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Title: Child Abuse &Neglect. 18. 11. 957-967.1994. Child abuse


1
International Child Welfare in a Global Economy
  • Presentation Created by
  • Doreen Elliott Ph.D... LMSW-AP. Nazneen S.
    Mayadas, DSW. ACSW.LMSW-ACP.
  • For the Judith Grainger Birmingham Center for
    Child Welfare,
  • School of Social Work, University of Texas at
    Arlington

2
Contents
  • 1. International Social Welfare and its
    relevance
  • for Social Policy
    Studies
  • 2. The State of the Worlds Children 2003
  • 3. The United Nations Convention on
    the Rights of
  • the Child(CRC)
  • 4. Examples of Impediments to Implementation of
    the CRC
  • Macro Effects of Armed Conflict Female genital
    mutilation. (FGM).
  • Mezzo Child Labor and Child Sexual
    Exploitation.
  • Micro Caregiver Abuse Neglect problems in
    a cross-cultural definition categories of
    children at risk.
  • 5. Summary and Implications for Social Work
    Practice in the USA

3
International Social Welfare
  • International Social Welfare is a field of
    activity concerned with describing,
    understanding, evaluating and promoting human
    well-being in the international context.
    (Midgley 19973)

4
Why Study Child Welfare from an International
Perspective ?
  • The trend towards globalization requires global
    knowledge. Countries are becoming more
    economically interdependent.
  • International comparisons allow assumptions to
    be tested.
  • Promotes the validity of the professional
    knowledge base.
  • Extends and broadens the possibilities for
    social and individual change.
  • Adapted from Midgley, J. Chapter 1. Social
    Welfare in Global Context. Sage. 1997.

5
Why Study Child Welfare from an International
Perspective? contd.-II.
  • Shared research and knowledge of program planning
    and evaluations worldwide contributes to more
    effective social welfare policies and practice at
    home.
  • Comparative studies broaden the base of
    professional knowledge and promotes intercultural
    understanding.
  • Adapted from Midgley, J. Chapter 1. Social
    Welfare in Global Context. Sage. 1991.

6
Why Study Child Welfare from an International
Perspective? contd.-III
  • A global approach contributes to a recognition of
    the universals or commonalities in human
    experience as well as the differences.
  • A global approach enables us to better understand
    and appreciate diversity, pluralism and cultural
    and value differences. This ability is essential
    for effective practice as a social worker.
  • See Elliott,D Mayadas, N.S. (1998) Infusing
    Global Perspectives into Social Work Practice.
    Chapter 4 in Ramanathan, CS Link, RJ., All
    Our Futures. Pacific Grove, CA. Brooks Cole.

7
Why Study Child Welfare from an International
Perspective? contd.-IV.
  • You will likely encounter refugees in your
    practice.
  • From 1992-2002 the US has accepted 77 of an
    estimated 1.2million refugees resettled in
    industrialized countries. Refugees Magazine Issue
    129 December 2002 The Year in Review p12
    available online at www.unhcr.ch/cgi-bin/texis/utx
    /home
  • The United States receives more refugees than any
    other country. Canada comes next with 10 during
    the same decade, followed by Australia with 8
    Refugees Magazine Issue 129 December 2002 The
    Year in Review p12 available online at
    www.unhcr.ch/cgi-bin/texis/utx/home
  • In 2000 there were 894,553 persons of concern
    to UNHCR residing in the USA. www.unhcr.ch/cgi-bi
    n/texis/vtx/statistics 2003

8
The Worlds Children 2002
  • 149 million children in developing countries
    still suffer from malnutrition
  • More than 10 million children under five die each
    year from preventable causes.
  • More than half a billion children live on less
    than 1 a day.
  • More than 100 million children are out of school
    because of poverty, discrimination, or lack of
    resources.
  • Of the more than 100 million out-of-school youth,
    60 million are girls.
  • UNICEF 2002 State of the Worlds Children.

