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The French and Indian War & the Five Themes of Geography

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Title: The French and Indian War & the Five Themes of Geography


1
The French and Indian War the Five Themes of
Geography
2
The French and the British compete for control.
  • The seeds for the French and Indian War were
    planted when British fur traders began moving
    into the Ohio River Valley in the 1750s.
    British land companies were also planning to
    settle colonists there.
  • This alarmed the French and their Native American
    allies, and the French built a series of forts to
    protect the region linking their Canadian and
    Louisiana settlements.

3
The French and the British compete for control.
  • In 1753, the lieutenant governor of Virginia sent
    21-year old George Washington with a letter to
    tell the French to leave the Ohio Valley.

4
The French and the British compete for control.
  • The French refused to leave. Virginias
    lieutenant governor then sent about 40 men to
    build a fort at the head of the Ohio River, where
    Pittsburgh stands today. French and Native
    American troops seized the partially built fort
    in April 1754, knocked it down and built Fort
    Duquesne.

5
The French and the British compete for control.
  • George Washington returned the next year. On his
    way to Ft. Duquesne, he learned of a small French
    encampment near the Great Meadows, in present-day
    Fayette County. On the morning of May 28, 1754,
    Washington and the 40 soldiers he commanded
    attacked the French militia led by Ensign Joseph
    Coulon de Villiers de Jumonville. The battle
    lasted little more than 15 minutes and was a
    complete British victory. Ten French soldiers
    were killed and 21, including the wounded
    Jumonville, were captured. One French soldier
    escaped.
  • Tanaghrisson, one of Washingtons Indian allies,
    walked up to the wounded Jumonville and killed
    him. Knowing that the escaped French soldier
    would alert the French, Washington retreated to
    the Great Meadows and built Fort Necessity.

6
Fort Necessity
  • The French and their Native American allies
    attacked Ft. Necessity on July 3, 1754. They
    beat Washington, who would surrender on July 4th.
    Late in the night, Washington would sign a
    confession - in French, which he could not read
    admitting to Jumonville's assassination.

7
General Braddock
  • With the death of Jumonville and Washingtons
    defeat at Ft. Necessity, the French and Indian
    War had begun. A British army under the command
    of General Edward Braddock arrived in America.
    Braddocks army, accompanied by Washington, left
    Fort Cumberland on May 29, 1755, and set out to
    expel the French from Fort Duquesne.

8
The Battle of the Monongahela
9
Location-Where is it?
10
Absolute Location
  • The Battle of the Monongahela took place near
    present day Pittsburgh, which is located at 40N,
    80W.

11
Relative Location Where is this place in
relation to another place?
  • The Battle took place in the Southwestern part of
  • present-day Pennsylvania, along the banks of the
    Monongahela River...

12
Relative Location
  • ...about 7 miles east of Ft. Duquesne...

13
Relative Location
  • ....which was located at the confluence of the
    Monongahela, Allegheny, and Ohio Rivers.

14
Relative Location
  • The battle took place across the river from
    present-day Kennywood Park.

15
Place-What is it like there?
Mohawk
Leni-Lenape (Delaware)
Seneca
  • This was the place where the Eastern Woodland
    Indians were found...

Mohawk
Leni-Lenape (Delaware)
Seneca (Mingo)
16
Place
  • ...where there were many mountains and rivers...

17
Place
  • ...huge trees 45 feet in circumference...

18
Place
  • ...and where there were plenty of beaver.

19
Region
  • How is this place like other places?
  • How is it different?

20
Region
  • This was in the region where the beaver could be
    found...

Beaver Range
21
Region
  • ...in the region controlled by the Iroquois
    Confederacy...

22
Region
  • ...in the Allegheny Plateau region...

23
Region
  • ...in the region claimed by both the French and
    the British.

24
Movement
  • How and why do people, ideas, and goods move to
    and from place to place?

How?-By boat along streams and rivers...
25
Movement
  • ...by foot...

26
Movement
  • ...by horseback...

27
Movement
...and by trade.
28
Movement
  • Why?-Whoever controlled the confluence of the 3
    rivers controlled the eastern access to the
    Mississippi drainage...

29
Movement
  • ...and thus the beaver trade.

30
Stop and think
  • Based on what weve just learned, what do you
    think were the causes of the French and Indian
    war ?
  • What were people fighting over?

31
Human-Environment Interaction
  • How does this place affect the lives of people
    living there?

Their shelter...
Delaware camp
32
Human-Environment Interaction
....their dress and communication....
33
Human-Environment Interaction
  • ....and their politics.

Some Native Americans allied with the French
Some allied with the English
34
Human-Environment Interaction
  • For General Braddock, it affected his expedition.

35
Human-Environment Interaction
36
Human-Environment Interaction
Warfare in the wilderness.
37
Human-Environment Interaction
  • Braddocks decision to leave half his army
    behind, and the French decision to engage him in
    the woods, not at the fort, cost Braddock his
    life.

Braddock is wounded.
The British retreat.
38
Movement
European goods also moved into this region by
plunder.
39
Human-Environment Interaction
  • How do people living there affect this place?

Once the English won control of the forks of the
Ohio and expelled the French, they built Fort
Pitt.
40
The Battle of Quebec
41
Location-Where is it?
Quebec is located at 46 48 N, 71 23W.
Quebec is located Northeast of Montreal.
42
Location-Where is it?
Quebec is located on a high cliff along the St.
Lawrence River. These cliffs prevented the
English from attacking the French...
43
Human-Environment Interaction
  • ...until a scout discovered a narrow path up the
    cliffs.

44
Human-Environment Interaction
  • During the night of September 12-13, 1759, under
    cover of darkness, the British used a small
    footpath to get to the Plains of Abraham outside
    the city.

45
Human-Environment Interaction
  • The English surprised the French and defeated
    them in 15 minutes of fighting.

46
Human-Environment Interaction
Victory in the war left the English in possession
of the Ohio Valley. English occupation and the
existence of Fort Pitt angered the Native
Americans living there...
47
Human-Environment Interaction
  • ...which led to Pontiacs Rebellion...

48
Human-Environment Interaction
  • ...and eventually to the forced exodus of the
    Native Americans from the Ohio Valley.

49
Stop and think
  • Based on what weve just learned, what do you
    think were the results of the French and Indian
    war ?
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