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Chapter 2 Fire Department Organization, Command, and Control

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Title: Chapter 2 Fire Department Organization, Command, and Control


1
Chapter 2
Fire Department Organization, Command, and Control
2
Introduction
  • This chapter covers
  • Department organization into companies
  • Companies divided into functions
  • Engine, ladder, truck companies
  • Rescue or hazardous materials companies
  • Division of work assignments
  • Responsibility for specific response area,
    activity
  • Eliminate duplication of work and confusion
  • Establish adequate level of equipment and
    personnel

3
Fire Department Organization
  • Fire departments have a reason for existing and a
    structure for operations
  • Mission statement communicates the reason for
    being
  • Organizational structure defines the chain of
    command and authority

4
The Business of Fire Protection
  • Jurisdiction determines the type and level of
    fire protection
  • Several types of fire department service delivery
  • Career or paid departments consist of full-time
    positions with benefits
  • Volunteer department positions with
    per-call/hourly payment or no payment at all
  • Some jurisdictions utilize a system of both
    career and volunteer members

5
The Business of FireProtection (contd.)
  • Public or municipal fire department commonly
    found in larger cities or densely populated areas
  • Fire district funded by dedicated property tax
  • Fire chief responsible for department operations
  • Industrial fire departments (brigades) are
    specially trained and provide emergency services

6
Mission Statement
  • Each fire department should have a mission
    statement
  • Provides meaning and direction
  • Provides a clear and defined purpose
  • Must be specific to the public

7
SAMPLE MISSION STATEMENT 1
The Midway Fire Department is organized to
deliver fire prevention, fire suppression
(extinguishment), and rescue services to the
citizens of its protection area. This will
include response to conduct vehicle extrication,
hazardous materials mitigation, and basic life
support emergency medical services.
8
SAMPLE MISSION STATEMENT 2
The Midway Fire Department is organized to
deliver fire prevention, life safety, fire
suppression (extinguishment), and rescue services
to the citizens of its protection area. This will
include response to conduct vehicle extrication,
hazardous materials mitigation, confined space
rescue, advanced life support emergency medical
services, disaster response, and fire life safety
code enforcement.
9
Organizational Structure
  • Fire department must have organizational
    structure
  • Structure may be simple or complex
  • Shows internal organization as well as functions
    and responsibilities

10
Figure 2-3 The organizational structure for a
medium to large fire department shows the
division of work assignments and chain of command.
11
Figure 2-5 Different from most organizational
charts, this organizational structure shows the
interdependence of the community, fire
department, governing body, and firefighters.
12
The Firefighter
  • Individual trained to perform the function of
    fire prevention and suppression
  • Other areas firefighters may know
  • Emergency medical technician (EMT)
  • Paramedic (EMT-P)
  • Hazardous materials technician
  • Rescue specialist
  • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
    established training standards

13
(A)
(C)
(B)
Figure 2-7 Some positions available to
firefighters are (A) rescue specialist, (B)
paramedic, and (C) hazardous materials technician.
14
The Firefighter (contd.)
  • Some typical requirements for an individual
    trained in structural fire suppression
  • Know department's organizational structure and
    operating procedures
  • Perform duties safely
  • Know department's response area
  • Maintain equipment
  • Respond to alarms
  • Use self-contained breathing apparatus

15
Figure 2-6 The firefighter is the individual who
makes a department operate.
16
The Company
  • Basic unit of a fire department
  • Firefighters assigned to perform a specific
    function
  • Company officers are supervisory-level positions
  • Company officers are responsible for firefighters
    and administrative duties

17
The Engine Company
  • Firefighters who deliver water
  • Deploy hoselines
  • Attack and extinguish fires in vehicles and
    structures

18
The Truck Company
  • Carry firefighters for forcible entry
  • Search and rescue
  • Ventilation
  • Provision of ladders and securing of utilities
  • Overhaul functions at a fire scene
  • Three basic aerial devices
  • Aerial ladder
  • Tower ladder
  • Snorkel

19
The Rescue Company
  • Provides specially trained firefighters
  • Specialized rescue equipment
  • Tools to conduct forcible entry
  • Tools used for search and rescue
  • Tools to conduct vehicle extrications, confined
    space rescue, rope rescue, and other technical
    operations

20
Specialty/Combination Units
  • Typically a blend of two major company functions
  • Quint is a combination of an engine and ladder
    company
  • Mobile water supply apparatus (tenders) provides
    water where a supply is not present
  • Examples of specialty units
  • Wildland fire
  • Hazardous material units
  • Mass casualty response units

21
Emergency Medical Services
  • Many departments provide either basic life
    support or advanced life support
  • May be an additional duty assigned to an existing
    company
  • Fire departments may operate ambulances to
    provide transport services

22
The Chief Officers
  • Ultimately responsible for the operations and
    administration of the fire department
  • Chief may have a number of deputy, division,
    assistant, or battalion chiefs
  • Rank structure and position depends on size,
    need, and history of an individual fire
    department
  • Number of officers depends on the size of the
    organization

