Hägerstrands explanation of the core/periphery spatial arrangement of diffusion resembles pattern in culture regions
others say too narrow and mechanical
assumes all innovations are beneficial throughout geographical space
nondiffusion more prevalent than diffusion but not accounted for
50 Susceptibility to an innovation
More crucial when world communications are rapid and pervasive
Friction of distance is almost meaningless
Must evaluate and explain on a region-by-region basis
Inhabitants of two regions will not respond identically to an innovation
Geographers seek to understand spatial variation in receptiveness
51 Cultural ecology
Ecology is two-way relationship between an organism and its physical environment
Cultural ecology is the study of the cause-and-effect interplay between cultures and the physical environment
Ecosystem entails a functioning ecological system where biological and cultural Homo sapiens live and interact with the physical environment.
52 Cultural ecology
Culture is the human method of meeting physical environmental challenges.
assumes plant and animal adaptations are relevant
facilitates long-term successful nongenetic human adaptation to nature and environmental change
adaptive strategy that provides necessities of life food clothing shelter defense
No two cultures employ the same strategy evenin within the same physical environment
53 Cultural ecology
The physical environment plays a powerful role in the cultural landscape of this remote region of Pakistans northern frontier.
The Muslim Pathan have an adaptive strategy of harnessing local resources for their needs.
54 Bahrain Pakistan
The settlement hugs the valley walls and the river is harnessed to provide water power for turning grinding stones (primarily corn) in the foreground structure.
Since limited wood supply precludes its widespread use houses are constructed of dry-mortared stones and many have sod roofs
55 Cultural ecology
Four schools of thought developed by geographers on cultural ecology
Humans as modifiers of the earth
56 Environmental determinism
Developed during the first quarter of the 20th century.
Physical environment provided a dominant force in shaping cultures
Humans were clay to be molded by nature
Believed mountain people because they lived in rugged terrain were
57 Environmental determinism
Believed desert dwellers were
Likely to believe in one god
Lived under the rule of tyrants
Temperate climates produced
Coastlands with fjords produced navigators and fishers
Overestimated the role of environment
Took the place of determinism in the 1920s
Cultural heritage at least as important as physical environment in affecting human behavior
Believe people are the primary architects of culture
Chongqing and San Francisco
SF has smaller population but larger area
Physical environment offers numerous ways for a culture to develop.
People make culture trait choices from the possibilities offered by their environment to satisfy their needs.
High technology societies are less influenced by physical environment.
Geographer Jim Norwin warns control over environment may be an illusion because of possible future climatic changes.
61 Environmental perception
Each persons or cultural groups mental images of the physical environment are shaped by knowledge ignorance experience values and emotions
Environmental perceptionists declare-choices people make will depend more on how they perceive the lands character than its actual character
People make decisions based on distortion of reality with regard to their surrounding physical environment
62 Environmental perception
Geomancya traditional system of land-use planning dictating that certain environmental settings perceived by the sages as auspicious should be chosen as the sites for houses villages temples and graves (feng-shui)
an East Asian world view and art
affected the location and morphology of urban places in countries such as China and Korea
diffused (look up feng-shui on internet)
63 Natural hazards
Humans perceptions of natural hazards
Flooding hurricanes volcanic eruption earthquakes insect infestations and droughts
Some cultures consider them as unavoidable acts of the gods sent down as punishments because of the peoples shortcomings
During times of natural disasters some cultures feel the government should take care of them
Western cultures feel technology should be able to solve the problems created by natural hazards
64 Natural hazards
In virtually all cultures people knowingly inhabit hazard zones
Especially floodplains exposed coastal sites drought-prone regions and active volcanic areas
More Americans than ever live in hurricane- and earthquake-prone areas of the United States
65 Monserrat - 1996 66 Missouri River 67 Hazard Perception
Levees failed to prevent the Mississippi and Missouri rivers from flooding.
Floods are natural occurrences and contrary to the perception of some human made devices are directed toward control rather than prevention.
When the water recedes and tons of muck and debris are removed will the farmer move back and start over
68 Natural hazards
Migrants tend to imagine new homelands as being more similar to their old homelands than is actually the case
Humans perceptions of natural resources
Hunting and gathering cultures
69 Humans as modifiers of the earth
Another facet of cultural ecology
In a sense the opposite of environmental determinism
George Perkins Marsh
Example of soil erosion around Athens in ancient times
70 Humans as modifiers of the earth
Human modification varies from one culture to another
Geographers seek alternative less destructive modes of environmental modification
Humans of the Judeo-Christian tradition tend to regard environmental modification as divinely approved
Other more cautious groups take care not to offend the forces of nature
71 Environmental modification 72 Queensland Australia
Rainforest north of Cairns signs demonstrate conflicting perceptions of a particular resource.
