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10th American History Unit IV- A Champion of Democracy 1939-1960


10th American History Unit IV- A Champion of Democracy 1939-1960 Chapter 15 Section 1 The Iron Curtain Falls on Europe The Cold War Begins (04:51) The Iron Curtain ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 10th American History Unit IV- A Champion of Democracy 1939-1960

10th American HistoryUnit IV- A Champion of
Democracy 1939-1960
Chapter 15 Section 1 The Iron Curtain Falls on
The Cold War Begins (0451)
The Iron Curtain Falls on Europe
  • The Main Idea
  • At the end of World War II, tensions between the
    Soviet Union and the United States deepened,
    leading to an era known as the Cold War.
  • Reading Focus
  • What were the roots of the Cold War?
  • What was the Iron Curtain?
  • How did the United States respond to Soviet
    actions in Europe?
  • What was the crisis in Berlin in the late 1940s,
    and how was it resolved?

The Cold War (0417)
Roots of the Cold War
  • Philosophical differences between the Soviet
    Union and the United States reached back to the
  • Soviet Union communism, totalitarian
  • United States free-enterprise capitalism,

Philosophical Differences
  • Allies during the war, but not truly friends
  • Soviets wanted British and Americans to open a
    second European front earlier in the war.
  • U.S. atomic bomb plans worried Soviet Union.

World War II Conflicts
  • The Soviet Union refused to let Eastern Europe
    hold elections as promised at Yalta.
  • The United States resisted Soviet expansion.

Postwar Conflicts
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Roots of the Cold War
  • The U.S. and Britain, alarmed by the Soviet
    domination of Eastern Europe, feared the
    expansion of Soviet power and communism in
    Western Europe and elsewhere.
  • The Soviets were determined to maintain control
    of Eastern Europe, in part to safeguard against a
    possible renewed threat from Germany.
  • The Cold War (the term was first used by Bernard
    Baruch during a congressional debate in 1947) was
    waged mainly on political, economic, and
    propaganda fronts and had only limited recourse
    to weapons.
  • It was at its peak in 194853 with the Berlin
    blockade and airlift, the formation of NATO, the
    victory of the communists in the Chinese civil
    war, and the Korean War. Another intense stage
    occurred in 195862 with the Cuban missile
    crisis, which resulted in a weapons buildup by
    both sides.
  • A period of détente in the 1970s was followed by
    renewed hostility.
  • The Cold War ended with the collapse of the
    Soviet Union in 1991.

Julius and Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg
  • Were American Communists who received
    international attention when they were executed
    for passing nuclear weapons secrets to the Soviet
  • The couple were the only two American civilians
    to be executed for espionage-related activity
    during the Cold War.
  • In imposing the death penalty, Judge Kaufman
    noted that he held them responsible not only for
    espionage but also for the deaths of the Korean
    War since the information leaked to the Russians
    was believed to help them develop the A-bomb and
    stimulate Communist aggression in Korea.
  • Their case has been at the center of the
    controversy over communism in the United States
    ever since.

The Roots of the Cold War
  • What were the roots of the Cold War?
  • Explain Why was President Roosevelt concerned
    when Germany and the Soviet Union signed their
    nonaggression pact in 1939?
  • Analyze- Why did hard feelings arise between the
    Soviets and the Americans and British during
    World War II?

The Iron Curtain
  • Stalin wanted to retain political and economic
    control over Eastern Europe.
  • The Soviets managed to install Communist
    governments throughout Eastern Europe.
  • Stalin outlawed political parties or newspapers
    that opposed the Communists.
  • The Soviets jailed or killed some political
  • The Soviets rigged elections to ensure the
    success of Communists.
  • Yugoslavia was the one Eastern European nation
    that was not under the direct control of Stalin
    and the Soviet Union.
  • Josip Broz Tito, a Communist, refused to take
    orders from the Soviet Union.
  • The Soviet Union relocated Germans living in
    Poland and other countries of Eastern Europe.

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The Iron Curtain
Western Views of the Iron Curtain
  • Winston Churchill attacked the Soviet Union for
    creating an Iron Curtain.
  • The term reflected Churchills belief that
    communism had created a sharp division in Europe.
  • Harry S Truman urged his secretary of state to
    get tough with the Soviets.

Soviet Views of the Iron Curtain
  • Stalin believed that the Iron Curtain was
    necessary to protect the Soviet Union from
    western attacks.
  • Stalin used Churchills words to help persuade
    his people that the United States and Great
    Britain were their enemies.
  • He also used this as an excuse to rebuild the

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The Iron Curtain Decends
  • What was the Iron Curtain?
  • Explain Why was the United States alarmed by
    the Soviet treatment of Germans living in Poland
    and other countries of Eastern Europe?
  • Summarize- Why did Stalin want to hold on to
    Eastern Europe?
  • Make Judgments- Do you think Stalin was justified
    in wanting to control Eastern Europe? Explain.