9
The current global context for children
  • Progress
  • Increased global prosperity
  • Increased access to information globally
  • Reduction in major childhood diseases
  • Recognition of violations of childrens rights
  • Reducing debt for poor countries to free
    resources for children
  • Problems
  • Widening disparities between and within rich and
    poor countries
  • Devastation by HIV/AIDS esp. in sub-Saharan
    Africa
  • Continued exploitation of children
  • Severe decline in international development
    assistance

From We the children. Annan, K. A. Sec General
Report 2002 p.7.
10
Attributes of an equitable society for children
  • Maximum concern for pre-natal and central
    importance of ECD (early childhood development).
  • Opportunity for education for all children
  • Opportunity for adolescents to develop their
    capacity and participate meaningfully in society
  • CRC is a guide for promoting equitable societies

11
Before proceeding.
AND THINK!! Check the questions
12

The CRC 1990 The CRC consists of 45 articles
covering these general principles
  • States (nations) shall ensure each child enjoys
    full rights without discrimination or
    distinctions of any kind
  • The childs best interests shall be a primary
    consideration in all actions concerning
    children
  • Every child has an inherent right to life and
    States (nations) shall ensure, to the maximum
    extent possible, child survival and development.
  • Children have the right to be heard

13
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of
the Child 1990
  • A Century that began with children having
    virtually no rights is ending with children
    having the most powerful legal instrument that
    not only recognizes but protects their human
    lives
  • Carol Bellamy. Executive Director, UNICEF. State
    of the Worlds Children 1999
  • The CRC has broken all records as the most
    widely ratified human rights treaty in history.
    Its uniqueness stems from the fact that it is the
    first legally binding international instrument to
    incorporate the full range of human rights
  • information on this slide and on the following
    slides onthe CRC is taken fromhttp//www.unicef.o
    rg/crc/conven.htm


14
THE CRC
  • For the full text (54 articles) of the CRC go to
  • http//www.unicef.org/crc/crc.htm

15
Principles of the CRC
  • The 54 articles are built on four principles
  • Non Discrimination
  • Best interests of the child
  • Survival and development
  • Participation
  • http//www.unicef.org/crc/crc.htm

16
Optional Protocols to the CRC 2000
  • Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict
  • 109 countries signed, 33 countries ratified
  • Sale of children, child prostitution and child
    pornography.
  • 103 countries signed 33 ratified
  • Both await ratification

17
The CRC 1990 Implementation
  • Implementation is carried out by the
    International Committee on the Rights of the
    Child
  • 14 countries have incorporated the CRC into their
    constitutions.
  • 35 countries have passed new laws or amended
    existing laws to conform with the CRC.
  • 25 countries have created bodies to monitor
    progress on the implementation of the CRC.
  • 8 countries have improved data collection
    systems.
  • By 2003, the CCRC has been ratified by 192
    countries
  • Only Two Countries have not ratified the
    Convention
  • SOMALIA (which has a government not recognized by
    the UN.
  • THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

18
The CRC 1990 Some Examples of Successful
Implementation - I
  • FRANCE instituted an annual report to Parliament
    on the implementation of the CRC.
  • ROMANIA has established a National Committee for
    the Protection of the Child
  • EL SALVADOR established 12 municipal councils on
    child rights.
  • TUNISIA child protection delegates have been
    appointed in all 23 governerates

19
The CRC 1990 Some Examples of Successful
Implementation - II
  • AUSTRIA, COLUMBIA, COSTA RICA, SPAIN have all
    designated ombudsmen for children at provincial
    and national levels.
  • MEXICO adopted a National Program for Action
    and has made special efforts to inform children
    of their rights.
  • CANADA established the Family Support
    Enforcement Fund intended to help provincial
    governments in the field of promotion and
    protection of childrens rights.

20
Failures in Implementation of the CRC-I
  • Lack of Investment in Children
  • 1) Developing countries devoted only about 12
    to 14 of national budgets to basic social
    services in the 1990ties.
  • 2) Donor countries allocated only 10 to 11
    of aid budgets to social services.
  • 3) The 20/20 initiative of the World Summit for
    Social Development recommends 20 from
    developing countries, 20 from donors.

