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Industrial Hygiene

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Title: Industrial Hygiene


1
Industrial Hygiene
Whats an Industrial Hygienist?
2
  • A professional qualified by education, training
    and experience to anticipate, recognize, evaluate
    and develop controls for occupational health
    hazards and environmental issues.

Industrial Hygienist
3
Industrial Hygienist
There has been an awareness of industrial hygiene
since antiquity. The environment and its
relation to worker health was recognized as early
as the fourth century BC
4
Not a Master
5
Industrial Hygienist
In the first century AD, Pliny the Elder, a
Roman scholar, perceived health risks to those
working with zinc and sulfur. He devised a face
mask made from an animal bladder to protect
workers from exposure to dust and lead
fumes.
6
Law Codes
Hammurabi
7
LAW
If any harm follows, then you shall give life for
life, 24eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for
hand, foot for foot, 25burn for burn, wound for
wound, stripe for stripe. Ex 2123-25
Anyone who kills an animal shall make restitution
for it, life for life. 19Anyone who maims another
shall suffer the same injury in return
20fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for
tooth the injury inflicted is the injury to be
suffered. Lev 24 18-24
lex talionis
8
History
In the second century AD, the Greek physician,
Galen, accurately described the pathology of lead
poisoning and also recognized the hazardous
exposures of copper miners to acid mists.
9
Galens Thoughts
10
This illustration accompanying Galens work shows
the surgical procedures described by Galenon the
head, eye, leg, mouth, bladder and genitals
still practiced in the 16th century.
11
Galen states that animal bodies are an unequal
?mixture? of hot, cold, wet, and dry?an
elaboration of the Hippocratic Pythagorean
concept that the cosmos consists of four
geometrically interacting primary life elements 
earth, air, water, and fire. (509)  These
mixtures can become "ill balanced" and these
imbalances can be vectored in various
configurations.  Mixtures also define and measure
objects, qualities, and other subjects, such as
climate for example. 
12
  • Elrich Ellenbog
  • Wrote a pamphlet on occupational
  • Diseases with the mining industry

13
Magna Carta Year
  • Year 1215
  • Lead to Bill of Rights
  • Some other clauses still used today!

Edward Coke interpreted Magna Carta to apply not
only to the protection of nobles but to all
subjects of the crown equally. He famously
asserted "Magna Carta is such a fellow, that he
will have no sovereign."
14
Magna Carta Year
  • Anti-corruption and fair trade (also in 1225
    Charter)
  • Clauses 28 to 32 say that no royal officer may
    take any commodity such as corn, wood or
    transport without payment or consent or force a
    knight to pay for something the knight could do
    himself and that the king must return any lands
    confiscated from a felon within a year and a day.
  • Clause 25 sets out a list of standard measures
    and Clauses 41 and 42 guarantee the safety and
    right of entry and exit of foreign merchants.
  • Clause 45 says that the king should only appoint
    royal officers where they are suitable for the
    post.
  • Clause 46 provides for the guardianship of
    monasteries.

15
Magna Carta Year 1215
Clause 24 states that crown officials (such as
sheriffs) may not try a crime in place of a
judge. Clause 34 forbids repossession without a
writ precipe. Clauses 36 to 38 state that writs
for loss of life or limb are to be free, that
someone may use reasonable force to secure their
own land and that no one can be tried on their
own testimony alone.
Edward Coke
16
History
In the Middle Ages, guilds worked at assisting
sick workers and their families. In 1556 the
German scholar, Agricola, advanced the science of
industrial hygiene even further when, in his book
De Re Metallica, he described the diseases of
miners and prescribed preventive measures. The
book included suggestions for mine ventilation
and worker protection, discussed mining
accidents, and described diseases associated with
mining occupations such as silicosis.
17
Agricola suggested ventilation!
18
Diseases of the Mines!
19
Ventilation Horse Powered!
20
History
Mysticisms vrs Reality
Late 1600s it was believed that demons lived in
the mines Could be controlled with fasting and
prayer!
21
History
Industrial hygiene gained further respectability
in 1700 when Bernardo Ramazzini, known as the
"father of industrial medicine," published in
Italy the first comprehensive book on industrial
medicine, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The
Diseases of Workmen). Same time frame as the
Inquisition of Galileo (His works were banned at
this time!)
22
Ramazzini
The book contained accurate descriptions of the
occupational diseases of most of the workers of
his time. Ramazzini greatly affected the future
of industrial hygiene because he asserted that
occupational diseases should be studied in the
work environment rather than in hospital
wards. The First one to ask What is your
trade?
23
History
Industrial hygiene received another major boost
in 1743 when Ulrich Ellenborg published a
pamphlet on occupational diseases and injuries
among gold miners. Ellenborg also wrote about the
toxicity of carbon monoxide, mercury, lead, and
nitric acid.
24
Sir George Baker Colic related to lead in
cider Industry.
25
History
In England in the 18th century, Percival Pott, as
a result of his findings on the insidious effects
of soot on chimney sweepers, was a major force in
getting the British Parliament to pass the
Chimney-Sweepers Act of 1788. The passage of the
English Factory Acts beginning in 1833 marked the
first effective legislative acts in the field of
industrial safety. The Acts, however, were
intended to provide compensation for accidents
rather than to control their causes. Later,
various other European nations developed workers'
compensation acts, which stimulated the adoption
of increased factory safety precautions and the
establishment of medical services within
industrial plants.
26
History
In the early 20th century in the U. S., Dr. Alice
Hamilton, led efforts to improve industrial
hygiene. She observed industrial conditions first
hand and startled mine owners, factory managers,
and state officials with evidence that there was
a correlation between worker illness and their
exposure to toxins. She also presented definitive
proposals for eliminating unhealthful working
conditions.Reference Exploring the Dangerous
Trades
27
Child Labor Law
28
Laws that Changed
29
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30
History
At about the same time, U.S. federal and state
agencies began investigating health conditions in
industry. In 1908, the public's awareness of
occupationally related diseases stimulated the
passage of compensation acts for certain civil
employees. States passed the first workers'
compensation laws in 1911. And in 1913, the New
York Department of Labor and the Ohio Department
of Health established the first state industrial
hygiene programs. All states enacted such
legislation by 1948. In most states, there is
some compensation coverage for workers
contracting occupational diseases.
31
History
1966 Safety and Health - A managers
prerogative
32
The Time Line
1950
1941
1970
1935
1930
WW II
Korea
Vietnam
OSHA
Walsh Halley Act
Manufacturing
Crash
Agriculture
WW I
Iron/Steel
Standardized systems
11 Million Workers
33
Continuous Mining Machine
New Vulcanization Process
Asbestosis increases
Black lung increases
Uranium
New Petrochemical
Increase respiratory disease
Mine Explosion WV, 1968
1940
1970
1960
34
Time Line
1976
1941
1 Billion lbs/year
162.9 Billion lbs/year
35
Time LineSynthetic Compounds Produced
70,000
58,000
17,000
1971
1980s
1958
36
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37
Values
  • 208,000

