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Title: 9-11 and the War on Terrorism History, Ideology and Current Status Bob Shamy


1
9-11 and the War on TerrorismHistory, Ideology
and Current StatusBob Shamy
2
  • Islam
  • - Ancient religion of 1.5
  • billion people
  • - Diversity of beliefs,
  • practices, and politics
  • - Modernists, traditionalist
  • and orthodox (80-85?)
  • Islamism (salafi Islam, fundamentalism) (15-20?)
  • Islam must have political power and a state
  • Response to European colonialism
  • Reject modernism and turn to Islam
  • But no unanimity about democracy
  • Jihadism (salafiyya jihadiyya) (lt1?) 15 Mill.
  • Extremist version of Islamism
  • No gradual implementation or political process
  • Only violence can recreate an idealized Islamic
    state called the Caliphate

3
The Prophet Muhammad
Early History
  • Born 570
  • Orphaned as a boy raised by his uncle Abu Talib
    a merchant
  • Married a wealthy widow/merchant (Khadijah)
  • The Message comes to him when he is about 40
    years old
  • After overcoming his doubt and fear he begins to
    preach in Mecca

Chosen by God, like the Hebrew prophets, to
preach the oneness of God, repentance, submission
to God, and a coming day of judgment
4
The First Three Caliphs or Rashidin Sustain the
Salaf The Community of Islam as it was under
Muhammed
Abu Bakr 632-34
Umar 634-44
Uthman 644-656
Ali 656-661
Ali grew up with Muhammed and is revered by Sunni
Muslims as the last of the four Rightly Guided
Caliphs and an authority on the Qur'an and
Islamic Law.
Shi'a consider him the First Imam appointed by
the Prophet Muhammad and the first rightful
caliph. Ali was the cousin and son-in-law of
Muhammad. SHIA is short for ši at Ali "the party
of Ali". Shia Muslims adhere to the teachings of
the Prophet Muhammad and the religious guidance
of his family who they refer to as Ahl al-Bayt.
Ali is killed by the followers of Uthman in a
Civil War and the Umayyads rule the Caliphate.
5
Significance of Karbala 680 (Husayn)
He refused to swear allegiance to Yazid, the
second Umayyad Caliph. He tried to travel from
Medina to Kufa but was surrounded by forces loyal
to Yazid in the desert at a place now known as
Karbala. Outnumbered, most of the family of
Mohammad are slaughtered.
  • Muharram, first month of the Islamic
    calendar. Muslims commemorate the martyrdom of
    Husayn, (Imam) the grandson of the Prophet
    Mohammad and spiritual leader of the Shi'a
    people.

Karbala
The captive women and children of the family of
Mohammad are paraded in
chains from town to town. This contributed to the
end of Yazid's rule. The tragedy played an
enormous role in the development of Shi'a
identity. The story of Husayn and the killing of
the family of Mohammad heavily influenced the
rapid spread of Shi'a Islam.
London
Ashura, the 10th day of Muharram commemorating
the day of the massacre.
6
Abbasid Dynasty 750-1258
Shifted the capital from Damascus to Baghdad.
Went into decline with the rise to power of the
Turkish army it had created, the Mamluks.
Their rule was finally ended in 1258, when Hulagu
Khan, the Mongol conqueror, sacked Baghdad. While
they continued to claim authority in religious
matters from their base in Egypt, the dynasty's
secular authority had ended.
7
  • The Mongol invasions did not destroy the native
    Islamic faith.
  • The faith remained
  • Mongols converted
  • It was a major change in direction for the
    region

Their military campaigns were brutal and their
influence on Eurasian culture was significant.
The Mongols destroyed the Islamic empires that
existed before they came and three new imperial
powers were made possible by the discovery and
exploitation of gunpowder and more efficient
administration.
8
Three Muslim Empires
The Ottoman Empire (1299 to 1922 Turkish)
The Safavids (1501 to 1736 Iranian) Established
Shi'a Islam as Iran's official religion and
united its provinces under a single Iranian
sovereignty.
The Mughal Empire (1526 to 1857) Indian
subcontinent, then known as Hindustan, and parts
of what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan.
By the end of the 19th century, all three had
declined significantly, and by the early 20th
century, with the Ottomans' defeat in World War
I, the last Muslim empire dissolved.
9
World War I
  • The Europeans colonized much of the Ottoman
    Empire in the 19th century
  • Completed the takeover of Arabia, Iraq,
    Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria

