride, magnesium
    powder, potassium metal alloys

118
Class 4 Placards
Multiple Hazards Air reactive . . . Water
reactive Spontaneous combustion Ignite easily . .
. Burn violently Toxic/Corrosive
119
Class 5 - Oxidizers
  • Major Hazard
  • Division 5.1 Supports combustion and
  • intensifies fire
  • Division 5.2 Unstable/reactive explosives
  • Divided into 2 divisions

120
Class 5.1 - Oxidizers
  • Materials that may generally, by yielding oxygen,
    cause or enhance the combustion of other
    materials.
  • Ammonium nitrate, bromine trifluoride, chlorate,
    calcium hypochlorite, permanganate

121
Class 5.2 - Organic Peroxides
  • Any organic compound containing oxygen in the
    bivalent O-O structure that may be considered a
    derivative of hydrogen peroxide, where one or
    more of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by
    organic radicals.
  • Organic peroxides have been further broken down
    into types a-g (worst to least hazardous)
  • Dibenzoyl peroxide, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide,
    peroxyacetic acid

122
Organic Peroxides Types
  • Type A - Can detonate or deflagrate rapidly as
    packaged for transport. Transportation is
    forbidden.
  • Type B - Neither detonates nor deflagrates
    rapidly, but can undergo a thermal explosion.
  • Type C - Neither detonates nor deflagrates
    rapidly and cannot undergo thermal explosion.
  • Type D - Detonates only partially or deflagrates
    slowly, with medium to no effect when heated
    under confinement.

123
Organic Peroxides Types
  • Type E - Neither detonates nor deflagrates and
    shows low or no effect when heated under
    confinement.
  • Type F - Will not detonate, does not deflagrate,
    shows only a low or no effect if heated when
    confined and has low or nor explosive power.
  • Type G - Will not detonate, does not deflagrate,
    show no effect if heated when confined, and has
    no explosive power is thermally stable and is
    desensitized.

124
Class 5 Placards
5.1 Multiple Hazards Supply oxygen Sensitive to
heat, shock, friction React with organic
materials Form ignitable materials
5.2 Multiple Hazards Supplies oxygen Very
sensitive to heat, shock, friction Release
heat Toxic
125
Class 6 - Poisons
  • Major Hazard Toxicity, Infectious
  • Divided into 2 divisions
  • Note Poisonous gases are Class 2, Division 3

126
PESTICIDES
WORDS OF WARNING
DANGER
HIGHLY TOXIC
WARNING
MODERATELY TOXIC
CAUTION
SLIGHTLY TOXIC
MOST COMMON FORM OF POISON
127
Class 6.1 - Poisonous Materials
  • A material, other than a gas, that is either
    known to be so toxic to humans as to afford a
    hazard to health during transportation or in the
    absence of adequate data on human toxicity, is
    presumed to be toxic to humans, including
    irritating materials that cause irritation.
  • Parathion, potassium arsenate, tear gas candles,
    xylyl bromide, hydrocyanic acid, sodium cyanide

128
Class 6.2 - Infectious Substances
  • A viable microorganism or its toxin that causes
    disease in humans or animals.
  • Infectious substances and etiologic agents are
    the same.
  • Anthrax, polio, botulsim, rabies, tetanus

129
Class 6 Placards
Multiple Hazards Container rupture Contamination
of water Flammability
130
Class 7 - Radioactive
  • Major Hazard
  • Radioactive poisonous burns
  • Any material that spontaneously emit ionizing
    radiation.
  • Materials having a specific activity greater than
    0.002 microcurie per gram (Ci/g).
  • Cobalt, uranium, plutonium

Multiple Hazards External Internal
exposure Fire may destroy shielding Contamination
131
CLASS 7 - Radioactives
132
Class 8 - Corrosives
  • Major Hazard Burns/ emulsification skin damage
  • 2nd most common haz-mat
  • A liquid or solid that causes visible or
    irreversible alterations in human skin tissue at
    the site of contact or a liquid that has a severe
    corrosion rate on steel or aluminum.

- Nitric acid, phosphorus trichloride, sodium
hydroxide, sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide
133
Class 9 - MiscellaneousHazardous Materials
  • A material that presents a hazard during
    transport, but that is not included on another
    hazard class
  • Division 9.1 - Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods
    (Canada)
  • Division 9.2 - Environmentally Hazardous
    Substances (Canada)
  • Division 9.3 - Dangerous Wastes (Canada)

Examples adipic acid, PCBs, molten sulfur,
hazardous waste
134
Other Regulated Materials(ORM-D)
  • A material that presents a limited hazard during
    transportation due to
  • Form
  • Quantity
  • Packaging
  • No Placard - labels only
  • Consumer commodities, furniture polish

135
Forbidden Materials
  • Materials prohibited from being offered or
    accepted for transportation.
  • Does not apply if the materials are diluted,
    stabilized or incorporated in devices.
  • There is no placard for these items since they
    arent transported.