38
  • Federal Regulations
  • December 9, 1970 OSHA
  • Each employer shall furnish to each employee a
    place of employment which is free of recognized
    hazards that are causing or are likely to cause
    death or serious harm to their employees
  • Each employer shall comply with the occupational
    safety and heath standards under the Act.

39
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40
Break!
41
How do IH's Recognize and Control
Hazards?Industrial hygienists recognize that
engineering, work practice, and administrative
controls are the primary means of reducing
employee exposure to occupational hazards.
Engineering controls minimize employee exposure
by either reducing or removing the hazard at the
source or isolating the worker from the
hazards.Engineering controls include
eliminating toxic chemicals.Work practice
controls alter the manner in which a task is
performed. (1) following proper procedures that
minimize exposures (2) inspecting and
maintaining process and control equipment on a
regular basis (3) implementing good
house-keeping procedures (4) providing good
supervision and (5) mandating that eating,
drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, and
applying cosmetics in regulated areas be
prohibited.Administrative controls include
controlling employees' exposure by scheduling
production and workers' tasks, or both, in ways
that minimize exposure levels. For example, the
employer might schedule operations with the
highest exposure potential during periods when
the fewest employees are present.
42
History
The U.S. Congress has passed three landmark
pieces of legislation relating to safeguarding
workers' health (1) the Metal and Nonmetallic
Mines Safety Act of 1966, (2) the Federal Coal
Mine Safety and Health Act of 1969, and (3) the
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970
(Act). Today, nearly every employer is
required to implement the elements of an
industrial hygiene and safety, occupational
health, or hazard communication program and to be
responsive to the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) and the Act and its
regulations.
43
Administrative controls include controlling
employees' exposure by scheduling production and
workers' tasks, or both, in ways that minimize
exposure levels. For example, the employer might
schedule operations with the highest exposure
potential during periods when the fewest
employees are present.
44
Activity
Now youre the Industrial Hygienist. Scenario
What is the hazard? What is the control?
45
What is oversight?
Discussion
46
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47
Industrial Hygiene
What is it?
48
Definition
  • The science and art devoted to the anticipation,
    recognition, evaluation and control of factors
    and stresses (arising in or from the workplaces),
    which may cause sickness, impaired health and
    well being or significant discomfort, and
    inefficiency among workers or among the citizens
    of a community - ACGIH

49
  • The science devoted to recognition (or
    identification), evaluation and control of
    hazards arising in or from the workplace, which
    could impair the health and well being of people
    at work, while also taking into account the
    possible impacts on the general environment - BIOH

Detection and Assessment of Occupational Hazards
50
Industrial Hygienist
  • The person having a college or university degree
    or degrees in engineering, chemistry, physics,
    health physics, nursing, medicine, or related
    field, by virtue of special studies, training,
    experience, and/or certification has acquired
    competence in IH.