Thousands of acres of Australian rainforest destroyed yearly.
73 Cultural integration
Cultures are complex wholes rather than series of unrelated traits
Cultures form integrated systems in which parts fit together causally
All cultural aspects are functionally interdependent on one another
Changing one element requires accommodating change in others
To understand one facet of culture geographers must study the variations in other facets and how they are causally interrelated and integrated
74 Cultural integration
The influence of religious beliefs
Diet and shopping patterns
Type of employment and social standing
Hinduism segregates people into social classes (castes) and specifies what forms of livelihood are appropriate for each
Mormon faith forbids consumption of alcoholic beverages tobacco and other products thereby influencing both diet and shopping patterns
75 Cultural integration
If improperly used can lead the geographer to cultural determinism such as
physical environment is inconsequential as an influence on culture
culture offers all the answers for spatial variations
nature is passive while people and culture are the active forces
76 Cultural integration
Those who view cultural geography as a social science apply the scientific method to the study of people
Devise theories that cut across cultural lines to govern all of humankind
Believe economic causal forces more powerful in explaining human spatial behavior than any others
77 Models 78 Model of Latin American city 79 Humanistic geography
Celebrates the uniqueness of each region and place
Place is the key word connoting the humanistic view
Topophiliaword coined by Yi-Fu Tuan literally meaning love of place
Has witnessed a resurgence in recent decades
Social-science approach has declined in popularity
80 Humanistic geography
Seek to explain unique phenomenaplace and region-rather than universal spatial laws
Most doubt that laws of spatial behavior even exist
Believe in a far more chaotic world than scientists could tolerate
Reject the use of mathematicsfeel human beliefs and values cannot be measured
81 Who is right
Debate between scientists and humanists in cultural geography
Necessary and healthy
Both ask different questions about place and space
Geography is the bridging discipline joining the sciences and humanities
82 Cultural landscape
The visible material landscape that cultural groups create in inhabiting the Earth
Cultures shape landscapes out of the raw materials provided by the Earth
Each landscape uniquely reflects the culture that created it
Much can be learned about a culture by carefully observing its created landscape
83 Cultural landscape
Some geographers regard landscape study as geographys central interest
Reflects the most basic strivings of humankind
Contains evidence about the origin spread and development of cultures
84 Cultural landscape
Accumulation of human artifacts old and new
Can reveal much about a past forgotten by present inhabitants
Landscapes also reveal messages about present-day inhabitants and cultures
Reflect tastes values aspirations and fears in tangible form
Spatial organization of settlements and architectural form of structures can be interpreted as expression of values and beliefs of the people
Can serve as a means to study nonmaterial aspects of culture
85 Cultural landscape
How architecture reflects past and present values of landscape
Example of centrally located tall structures built of steel brick or stone
Example of medieval European cathedrals and churches that dominated the landscape
86 Cultural landscape 87 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
Now capital prior to 1997 administrative center for British colony of Malaya.
During 20s an 30s Art Deco architecture popular.
Built in 1928 originally wet market for mean poultry and fish were rendered and sold.
88 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
Renewed it now contains a shopping bazaar selling local handicraft products souveniers and food.
Heritage revealed through architecture and sign.
Only traditional cart suggests truth.
89 Cultural landscape
Humanistic view of cultural landscape
Content to study the cultural landscape for its aesthetic value
Obtain subjective messages that help describe the essence of place
Geographer Tarja Keisteri distinguishes the factual concrete physical functioning landscape from the experimental perceived symbolic aesthetic landscape
Distinction between scholarly analysis and subjective artistic interpretation are often blurred
Provides people with landmarks and reassures people they are not rootless without identity or place
90 Cultural landscape
Most geographical studies have focused on three principal aspects of landscape
Settlement formsDescribe the spatial arrangement of buildings roads and other features people construct while inhabiting an area
Land-division patternsreveal the way people divide the land for economic and social uses
Example of land division of small and large farms
Example of urban housing and street patterns
91 Cultural landscape
North Americas different building styles
Regional and cultural differences
Five themes of geography are interwoven
93 Folk and popular architecture reflect culture Toronto near Ottawa
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