136
Dangerous Placard
  • Allowed to be used if
  • 2or more classes of HM
  • Non-bulk packaging
  • HM classes must require different placards
  • HM must be listed by class in Table 2 materials
  • Does NOT apply to
  • Bulk packaging
  • Cargo tanks
  • Portable tanks
  • Tank cars
  • Table 1 HM

137
Special Placards That May Also Be Used
HOT

138
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139
MIXED LOAD
140
Markings on labels . . . What is N.O.S.?
141
Other Labels
142
Intermodal Containers
  • This is new marking system that is in the ERG and
    will be covered later in the course.

143
Military Hazardous MaterialsMarking System
1
144
Class 1, Division 1
  • Materials that present a mass detonation hazard

1
145
Class 1, Division 2
  • Materials that present an explosion with
    fragmentation hazard

146
Class 1, Division 3
  • Materials with a mass fire hazard

3
147
Class 1, Division 4
  • Materials that present a moderate fire hazard

4
148
Special Warnings
  • Chemical hazards

Highly Toxic
Harassing Agents
White Phosphorus Munitions
149
Special Warnings
Wear Protective Breathing Apparatus
Apply No Water
150
Special HazardCommunication Markings
  • Hazardous Materials Information System (HMIS)
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Labels

151
Pipeline Markers
  • Pipeline Markers are usually metal signs placed
    adjacent to a hazardous materials pipeline right
    of way
  • Signal Word
  • Ownership of Line
  • Name of carrier
  • Phone number
  • Transported Commodity

152
Container Markings
  • Markings on a container will provide some
    indication as to type of product it holds.
  • Includes product name

153
NFPA 704 Markings
  • Suggested method for identifying hazardous
    materials
  • Scale of 0-4
  • 4 being the worst
  • Used only for facilities when mandated by local
    ordinance

154
NFPA 704Colors and Their Meanings
  • 1. Blue Health
  • 2. Red Flammability
  • 3. Yellow Instability (reactivity)
  • 4. White Special Info

155
Health
  • 4 Too Dangerous to Enter - Vapor or Liquid
  • 3 Extremely Dangerous - Use Full Protective
    Clothing
  • 2 Hazardous -Use Breathing Apparatus
  • 1 Slightly Hazardous
  • 0 Like Ordinary Material

3
156
Flammability
  • 4 Extremely Flammable
  • 3 Ignites At Normal Temperatures
  • 2 Ignites When Moderately Heated
  • 1 Must Be Preheated To Burn
  • 0 Will Not Burn

2
157
Reactivity
  • 4 May Detonate - Evacuate Area if Materials are
    Exposed to Fire
  • 3 Strong Shock or Heat May Detonate - Use
    Monitors From Behind Explosion Resistant Barriers
  • 2 Violent Chemical Change Possible - Use Hose
    Streams From Distance
  • 1 Unstable if Heated - Use Normal Precaution
  • 0 Normally Stable

1
158
Special Information
  • W Avoid Use of Water
  • OX Oxidizer
  • ALK Used by some to indicate Alkaline
    Materials
  • ACID Used by some to Indicate Acidic
    Materials

W
159
Material Safety Data Sheets
  • Why they are necessary
  • Federal Law
  • Right to Know
  • Mandatory local communication on hazard
  • Risk Management Plan
  • OSHA requirements
  • Central location
  • With facility manager/employer

160
Resources For Obtaining a MSDS
  • Manufacturer
  • User
  • www.msdsonline.com (if a paid subscriber)
  • CAMEO program for EPA
  • Chemical references companies
  • CHEMTREC and others
  • Association websites
  • Anhydrous Ammonia Institute
  • Chlorine Institute

161
MSDS Basic Information
  • Manufacturers name and location
  • Name and family of chemical
  • Hazardous Ingredients
  • Physical Data
  • Fire and explosion data
  • Health hazard data
  • Spill and leak control procedures
  • Special protection information
  • Special precaution

162
MSDS Entries
  • General Information
  • Hazardous ingredients statement
  • Physical data
  • Spill and leak control procedures
  • Special protection information
  • Health and reactivity hazard data (as necessary)

163
Material Safety Data Sheets
Please refer to Appendix A at the back of your
student manual for an actual MSDS.
164
Shipping Papers
  • Basic Information on Shipping Paper
  • Shippers Name and Address
  • Receivers Name and Address
  • List of Shipped Materials
  • Basic Entries on Shipping
  • Proper Shipping Name
  • Hazard Class Division
  • UN/NA Identification Number
  • STCC (Standard Transportation Commodity Code)
    Number
  • CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) Number
  • Type and quantity of containers
  • Quantity of material