From We the children. Annan, K. A. Sec General
Report 2002 p.6.
21
Failures in Implementation of the CRC-II
  • Misplaced Priorities
  • Both developing and industrialized countries
    spent more on defense than on health care,
    nutrition, water supply and sanitation
  • Distorted Development
  • Numbers of global poor increased by average of
    10m per year in the 90ties. Global economy
    increased to 30tr.

From We the children. Annan, K. A. Sec General
Report 2002 p.7/8.
22
Challenges for the CRC - Overview
  • Challenges to the goals of the CRC occur at
    three system levels Macro, Mezzo, Micro
  • Macro Level - Societal Barriers, e.g... effect
    of armed conflict socio-cultural practices such
    as FGM (female genital mutilation) and male
    child preference demonstrated through selective
    gender abortions and female infanticide.
  • Mezzo Level- Institutional Barriers, e.g....
    economic exploitation through child labor and
    sexual exploitation.
  • Micro Level- Individual Family Level,
    e.g.... child physical and sexual abuse and
    neglect.

23
Before proceeding.
AND THINK!! Check the questions
24
Challenges for the Implementation of the CRC -
I MACRO LEVEL
  • Effects of Armed Conflict
  • Socio-Cultural Practices e.g...
  • selective abortions
  • female infanticide
  • FGM (female genital mutilation)

25
SOCIETAL ABUSE
  • Societal abuse constitutes those forms of abuse
    that are perpetuated by society, by its cultures
    or values, or by its tendency to accept passively
    the existence of a problemSegal, U.A. Children
    as Witnesses. Chpptr 14 in Bottoms, B.L.
    Goodman, G.S.International Perspectives on Child
    Abuse Childrens Testimony. 1996. Sage.
  • e.g. In India, child prostitution, child
    beggary, child marriage, and child labor, all
    concomitants of poverty are now recognized as
    abusive because they involve
  • exploitation of children by adults
  • deprivation of conditions for full development.

26
EFFECTS OF ARMED CONFLICT
  • There is no doubt that in todays conflicts,
    children are targets- not just accidental victims
    - in the belief that killing a child today is to
    kill the enemy of tomorrow .
  • Grace Machel. Impact of Armed Conflict on
    Children. UN. UNHCR. New York, 1996.
  • THE TOLL OF WAR ON CHILDREN
  • Killed 2 million
  • Disabled 4-5 million
  • Homeless 12 m
  • Orphaned or separated 1 million
  • Psychologically traumatized
  • 10 million
  • UNICEF data relate to decade 1987-1997.

27
EFFECTS OF ARMED CONFLICT - IICHILD SOLDIERS
  • In 2002, there were 300,000 child soldiers under
    16 years of age.
  • During the decade 1987-1997, children have served
    in government or opposition forces in at least 25
    conflict zones.
  • Children as young as 8 are forcibly recruited.
  • For girls, their participation often involves
    being forced to provide sexual services.


Grace Machel. Impact of Armed Conflict on
Children. UN. UNHCR. New York, 1996.
p.28 UNICEF in Action 2002 www.unicef.org
28
EFFECTS OF ARMED CONFLICT - IIIHow Why do
children become involved?
  • Children most likely to become soldiers are from
    impoverished and marginalized backgrounds or
    separated from their families.
  • They are recruited by kidnapping press-gangs
    seizure from streets orphanages and schools.
  • Parents may offer children for service in
    return for wages.
  • Children become soldiers to survive a military
    unit offers regular meals, clothing, medical
    attention, and a surrogate family.