Transformed the Middle East in ways it had not
seen for centuries.
Maps Geoffrey Gaudreault, NPR Source A History
of the Arab Peoples by Albert Hourani
T.E. Lawrence
Oxford-bred British Army officer who unites the
desert-dwelling Arabian Bedouins against the
Turks during World War I.
10
Changing Middle East Map
Links to Maps of the Muslim World 661-1500
Vast Collection of Historical Maps
11
The Oslo Accords 1993
The Oslo accords are the foundation on which
current peace negotiations between Israel and the
Palestinians are based.
  • Negotiated secretly by Israeli and Palestinian
    delegations in 1993
  • Signed at a Washington ceremony hosted by U.S.
    President Bill Clinton
  • Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and Israeli
    Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin shook hands, ending
    decades as sworn enemies.
  • Long-term goals
  • Complete withdrawal of Israeli troops from the
    Gaza Strip and the West Bank, and the
    Palestinians' right to self-rule in those
    territories.

Oslo 2 Interim Agreement 1995 A second stage of
autonomy for the Palestinians, giving them
self-rule in the cities of Bethlehem, Jenin,
Nablus, Qalqilya, Ramallah, Tulkarm, parts of
Hebron and 450 villages, while allowing
Israeli-guarded Jewish settlements to remain.
12
Philosophical Foundations of Islamist
Fundamentalism
13
Ibn Taymiya 1263-1328
  • Islam has given to idolatry and innovation
  • Denounced Sufi practices
  • First 3 generations of Islam were the best models
    of Islamic life
  • Their Sunnah, or practice, combined with a
    literal interpretation of the Queran constitute
    an infallible guide to life
  • Heavily influenced Abd al Wahhab

14
Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab 1703-1792
  • Most famous scholar of the Wahhabi (Salafi) sect
  • Forged a pact with the chieftain Muhammad Ibn
    Saud ensuring that regions conquered by his tribe
    would follow his teachings on Islam
  • Ibn Saud and his heirs spread this ideology for
    140 years and founded Saudi Arabia
  • Strong influence on bin Laden, al Zawarhiri and
    al Zarqawi

15
Salafi Fundamentalism
  • "Salafi" is an umbrella term for adherents of
    a particular form of Islamic revivalism who vary
    amongst themselves as to its definition, but
    share a rejection of contemporary Islamic
    teachings in favor of a return to the Salaf, as
    Islam was practiced during the first three
    generations of Muslims.

16
Hasan al-Banna 1906-1949
  • A Sufi revivalist and thinker
  • Founded the Muslim Brotherhood as a reaction to
    British occupation of Egypt
  • Focused on organizing followers rather than
    calling people to follow the way of the prophet
  • Promoted innovation and interpretation of the
    Queran
  • Muslim Brotherhood becomes actively involved in
    Egyptian politics in the 30s

Confronts Egyptian politicians and involved in
assassinations Disbanded in 1948 by Egyptian
Govt. Many go to Saudi Arabia to study Becomes
clandestine and lays the foundations for al-Qaeda
Innovation and Secrecy Today its outreach is
world wide and politically connected
17
Sayyid Qutb 1906-1966
  • Egyptian member of the Muslim Brotherhood
  • US visit early 1948-50s shocks him Racism and
    openness between the sexes
  • Involved in assassination attempts in Egypt
  • Imprisoned writes Milestones. Extreme
    expressions of Islamic revivalism
  • Call for Islamic militancy and a vanguard of
    true believers to lead the way in jihad against
    unbelievers
  • Western civilization is unable to present any
    healthy values for the guidance of mankindIt
    creates values and legislates rules for
    collective behaviorIslam is the only system
    which possesses these values and this way of
    life
  • Hanged in 1966 by the Egyptian Government

18
Abdullah Yusuf Azzam, Ph.D. (19411989)
  • Azzam galvanized the Muslim masses to wage an
    international holy war against all infidels and
    non-believers until the enemies of Islam were
    defeated.
  • Built a scholarly, ideological and practical
    paramilitary infrastructure for the globalization
    of Islamist movements that had previously focused
    on separate national, revolutionary and
    liberation struggles.
  • His global jihad and organized approach to
    recruitment and training of Muslim militants from
    around the world developed during the Afghan war
    against Soviet occupation.