165
Shipping Papers Information
166
Shipping Paper Entries
167
Shipping Papers
168
HIGHWAY
169
RAIL
170
AIR
171
WATER
172
Using Senses
  • Sight
  • Visible corrosive actions
  • Pooling liquids
  • Injured victims
  • Fire and vapor cloud
  • Unexplained dead animals
  • Sound
  • Unusual sounds (hissing, whistling)
  • Odor (Some chemicals are treated so that
    leaks/accidental releases can be detected)
  • Chemical
  • Gas Leaks

173
Limitations of Using Senses
  • Close enough to smell - risk of death
  • Close enough to see - risk of injury
  • Touching may cause injury
  • Taste - not recommended!

174
Difficulties in DeterminingSpecific Names
  • Labels or placards missing
  • Label or placard shows no product identifier
  • Mixed loads
  • Error in placarding or labeling
  • Shipping papers are not accessible
  • Facility Manager or MSDSs not available

175
Protection of Self and Others
  • Isolate the hazard area
  • Evacuate
  • Deny entry
  • If evacuation is not possible
  • Provide in-place protection
  • Keep away from doors and windows
  • Provide medical care
  • Decontamination
  • Knowing limitations will prevent yourself
    becoming a victim

176
Medical Care Precautions
  • Medical care providers may be faced with the
    decision of whether or not to treat a patient
    based on their chemical contamination.

177
Means of Harmful Hazardous Materials
  • Thermal
  • Mechanical
  • Poisonous
  • Corrosive
  • Asphyxiation
  • Radiation
  • Etiologic
  • Psychological

178
Ignition Sources
  • Open flames
  • Smoking materials
  • Cutting welding operations
  • Heated surfaces
  • Frictional heat
  • Radiant heat
  • Static electricity
  • Electrical and mechanical sparks
  • Chemical reactions
  • Lightning

179
North American EmergencyResponse Guidebook
180
Key Areas of ERG
  • White Pages - How to use the ERG, resource
    telephone numbers, pictures of ground transport
    vehicles and intermodal container marking.
  • Table of Placards - Provide a guide page when
    only a general placard or hazard is known.
  • Yellow Pages - Numerical listing by 4-digit UN/NA
    numbers.
  • Blue Pages - Alphabetical listing by chemical not
    trade name.
  • Orange Pages - Guide Pages themselves.
  • Green Pages - Initial isolation and protective
    action distances and water reactive chemicals.
  • White Pages - Explanations and additional
    information.

181
Determine the AppropriateGuidebook Page
  • Four digit ID number (yellow pages)
  • Name of the product (blue pages)
  • Placards (table of placards)
  • Dealing with an unknown

182
ERG Student Exercise 1
  • Using the yellow pages
  • What is the name of this chemical?
  • What guide page are you referred to?

1026
183
ERG Student Exercise 2
  • Using the blue pages
  • What guide page should you use?
  • Also, what is the chemicals ID number?

Magnesium
184
ERG Student Exercise 3
  • Using the Table of Placards
  • What guide page should you use?

185
Orange Guide Pages
  • Potential Fire and Explosion Hazard
  • Potential Health Hazard
  • P polymerization hazard (if applicable)
  • Emergency Response
  • Protective Clothing
  • Initial isolation and protective action distances

186
General Routes of Entry
Inhalation
Ingestion
Absorption
Injection
187
Protective Clothing
  • 4 Levels of Protection
  • Level D Street Clothing/Uniforms and
    Structural Fire Fighting Protective
    Clothing
  • Level C Typical Industrial Cleanup Gear
  • Level B Typical Industrial Cleanup/ENTRY gear
  • Level A Typical Toxic Atmosphere Entry
    (encapsulated) Suits

188
Level D
Thermal Low Respiratory None Chemical Low
Street Clothing or Work Uniforms Some
particulate (dust) protection Minimal splash
protection No vapor protection
189
Level D
Thermal High Respiratory with B/A High No
B/A Low Chemical Low Typical Fire Fighting
Gear Some particulate (dust) protection Minimal
splash protection No vapor protection
190
Level C
Thermal None Resp Low Chem
Medium Typical Industrial Cleanup Gear
Good particulate (dust) protection Good splash
protection No vapor protection
191
Level B
Thermal None Respiratory High Chemical
Medium Typical Industrial cleanup/ENTRY
gear Good particulate (dust) protection Good
splash protection No vapor protection DUCT TAPE
a NO-NO !
192
Level A
Thermal None Resp High Chem High Typical
Toxic Atmosphere Entry (Encapsulated)
Suit Excellent particulate (dust)
protection Excellent splash protection Excellent
vapor protection again, . . . DUCT TAPE a NO-NO !
193
Protective Actions
  • Isolate hazard area
  • Deny entry
  • Evacuate the area or shelter-in-place
  • Attempt to identify the product
  • Request additional assistance