Grace Machel. Impact of Armed Conflict on
Children. UN. UNHCR. New York, 1996. p.28
29
EFFECTS OF ARMED CONFLICT - IV
  • In 2001 more than 21 million people, at least
    half of them children, were Refugees. 45 were
    under 18 and 14 under 5.
  • Refugee children suffer war injuries through
    landmines, gunshot, shells atrocities and war
    crimes, violence, rape, malnutrition, disease,
    psychological trauma,separation of families, lack
    of education.
  • When families are moving long distances with no
    water or food, children are often the first to
    die.
  • Children in at least 68 countries live amid the
    threat
  • of more than 110 million unexploded
    landmines.
  • 8,000- 10,000 children are killed or maimed
  • by landmines each year,
  • Grace Machel. Impact of Armed Conflict on
    Children. UN. UNHCR. New York, 1996. pp.28-40
  • UNHCR Figures at a Glance. www.unhcr.org

30
Before proceeding.
AND THINK!! Check the questions
31
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)
  • FGM, sometimes also called female circumcision
    involves partial or total removal of the external
    female genitalia or other injury to the female
    genital organs for cultural, religious or other
    non-therapeutic reasons.
  • Source World Health Organization. FGM Fact
    Sheet. www.who.int

32
By whom is FGM Performed?
  • In more affluent classes it may be performed by
    medical practitioners
  • The medicalization of FGM is inappropriate it is
    against medical ethics and it appears to
    legitimize a harmful practice.
  • Source World Health Organization. FGM Fact
    Sheet. www.who.int
  • Usually by traditional practitioners with crude
    instruments and without anaesthetic.

33
Who is affected?
  • Between 100 and 140 million girls and women
    worldwide have undergone female genital
    mutilation
  • Each year approximately 2 million girls are at
    risk of mutilation
  • Usually performed on girls between the ages of 4
    and 12
  • May be performed on infants, older adolescents,
    and even mature women

Sources Rahman, A. Toubia, N. (2000). Female
genital mutilation A guide to laws and Policies
worldwide. New York Zed Books.
World Health Organization (2000, June). Female
genital mutilation fact sheet no. 241.Retrieved
August 30, 2001, from http//www.who.int/inf-fs/
en/fact241.html
34
Rationales for FGM
  • Custom tradition religious demands family
    honor hygiene and purification aesthetic
    reasons protection of virginity and prevention
    of promiscuity enhanced sexual pleasure for
    male increase marriage opportunities increasing
    fertility. Source World Health Organization. FGM
    Fact Sheet. www.who.int
  • While FGM is mainly practiced in Islamic
    countries, a statement issued from the point of
    view of Islamic Law says FGM is an odious
    crime.
  • www.who.int/frh-whd/publications/p-fgm2.htm

35
  • OCCURRENCE OF FGM.
  • Northern Central Africa the Horn
  • Southern Arabian Peninsula
  • Persian Gulf Coast
  • Middle East
  • Indonesia Malaysia
  • Increasing in immigrants in USA, Canada,
    Australia Europe.
  • FGM Age of Child
  • FGM is performed on the child from age eight
    days to ten years, depending on geographic
    region. Mostly it is performed between ages four
    and eight
  • The procedure is repeated, (in adulthood also) if
    not considered satisfactory or maybe re-done
    after childbirth.
  • Source World Health Organization. FGM Fact
    Sheet. www.who.int

36
Where does female genital mutilation occur?
  • Prevalence in the United States
  • In 1990 an estimated 168,000 girls and women in
    the United States were at risk of Female Genital
    Mutilation
  • An estimated 48,000 of these were under 18 years
    of age
  • Most girls and women who have been subjected to
    this procedure reside in 28 African Countries
  • It is recognized increasingly in immigrant
    populations in US,Canada Europe.