51
Scope of OH
  • Anticipation
  • Recognition
  • Evaluation
  • Control

52
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53
Anticipation
  • Design of process, equipment
  • Future legislation/regulations
  • Research

54
Recognition
  • Raw materials, by-product, products
  • Process and operations
  • Records of accidents and diseases
  • Walkaround senses, talk to workers, etc
  • Grab samples

55
Life Cycle System Accident
HARM!
System becomes unbalanced Loss Control
starts Detection
System in Balance Normal State
Point of no return
Initiating event(s)
Early
Start of Recovery
Recovery
56
Evaluation
  • Purpose
  • Sampling technique and strategy
  • Instrumentation (Real time non Rt)
  • Standard, regulations etc

57
Control
  • Principle of control measures
  • Hierarchy of control measures
  • ALARA

58
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59
Benefits of IH Program
  • Improve health and hygiene
  • Reduce compensation
  • Improve job satisfaction
  • Reduce absenteeism
  • Improve productivity
  • Improve workers attitude towards management

60
Objectives
  • To create awareness among employers and workers
    on the importance of OH practices in industry to
    preserve and protect the health of workers from
    being affected by hazards in the working
    environment.
  • To investigate the effect of specific hazard on
    the health of workers so that the short and long
    term measures can be taken to control the hazard

61
Activities
  • Occupational Hygiene Inspection
  • Monitoring of occupational hazards
  • Biological monitoring
  • Enforcement
  • Investigation of complaints / accidents
  • Training

62
Industrial Hygiene Monitoring
  • Monitoring of occupational hazards
  • Chemical
  • Biological
  • Physical
  • Ergonomic/mechanical
  • Psychosocial

63
Biological Monitoring
  • Blood Pb, Hg, Cd etc
  • Lung Function Test
  • HCP
  • Textile workers
  • mill workers
  • Timber processing workers
  • Audiometric testing

64
Environmental Factors
  • Chemical Hazards
  • Physical Hazards
  • radiation, pressure
  • noise, vibration, temperature
  • Ergonomic Hazards
  • Biological Hazards

65
Chemical Hazards
  • The majority of OHS are chemical
  • MSDS (required by OSHA)
  • The right to know act
  • Proper labeling
  • Hazards when machining / melting etc.
  • How exposure effects the body

66
Solvents
  • Very commonly used
  • How do solvents enter the body?
  • Effect from physical contact
  • Acute effects versus chronic effects
  • Air displacement issues
  • Flammability and flash point

67
Toxicity
  • Toxicity is not synonymous with hazard.
  • Toxicity is the ability of a material to do harm
    when it reaches a certain concentration.
  • Hazard is the probability that this contamination
    will occur assessing hazard is covered in chapter
    6

68
Physical Hazards
  • Noise
  • Psychological Effects
  • Interference with communication
  • Physiological effects
  • Risk Criteria
  • Permissible levels
  • (85 dBA requires a hearing protection plan)

69
Temperature
  • Heat (core temp range is 3 / -2 degrees F)
  • Heat stress (heat stroke / exhaustion)
  • measurement and heat index
  • Radiant heat (IR radiation)
  • Heat that is absorbed on impact
  • Heat loss through contact and convection
  • Heat stress indicies
  • Cold Stress

70
Ionizing Radiation
  • What is ionizing radiation?
  • How does it effect the body
  • What are the sources of ionizing radiation?
  • Internal versus external hazards
  • Measuring radiation

71
Non-Ionizing Radiation
  • Definition
  • Low frequency (microwaves, radio waves)
  • Infrared (thermal radiation / blackbody)
  • Visible light
  • Well lit but not over lit
  • 60 cycle flicker
  • Effects on the eyes and lasers energy output

72
Extremes of pressure
  • Effects on gas absorption in the blood
  • Effects on thermal coefficient of the atmosphere
  • Effects on partial pressure of atmosphere
    components
  • Teeth / ears / eyes / bowels etc.
  • Effects of low pressure

73
Ergonomic Hazards
  • Repetitive motion disorders
  • Injury rate (guards and shields)
  • Body stress
  • back
  • neck
  • eyes
  • Workplace design

74
Biological Hazards
  • Bacterial
  • Viral
  • Engineered
  • Bugs and snakes etc.
  • Allergens
  • The water fountain

75
Routs of Entry
  • Inhalation (area of lungs)
  • Absorption
  • Ingestion

76
Airborne Contaminates
  • Dusts (0.1 - 25 um)
  • smaller than 5um tend to be the problem
  • Fumes (less than 1um)
  • made from condensed volatilized solids
  • Smoke (lt0.1 um)
  • Aerosols

77
Airborne Contaminates
  • Mists
  • Suspended liquid droplets
  • Gases
  • Vapors
  • volatile forms of substances which are normally
    in a solid or liquid form at this temperature

78
Respiratory Hazards
  • Oxygen deficient atmospheres
  • 160mmHg O2 normal
  • Where can oxygen deficient atmospheres occur?
  • Confined entry
  • NASA shuttle

79
Hazards of Airborne Contaminates
  • Threshold Limit Values (TLVs)
  • Reviewed and updated annually
  • TLV-TWA (Time Weighted Average)
  • TLV-STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit)
  • TLV-C (Ceiling)

80
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81
  • Break!
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