194
Initial Isolation Zone andProtective Action Zone
Protective Action Zone
1/2 Downwind Distance
Initial Isolation Zone
Downwind Distance
1/2 Downwind Distance
Initial Isolation Distance
195
Differences in Isolation Distance
  • Orange Pages
  • Used to protect from immediate hazards
  • Materials not highlighted
  • Highlighted materials involved in fire
  • Green Pages
  • Used for materials that present a toxic hazard
  • Highlighted materials only - not involved in fire

196
Isolation Techniques
  • Use a vehicle to block a road
  • Rope off or barricade entrance to area
  • Notify law enforcement to divert traffic
  • Close doors to facility
  • Use public address system

197
Targets for Criminal or Terrorist Activity
  • Places of public assembly
  • Public buildings
  • Mass transit systems
  • a. Trains
  • b. Subways
  • c. Airports
  • d. Cruise Ships
  • Places with high economic impact
  • Telecommunications facilities
  • Places with historical/ symbolic significance
  • Military installations
  • Industrial facilities

198
Chemical Incidents
  • Rapid onset of medical symptoms (minutes to
    hours) and easily observed signatures (colored
    residue, dead foliage, pungent odor, dead insects
    and animals.
  • Indicators of chemical agents
  • Hazmat or irrelevant lab equipment
  • Intentional releases
  • Unexplained sudden onset illnesses or death
  • Unusual odors or tastes
  • Unexplained irritations
  • Unexplained bomb/munitions-like material
  • Unexplained vapor clouds
  • Patient signs and symptoms
  • Foliage dead, discolored, withered, etc.
  • Unexplained oily film on water surfaces
  • Unexplained number of sick/dead animals
  • Unusual security, locks, bars on windows, etc

199
Biological Incidents
  • Onset of symptoms in hours to days. Typically,
    there will be no characteristic signatures
    because biological agents are usually odorless
    and colorless. Because of the delayed onset of
    symptoms, the area affected nay be greater due to
    the movement of infected individuals .
  • Indicators of chemical agents
  • Unexplained number of sick or dying
    persons/animals
  • Health care facilities reporting multiple
    casualties with similar signs and symptoms
  • Unusual spray being disseminated, especially
    during periods of darkness
  • Abandoned spray devices

200
Actions Necessary When Criminal or Terrorist
Activity is Suspected
  • Take appropriate actions to protect yourself and
    others
  • Communicate suspicion during notification process
  • Isolate potentially exposed people and/or animals
  • Document initial observation
  • Preserve evidence
  • Be alert for booby traps and/or explosive devices
  • Establish control zones and access control points
  • Prevent secondary contamination, including from
    handling patients

201
Obtaining Other Assistance
202
Manufacturer
  • General data and expertise
  • Often one of the best resources
  • Occasional difficulties develop when
    laboratory-based experiences are applied to
    spills in the field
  • Response Teams
  • Manufacturers are responsible for their products.
  • May provide personnel to handle cleanup
  • May contract with outside party to provide for
    clean-up

203
TECHNICAL RESOURCES
CHEMTREC 1-800-424-9300 CHEM-TEL 1-800-255-3924 IN
FOTRAC 1-800-535-5053 3E Company 1-800-451-8346
Emergency Scene
204
Other Important Numbers
  • Canada
  • CANUTEC 613-996-6666
  • United States Military Shipments
  • Explosives/Ammunition 1-703-697-0218
  • All other dangerous goods 1-800-851-8061
  • Mexico
  • SETIQ 01-800-00-214-00
  • CECOM 01-800-00-413-00

205
Information Needed
  • Name of caller and call back number
  • Location of the problem
  • Shipper or Manufacturer
  • Container Type
  • Rail Car or Truck Number
  • Carrier Name
  • Consignee
  • Location Conditions

206
Role of the Awareness Level First Responder
  • Guidelines are found in
  • Local emergency response plan
  • Organizations standard operating procedures
  • North American Emergency Response Guidebook

207
REMEMBER!!!
  • Performing these tasks is one of the most
    important tasks of the first responder awareness
    level as it all starts with the first on scene.
  • Before actions are implemented, information must
    be gathered. This information must be accurate
    to be useful to the hazardous materials
    responder.
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