Sources Toubia, N. (1995). Female genital
mutilation A call for global action. New York
Rainbo. American college of Obstetricians and
Gynecologists http//www.acog.org
37
Health Consequences of FGM
  • PHYSICAL EFFECTS severe pain shock hemorrhage
    urine retention ulceration infection HIV
    cysts and abscesses keloids incontinence
    dyspareunia sexual dysfunction complications in
    childbirth maternal death and stillbirth.
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS loss of trust in
    care-givers anxiety depression chronic
    irritability frigidity marital conflicts
    arising from painful intercourse and reduced
    sexual sensitivity.
  • Source World Health Organization. FGM Fact
    Sheet. www.who.int

38
U.S. Laws Policies -I
  • 1991 American Medical Association adopted policy
    condemning the practice of female genital
    mutilation
  • 1995 INS Gender Guidelines recognize female
    genital mutilation as a form of persecution
  • 1996 Fauziya Kassindja is granted asylum in the
    United States

Source Rahman, A. Toubia, N. (2000). Female
genital mutilation A guide to laws and policies
worldwide. New York Zed Books.
39
Laws Policies in the US - II
  • 1993 Legislation on female genital mutilation was
    first introduced to Congress by Representative
    Patricia Schroeder
  • 1996 Congress passed legislation to criminalize
    female genital mutilation
  • 15 states have passed laws criminalizing female
    genital mutilation

Source Rahman, A. Toubia, N. (2000). Female
genital mutilation A guide to laws and policies
worldwide. New York Zed Books.
40
FGM and the Rights of the Child
  • The CRC
  • protects rights to gender equality. (Article 2).
  • freedom from mental physical violence and
    maltreatment (Article. 24.1).
  • highest attainable standard of health (A. 24.)
  • freedom from torture or cruel, inhuman
    degrading treatment. (Article 37).
  • requires states to take measures to abolish
    traditional practices prejudicial to the health
    of children. (Article 24.3.).
  • Source World Health Organization. FGM Fact
    Sheet. www.who.int

41
FGM - What can be Done?
  • Sensitize policy makers welfare workers to the
    physical mental and social consequences of FGM
  • Oppose the medicalization of FGM
  • Development of legislation to ban the practice
  • Training to professionals on complications of
    FGM.
  • Develop educational materials
  • Facilitate research relating to the practice and
    its complications
  • Form alliances between traditional modern
    healers
  • Seek solution from within countries backed by
    international support
  • Establish inter-agency and government
    co-operation
  • Source World Health Organization. FGM Fact
    Sheet. www.who.int

42
Implications for Social Workers
  • Be aware when working with immigrant families
    from countries which practice FGM
  • Be as informed as you can
  • Use culturally sensitive language Tell
    colleagues and alert them to this practice.
  • Be Aware of the Taboo Nature of the Topic
  • Be Aware of Underlying Belief Systems
  • Remain Up-to-Date on Child Protection practice,
    policies and laws
  • Do not condone the practice is illegal in the US


43
Before proceeding.
AND THINK!! Check the questions
44
CHALLENGES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF CRC - II
MEZZO LEVELEconomic Exploitation of children
through Child Labor

45
CHILD LABOR FACT FILE 2002
  • Of every 100 children globally 16 are child
    laborers. 12 are in its worst forms.
  • 246 million child laborers - 186 million are
    under 15
  • 170 million work in dangerous conditions
  • 8 million are trapped by prostitution,forced
    labor, armed conflict
  • About 61 of working children live in Asia, 32
    in Africa, 7 in Latin America.
  • Most children work because of poverty. On
    average, children bring in about 20-25 of family
    income.
  • www. oneworld.org www.ilo.org (2002)

46
ECONOMIC EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN CHILD LABOR
  • Children working under hazardous conditions
    where there is exploitation of poverty, absence
    of education and restriction of their physical,
    mental and psychological development.
  • Adapted from UNICEF State of the Worlds
    Children, 199724

47
CHILD LABOR
  • Domestic Service e.g.... children 5yrs and above
    given by parents as domestic servants .
  • Forced, Bonded and Indentured Labor e.g....
    impoverished parents pledge children to factory
    owners in return for small loans.
  • Commercial Sexual exploitation e.g.... child
    prostitution
  • Factory, Mining and Agricultural Work e.g....
    harsh conditions affecting physical and
    psychological health.
  • Street Work e.g.... begging, pickpocketing,
    scavenging, shoplifting.
  • Work for the Family e.g.... lack of education.
  • Girls Work exploitation of female children
  • Source UNICEF. State of the Worlds Children.
    1998.