How did the United States respond to Soviet
actions in Europe?
  • Containment
  • George F. Kennan created a policy known as
  • This policy stated that the United States should
    resist Soviet attempts to expand its power.
  • Containment included economic aid, sanctions, and
    military force.
  • Truman Doctrine
  • Said that the United States would help people
    fight against oppressors
  • Truman wanted to send aid to Greece and Turkey to
    help them fight Soviet pressure.
  • Congress agreed to send millions of dollars to
    Greece and Turkey.
  • Marshall Plan
  • An aid program to rebuild the economies of
    European countries to create stable conditions
    for democracies
  • 17 countries received 13.4 billion dollars in
  • Helped build strong political support in Western

  • The foreign policy strategy of the United States
    in the early years of the Cold War in which it
    attempted to stop what it called the domino
    effect of nations moving politically towards
    Soviet Union-based communism, rather than
    European-American-based capitalism.
  • George Kennan argued that the primary goal of the
    United States should be to prevent the spread of
    Communism to non-Communist nations that is, to
    "contain" Communism within its borders. The
    Truman Doctrine aimed at this goal, and
    containment was one of its key principles.
  • He never advocated military intervention, merely
    economic support.

The Truman Doctrine (0237)
The Marshall Plan 0 46
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The United States Responds
  • How did the United States respond to Soviet
    actions in Europe?
  • Describe What were the components of George F.
    Kennans containment policy and how did they work
  • Predict- How will the Truman Doctrine play an
    important part in U.S. foreign policy?

The United States Responds
  • Identify Who was George Marshall?
  • Analyze What is the connection between the
    Marshall Plan and Kennans containment policy?
  • Identify Cause and Effect- What was the result
    of the Marshall Plan?
  • Evaluate Why do you think the Soviet Union
    refused U.S. aid?

Divided Germany Map 15.1
Crisis in Berlin
  • With the start of the Cold War, it became clear
    that the Soviets planned to keep their German
    zone under Communist control.
  • The British, Americans, and French began to take
    steps to set up a free, democratic government
    within their German zones.
  • The western zone eventually became known as the
    Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany.
  • The British, Americans, and French also tried to
    set up a democratic government in West Berlin.
  • The Soviets were not happy with the idea of a
    Western-style government and economy in the
    middle of the Soviet zone of occupation.

Berlin Airlift - June 30, 1948 (0246)
The Crisis in Berlin
  • Soviets Bloc Traffic
  • In June 1948 the Soviets announced that they
    would block any road, rail, or river traffic into
    West Berlin.
  • West Berlins residents were cut off from food,
    coal, and other products.
  • West Berlin was not completely cutoff because it
    had airstrips.
  • The Berlin Airlift
  • British and American planes began making
    deliveries to West Berlin.
  • The Berlin Airlift continued for months and
  • Finally, the Soviet Union lifted its blockade on
    May 12, 1949.
  • NATO Forms
  • In 1949 the U.S. and 6 other nations joined
    Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and
    the U.K. to form NATO.
  • An armed attack against one would be considered
    an attack against all.
  • Today, 26 countries belong to NATO.

The Parties agree that an armed attack against
one or more of them in Europe or North America
shall be considered an attack against them all.
Consequently they agree that, if such an armed
attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the
right of individual or collective self-defense
recognized by Article 51 of the Charter of the
United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties
so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and
in concert with the other Parties, such action as
it deems necessary, including the use of armed
force, to restore and maintain the security of
the North Atlantic area.
A military alliance established by the signing of
the North Atlantic Treaty on April 4, 1949
The Crisis in Berlin
  • What was the crisis in Berlin in the late 1940s
    and how was it resolved?
  • Recall What happened to Germany and its capital
    after World War II?
  • Identify- What was the Federal Republic of
  • Evaluate Why do you think the Soviets wanted to
    cut off food, fuel, and other necessities from
    West Berlin?

The Crisis in Berlin
  • Recall How long did the Berlin Airlift
  • Summarize- What is NATO and why was it formed?

Chapter 15 Section 1 Assessment
  • 1
  • a- Define Cold War- Rivalry between U.S. and
    Soviet Union
  • b- Infer- U.S. does not trust the Soviet Union
  • c- Evaluate- No, could have jeopardized security
  • 2
  • a- Recall a sharp division between Eastern and
    Western Europe created by Communism.
  • b- Conclusions- Feared Soviets would take over
  • c- Elaborate- Yes, Stalin was a serious threat
    no, home front needed help.

Chapter 15 Section 1 Assessment
  • 3
  • a- Define Containment- prevent the spread of
    Communism. Truman Doctrine- provide aid to
    countries trying to resist communism. Marshall
    Plan- aid to rebuild Europe.
  • b- Draw Conclusions- created strong economic ties
    and allies spurred sales of U.S. goods abroad.
  • c- Predict- will strengthen ties with the U.S.
  • 4
  • a- Recall supplies flown into West Berlin to
    avoid the Soviet blockade.
  • b- Explain - plane crashes difficult Soviets
    might fire on Allies.
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