The love jihad (Holy War) took over my life, my
soul, my sensations, my heart and my emotions.
If preparing for jihad is terrorism, then we
are terrorists.
His strategies led to the development of the
al-Qaida militant movement.
19
Basic ideology of jihadism
  • Distorted definitions of jihad and tawhid
    (Monotheism)
  • Believe that only they are the true believers
    (the saved sect) all others are merely Muslims

The Narrative of the Global Salafi Islamist
Western Society and the Zionist want to destroy
Islam..
Therefore war against them and their puppets is
justified
An Islamic state is necessary not only to
implement Islamic law correctly, it will also
wage eternal war with the unbelievers
20
Contrasting definitions between Islam and jihadism
TAWHID THE ONENESS OR UNITY OF ALLAH
  • Islam
  • There is only one God
  • Only he has the right to be worshiped
  • - Anyone who worships another god is sinning and
    after death, he will be judged by God.
  • Jihadism
  • There is only one God
  • Only he has the right to be worshiped and obeyed
  • - Anyone who obeys the laws created by a
    human being is committing idolatry and must be
    killed.

21
Egyptian Islamic JihadKilling the apostate
ruler Sadat
22
Jamaah Islamiyah Tourists as occupiers and
polluters
On December 24, 2000, a series of explosions took
place in Indonesia, which were part of a
high-scale terrorist attack by the Al Qaeda and
Jemaah Islamiyah terrorist networks. The attack
involved a series of coordinated bombings of
churches in Jakarta and eight other cities.
23
al-QaidaThe US as the greater unbelief
24
Why 9/11?
  • Strike a stunning blow to the US to
  • Convince US to leave all Islamic lands
  • Convince all other Muslims to join al-Qaidas
    war with the US and the apostate puppets
  • Without the support of the US, its apostate
    puppets would soon fall to the energized jihadist
    movement

25
Who Were/Are the Terrorists and What is their
Current Status?
Khadafi Abubakar Janjala-Philippine
Anas Al-Sabai
Libyan
Jaber A. Elbaneh Yemeni
Ramadan Shallah
Palestinian
Ali Saed Bin Ali Al Houri-Saudi
Abdul Rahman Yasin American
Fazul Abdullah Mohammed-Kenya
Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah-Egyptian
Ali Atwa-Lebanese
25
  • Adapted from Understanding Terror Networks by
    Marc Sageman

26
TerrorismIntelligence Community Definition
  • Premeditated Violence, or Threat of Violence
  • Politically Motivated
  • Against Non-Combatants
  • A Criminal Act
  • Symbolic In Nature
  • Intended to Impact Audience Beyond the Immediate
    Victims

Perpetrated by sub national groups or clandestine
state agents
The Psycho-cultural Foundations of Contemporary
Terrorism Jerrold Post, GW University
27
Evolution of al Qaeda
Three processes of self-selection of the most
militants
- 1988-9 Militants come to fight the anti-Soviet
jihad could not go home stayed behind and
formed al Qaeda - 1991-2 Most militants expelled
from Pakistan went to Sudan - Switch of strategy
from near enemy to far enemy 1996 150
militants expelled from Sudan returned to
Afghanistan
1996-2001 Golden age of al Qaeda
  • - Control of Golden Chain exclusive funding
    for terrorism
  • - Control of training camps establishment of
    shelter
  • - Staff for planning coordination
  • - Afghanistan, as failed state, has little
    ability to control al Qaeda

28
AYMAN AL-ZAWAHIRI
USAMA BIN LADEN
al-Qaeda 1983 Hezbollah Bombs US Marine
Barracks 1992 Aden/Yemen Hotels 1993 World
Trade Center 1996 Khobar Towers in Saudi
Arabia 1998 US Embassy Bombings in Africa 2000
U.S.S. Cole in Yemen 2001 World Trade Center
http//www.fbi.gov/wanted/terrorists/fugitives.htm
29
Present Statushttp//www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/rpt/f
to/2801.htm
  • Four types of networks existing in parallel
  • The old al Qaeda organization
  • Effectively neutralized (sanctuary denial,
    monitored)
  • Resurrection in West Pakistan/East
    Afghanistan/Somalia
  • The organized affiliated groups, now more
    autonomous
  • Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG)Abu Nidal
    Organization (ANO)
  • Armed Islamic Group (GIA)Aum
    ShinriykyoBasque Fatherland and Liberty
    (ETA)Gama'a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group,
    IG)HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement)Harakat
    ul-Mujahidin (HUM)Hizballah (Party of
    God)Japanese Red Army (JRA)al-JihadKachKahane
    Chai
  • 3. Unaffiliated informal groups
  • Madrid group Salafia Jihadia (Morocco)
    Hofstad group Benchellali group
    (Algerian/Ricen) London groups Khan al-Khalili
    and Taba resorts (Egypt) Istanbul group
  • 4. Singletons

Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)Liberation Tigers
of Tamil Elam (LTTE)Mujahedin-e Khalq
Organization (MEK, MKO, NCR, and many
others)National Liberation Army (ELN)Palestine
Islamic Jihad-Shaqaqi Faction (PIJ)Palestine
Liberation Front-Abu Abbas Faction (PLF)Popular
Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)
29
30
Global Salafi Jihad on the World Wide Web
  • Forces migration of the Jihad to the Internet
  • Internet interactive transformation of the
    jihad Diffusion of Salafi message, by passing
    traditional imams
  • Rejection of traditions fosters unique
    interpretation of the Quran
  • No need for leaders or training camps
  • Inversion of power pyramid followers are in
    control

31
Diaspora
  • Global Salafi Jihad is a Diaspora phenomenon
  • 84 of Global Salafi Mujahedin have joined the
    jihad, while living in a another country (87 in
    Western Europe)

The Muslim Brotherhood
Since the early 1960s, Muslim Brotherhood members
and sympathizers have moved to Europe and slowly
but steadily established a wide and
well-organized network of mosques, charities and
Islamic organizations. Its motto is telling
"Allah is our objective. The Prophet is our
leader. The Qur'an is our law. Jihad is our way.
Dying in the way of Allah is our highest hope."
32
Trajectory Core Arabs
  • Upwardly geographically
  • mobile (best brightest)
  • Mostly from religious, caring
  • middle class families
  • Global citizens, conversant
  • in 3 or 4 languages, skilled in
  • computer technology
  • Separated from traditional bonds culture
  • Homesick, lonely, marginalized excluded from
    society
  • Seek friends
  • Drifted to mosques for companionship, not
    religion
  • Moved in together (halal food), formed cliques

HATE THE HYPOCRACY OF THE ROYAL FAMILIES
33
Saudi Prince bin Talals private Airbus. Most
expensive ever built.
Saudi Prince Bandar bin Sultans 150 mil fixer
upper in Aspen, CO
The family home of Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al
Nahyan, the former president of the United Arab
Emirates and ruler of Abu-Dhabi
34
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The Closed Society
  • Ethnic/Race/Class Exploitation
  • The aim of a closed society is to ensure the
    supremacy of one class (or race or group) over
    another
  • To bridge the gap, an elaborate set of
    explanations and ideas are needed which is, by
    definition, at variance with the facts

SEGREGATION, APARTHIED, ETC.
40
European Social Conditions
  • Alienated young Muslims, who became radicalized
    in Europe
  • Lack of alternative expression of social protest.
    I.e Communist
  • Failure of European integration policy for
    Muslim populations
  • - Rapid immigration growth post WWII
  • - Vulnerable to economic crises
  • Rigid social structure in Europe
  • - Lack of bottom up integration
  • - Failure of top down policy No American
    Dream
  • No American Dream

41
An Ideological War
  • This is a war of ideas. We need idea based
    solutions against fuzzy idea-based networks
  • The Threat Violent Islamist revivalist social
    movement
  • Common element is idea (global Salafi jihad)
  • Loose network with fuzzy boundaries
  • Self organized, bottom up, local initiative,
    uncoordinated
  • No fixed number of terrorists
  • Number fluctuates according to local grievance
    international situation
  • Changing Leadership

42
Afghanistan Pakistan Taliban and al Qaeda
43
Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan
44
Pahtunwali The Code of Pashtun Social Structure
45
Buzkashi
Then
Now
The Role of Tradition?
Do Our Students Understand the Importance of
Tradition in Cultural Relationships?
This is one of the many questions that arise in
relation to teaching students about the current
crises.
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