48
CHILD LABOR
  • Hazardous and exploitative child labor violates
    the CRC.
  • Labor is exploitative if it involves
  • full-time work at too early an age,
  • too many hours spent working
  • work that exerts undue physical, social and
    psychological stress.
  • inadequate pay and too much responsibility
  • work that hampers education
  • work that undermines self-esteem dignity
  • work that is detrimental to full social
    psychological development
  • work and life on the streets in bad conditions
  • Source UNICEF State of the Worlds Children
    1998.

49
FOUR MYTHS ABOUT CHILD LABOR- 1. A Problem
Exclusive to the Developing World
  • Children routinely work in all countries it
    is the NATURE of the work which determines
    whether it is HARMFUL to the child.
  • A study by the U.S... General Accounting Office
    showed a 250 increase in child labor violations
    from 1983 to 1990.
  • In 1990 the US Dept. of Labor found 11,000
    children working illegally. Mexican-American
    children in New York work in fields still wet
    with pesticides.
  • In the UK between 11 26 of 11 year olds and
    36 to 66 of 15yr. olds are working.
  • Source UNICEF. State of the Worlds Children.
    1998.

50
FOUR MYTHS ABOUT CHILD LABOR2. Child labor will
never be eliminated until poverty disappears
  • It is often said that calls for an end to child
    labor are unrealistic. BUT child labor
    perpetuates poverty working children grow into
    unskilled adults trapped in badly paid jobs.
  • Hazardous child labor can be eliminated
    independently of wider measures aimed at poverty
    reduction.
  • exploitative child laboris a moral outrage and
    an affront to human dignity. ( New Delhi 1996.
    Labor Ministers of the Non -Aligned Movement.)
  • Source UNICEF. State of the Worlds Children.
    1998.

51
FOUR MYTHS ABOUT CHILD LABOR3. Child labor
occurs primarily in export industries
  • Export industries are the most visible industries
    to the western world e.g... carpet weaving,
    football sewing and garment making.
  • Less than 5 of child workers are employed in
    export sector industries.
  • A 1995 study in Bangladesh showed that children
    are employed in 300 jobs outside the export
    sector.
  • Most children work on the land and in domestic
    work out of the sight of labor inspectors and
    media scrutiny.
  • Source UNICEF. State of the Worlds
    Children. 1998.

52
FOUR MYTHS ABOUT CHILD LABOR4. Sanctions and
boycotts are effective against child labor
practices.
  • It implies that all initiative for change comes
    exclusively from the western world local
    initiatives are not publicized.
  • The threat of international embargoes such as the
    US Harkin Bill 1992 resulted in girls being
    summarily dismissed from garment factories in
    Bangladesh. A follow-up study showed that the
    children fell into worse situations, including
    prostitution.
  • Source UNICEF. State of the Worlds Children.
    1998.

53
CHILD LABOR ACTION POINTS.
  • What can be done about child labor?
  • Reduce Poverty Increase adults wages so there
    is less need for children to work.
  • Improve working conditions for childrens health
    safety.
  • Shorten childrens working hours so they can
    attend school.
  • Ban hazardous exploitative work e.g... bonded
    labor sex work military conscription mining
    and all work that exposes children to toxic
    substances.
  • Make education more attractive and relevant to
    childrens needs.
  • Source Save the Children.
    www.oneworld.org/scf/childlab/chlabact.htm

54
Child Labor Save the Children Projects
  • Africa Improving conditions on farms
    investigating harsh conditions faced by child
    domestic workers
  • Asia night schools for child workers credit
    savings schemes raising awareness about the
    rights of working children.
  • Latin America promoting shorter working hours
    and better conditions. Improving education.
  • United Kingdom researching childrens views on
    work educating international corporations about
    child labor.
  • Source Save the Children. www.oneworld.org/scf/c
    hildlab/chlabact.htm

55
Before proceeding.
AND THINK!! Check the questions
56
  • CHALLENGES FOR THE CRC II - MEZZO LEVEL
    contd... Economic Exploitation through Sexual
    Exploitation of Children.