23
Additional FireDepartment Functions
  • Many additional functions assigned to operations
  • Training
  • Fire prevention
  • Additional sections may be established
  • Hazardous materials
  • Urban/technical search and rescue
  • Water rescue
  • Delivery of emergency medical services

24
Fire Prevention and Life Safety
  • Preventing fire reduces risk to community
  • Fire prevention office divided into two
    functions
  • Code enforcement/ inspection services
  • Fire/life safety education
  • A chief-level officer usually heads the fire
    prevention office
  • Fire survival programs educate the public on what
    to do after a fire has started

25
Figure 2-16 Some fire departments utilize unique
characters such as E.D.I.T.H. the Clown to help
children relate to the message of fire prevention.
26
Training
  • Begins with basic firefighter or probationary
    training
  • Continues with proficiency training as new tools,
    equipment, or techniques become available
  • Chief-level officer usually heads the training
    division
  • All departments must have a training officer

27
Figure 2-18 Training must be a continuing
function in all fire departments regardless of
size or area served. (Courtesy of Eastern
Oklahoma Technology Center)
28
Emergency Medical Services
  • Depending on size of organization, the EMS
    function may be a separate division
  • Chief-level officer responsible for its activities

29
Apparatus Maintenanceand Purchasing
  • Large departments may have a fire apparatus
    maintenance or repair shop
  • Responsible for vehicle repair, maintenance, and
    purchasing
  • Headed by a fire department officer or
    non-uniform staff member

30
Special Operations
  • Depending on size of community or potential
    hazards present
  • Delivers or supports services such as
  • Hazardous material mitigation
  • High-rise operations
  • Air operations
  • Confined space rescue
  • Trench rescue
  • Swift water or ice rescue

31
Figure 2-19 Trench rescue is one of many
specialized operations requiring additional
equipment and training.
32
Regulations, Policies, Bylaws,and Procedures
  • All organizations must have
  • Regulations
  • Policies
  • Bylaws
  • Procedures
  • Ensures an adequate and effective emergency
    response
  • Used to establish daily and emergency operations

33
Regulations
  • Determine how an organization operates
  • Established by top-level management
  • OSHA may establish regulations
  • Most states have their own occupational safety
    and health plans
  • Federal program has no enforcement authority

34
Policies
  • Formal statements or directives
  • Established by fire department managers
  • Provide guidance for decision making
  • Usually general in nature
  • Framework for day-to-day department activities

35
Bylaws
  • Volunteer departments may be organized as
    independent corporations
  • Fire corporation usually organized as a
    not-for-profit organization
  • Bylaws established by board of directors or
    membership
  • Describe how the business structure is organized

36
Procedures
  • Standard operating procedures (SOPs) provide
    specific information and instructions
  • Established so all members will perform the same
    function with the same level of uniformity
  • Tactical in nature
  • Also called standard operating guidelines (SOGs)
  • Variety of ways in which SOPs are developed and
    documented

37
Allied Agencies andOrganizations
  • During an operation, fire department interacts
    with many different organizations
  • A few of these organizations
  • Police/ law enforcement
  • Utility companies
  • Environmental conservation
  • Private business

38
Incident Management
  • Fire departments respond to millions of emergency
    incidents each year
  • Extreme incidents require mutual aid assistance
    from outside the authority having jurisdiction

39
Command and Control
  • Firefighters must understand the concept of
    command and control
  • Unity of command
  • First unit arriving should establish command
  • Transfer of command is the process of briefing an
    authority of equal or higher experience
  • Transfer of command should occur during a
    face-to-face meeting

40
Incident Command System
  • Systematic approach for command, control, and
    management of an emergency incident
  • Must contain the following components
  • Command terminology
  • Modular organization
  • Integrated communications
  • Consolidated incident action plan
  • Span of control
  • Designated incident facilities

41
Figure 2-21 This chart of a typical incident
command system shows the modular organization
necessary to manage an incident.
42
Five Major Functions of anIncident Command System
  • Incident commander develops strategic goals
  • Operations section chief responsible for
    implementing tactical assignments
  • Planning section chief responsible for
    development of incident action plan

43
Five Major Functions of anIncident Command
System (contd.)
  • Logistics section chief responsible for securing
    facilities, services, equipment, and materials
  • Finance/administration section chief documents
    cost of materials and personnel

44
Figure 2-25 Organizational structure showing the
managerial level for an incident.
45
Unified Command
  • Used to manage an incident involving multiple
    response agencies
  • Unified command has only one IC and Incident
    Action Plan
  • Allows for agencies with jurisdiction to be part
    of the command structure or team

46
The Team
  • Utilize an incident command system (ICS)
  • Work together and remain intact
  • Look after each other
  • Prevent freelancing
  •  

47
Figure 2-26 Tactical worksheets provide the
incident commander with a guide for managing an
incident.
48
Lessons Learned
  • Common contributing factors to firefighter deaths
    in the line of duty are command- and
    organization-related
  • To survive on the fire scene, firefighters must
    know
  • Roles and responsibilities of personnel
  • How their fire department command structure works
  • How to function as part of that command structure
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