57
Economic Exploitation through Sexual
Exploitation of Children.
  • An estimated 1 million girls annually are lured
    into prostitution
  • Poverty-stricken rural village families bond
    children into servitude in city factories, homes,
    brothels to pay off loansharks
  • girl-child domestics, besides physical abuse,
    malnutrition and enslavement, are sexually abused
    by employers
  • the tradition of gender discrimination, and low
    worth of girls disregards sexual violence to them
  • The State of the Worlds Children. 1997.
    pp35-37.

58
Economic Exploitation through Sexual
Exploitation of Children II
  • girl-child prostitution industry in Asia and
    South America is supported by tourists
  • children in factories are coerced into sexual
    exploitation by bosses
  • high incidence of respiratory, HIV and other
    sexually transmitted diseases
  • female infanticide is seen as a way for the
    family to escape the potential shame which a
    female child would bring
  • The State of the Worlds Children. 1997. pp
    35-37.

59
Children and women subjected to commercial
sexual exploitation
  • 100,000 in the Philippines400,000 in
    India100,000 in Taiwan200,000 in
    Thailand244,000-325,000 in the United
    States100,000 in Brazil35,000 in West
    Africa175,000 in Eastern Central Europe
  • http//www.unicef.org/newsline/01pr97.htm

60
Before proceeding.
AND THINK!! Check the questions
61
CHALLENGES FOR THE CRC II - MICRO LEVEL
  • Physical Abuse, Sexual Abuse and Neglect by
    Child Caregiver

62
Defining Child Abuse from an International
Perspective
  • In many nations, traditional themes of the
    sanctity of the family, prerogatives of parents
    and children viewed as parental property have
    protected abusive families from inspection and
    intervention by society
  • Segal U.A., Ashtekar, A. Detection of
    Intrafamilial Child Abuse Children at Intake at
    a Childrens Observation Home in India. Child
    Abuse Neglect. 18. 11. 957-967. 1994.

63
  • Cross-cultural differences in Child rearing
    practices make it clear that there can be no
    universal standards of what is optimal child care
    or what constitutes abuse and neglect.
  • Segal U.A., Ashtekar, A. Detection of
    Intrafamilial Child Abuse Children at Intake at
    a Childrens Observation Home in India. Child
    Abuse Neglect. 18. 11. 957-967.1994.
  • Child abuse arose primarily as a social issue in
    the developed countries of the western
    worldthere has been increasing recognition that
    it exists in some form virtually everywhere.
  • Finkelhor, D Korbin, J. Child abuse as
    an International Issue. Child Abuse Neglect 12.
    3-23. 1988.

64
  • The problem therefore in considering child abuse
    from an international perspective, is in
    identifying a cross-cultural definition. The
    distiction between severity in punishment and
    child abuse differs from culture to culture.
  • Finkelor and Korbin have delineated some common
    factors in child abuse worldwide.

65
FINKELHOR KORBINS DEFINITION
  • Child abuse is the portion of harm to children
    that results from human action that is
    proscribed, proximate, and preventable
  • Finkelhor, D Korbin, J. Child abuse as
    an International Issue. Child Abuse Neglect 12.
    3-23. 1988.

66
PROSCRIBED
  • Not all human action that causes harm is child
    abuse. e.g. a surgical mistake is not child
    abuse...
  • ...it is the negative valuation of the action -
    its deviance, its harmful intent, its violations
    of legal codes or social expectations- that
    renders the action child abuse...
  • This takes on paricular importance in a
    cross-cultural perspective on child abuse because
    proscribed behaviors vary from society to
    society Finkelhor, D Korbin, J. Child abuse as
    an International Issue. Child Abuse Neglect 12.
    3-23. 1988.

67
PROXIMATE
  • child abuse involves actions of immediate
    caretakers and those in the childs immediate
    environment that result directly in harm to the
    childe.g. violence, sexual acts on the child,
    deprivation of immediate needs
  • Finkelhor, D Korbin, J. Child abuse as an
    International Issue. Child Abuse Neglect 12.
    3-23. 1988.

68
PREVENTABLE
  • Inherent in the notion of child abuse is the
    idea that some alternative course of human action
    was potentially avaialable that would have
    avoided the harm.
  • e.g. if the parents of a child with meningitis
    helplessly stand by and watch the death in a
    developing country it is different from the same
    action in a country where medical resources are
    accessible
  • Finkelhor, D Korbin, J. Child abuse as an
    International Issue. Child Abuse Neglect 12.
    3-23. 1988.

69
CHILDREN AT RISK FROM CAREGIVERS- I
  • Health Status when resources are scarce and
    child survival tenuous parentsare more likely to
    invest in those children more likely to survive
    p.13
  • Deformed Childrenare regarded as a burden, an
    ill-omen, or non-human, thus falling outside the
    usual protection afforded childrenp.13
  • Genderinsocieties with a strong son
    preferencegirls may be subject to infanticide,
    and poorer feeding, medical care.
  • Finkelhor, D Korbin, J. Child abuse as
    an International Issue. Child Abuse Neglect 12.
    3-23. 1988.

70
CHILDREN AT RISK FROM CAREGIVERS- II
  • Birth children born under unusual, stigmatized
    or difficult circumstances.
  • Excess or unwanted childrenchildren who tax
    family resources or children whose mothers have
    failed to obtain an abortion.
  • Behavior in some cultures children who display
    anger are highly disvalued.
  • Finkelhor, D Korbin, J. Child abuse as an
    International Issue. Child Abuse Neglect 12.
    3-23. 1988.

71
CHILDREN AT RISK FROM CAREGIVERS- III
  • Diminished Social Supports..children such as
    illegitimate children, orphans, children from
    broken homes or inter-tribal unions are more
    likely to be malnourished
  • Children in situations of rapid socio-economic
    changechildren may acquire new knowledge more
    quickly than parents and become less obediant and
    compliant e.g. immigrants or urban rural
    migration.

Finkelhor, D Korbin, J. Child abuse as an
International Issue. Child Abuse Neglect 12.
3-23. 1988.
72
Before proceeding.
AND THINK!! Check the questions
73
  • The CRC has relevance for Child Welfare
  • Practice and Childrens Rights in any
    country.
  • You may have a client who is a Somalian Refugee
    and is planning
  • to practice infibulation
  • on her daughter age 5.
  • One of your clients has adopted siblings from
    Russia who lived on
  • the streets for 2yrs.
  • Broadening ones
  • knowledge sensitizes us to the importance
    of cultural differences in practice.
  • What are the links between the issues in this
    presentation and my practice as a social worker
    in the USA?
  • You may work for an International Agency based
    in the USA such as UNICEF, WHO, SCF, UN.

See Elliott,D Mayadas, N.S. (1998) Infusing
Global Perspectives into Social Work Practice.
Chapter4 in Ramanathan, CS Link, RJ., All Our
Futures. Pacific Grove, CA. Brooks Cole.
74
A NEW ERA FOR CHILDREN...
  • The idea that children have special needs has
    given way to the conviction that children have
    rights, the same full spectrum of rights as
    adults civil and political, social, cultural and
    economic
  • UNICEF. The State of the Worlds Children. New
    York. Oxford University Press.1997. p.9.

75
A NEW ERA FOR CHILDREN...
  • The idea of birthright is an ancient one that
    occurs in all cultures and religions let us make
    a sacred promise to deliver to the children who
    will be born into our world, the health and
    nutrition, the education and protection that is
    their birthright
  • UNICEF State of The Worlds Children 2002
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