5 Units and dimensions Systems of units CGS-- Centimeter gram and secondSI----- The international systemBE/USC-- British Engineering or the US customary 6 SI Base Quantities and Units 7 Significant Figures A radar signal is sent from Earth to a planet which is 7 x 1010 m from Earth. How long will it take for the signal to return to Earth A. 200 s B. 300 s C. 400 s D. 500 s 8 Vectors and Scalars Physical quantities are divided into vectors and scalars. Scalars have magnitude or size only. Vectors have magnitude and direction. 9 Components of a Vector Use Cosine for Adjacent component and Sine for opposite component. 10 Vector Addition Example problem Locating a lost plane 11 Speed and Velocity
Average speed v is obtained by dividing travel distance d by travel time t.
The speed at a particular time is known as the instantaneous speed. When you drive the speedometer of a car displays the instantaneous speed. Speeding tickets are issued using the instantaneous speed. Velocity Speed with direction. 12 Acceleration Acceleration a is the time-rate at which the velocity changes. It is obtained by dividing the change in velocity by the time it took for that change. Acceleration is a vector quantity. Units Velocity --gt m/s Acceleration --gt m/s2 13 Kinematic Equations
For a uniformly accelerated motion
v v0 at
x ½(v0 v)t
x v0 t ½at2
v2 v02 2ax
x travel distance a acceleration v final velocity v0 initial velocity t travel time.
14 Problem How long will it take a runner starting from rest andaccelerating uniformly at 1.5 m/s2 to travel 3.0 m A) 21/2 sec B) 1.5 sec C) 2.0 sec D) 3.0 sec 15 Freely Falling Bodies Free fall is motion under the influence of gravity. When you toss an object in the air it is in free fall whether it is going up or down. Its velocity will decrease as it goes up and increase as it goes down because the Earth pulls on it due to its gravity. Close to the surface the acceleration due to gravity of the Earth is about 9.8 m/s2. This means during free fall the velocity will change by 9.8 m/s every second. All objects regardless of their masses fall at the same rate on Earth provided the air drag is negligible. They all have an acceleration of 9.8 m/s2 vertically down. 16 Force and Motion Gravitation
Mass center of mass weight
Newtons second law
Newtons third law
Law of gravitation
Uniform circular motion centripetal force
17 Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation Every body in the universe attracts every other body with a force that is directly proportional to the product of the masses of the bodies and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies. 18 Centripetal Force The centripetal force is the net force required to keep an object of mass m moving at a speed v on a circular path of radius r and it has a magnitude of Direction The centripetal force always points toward the center of the circle and continually changes direction as the object moves. 19 Satellites in Circular Orbits Orbital speed is given by 20 Equilibrium and Momentum
Rotational equilibrium torques lever arms
Newtons first law inertia
Conservation of linear momentum
Elastic and inelastic collisions
21 Translational equilibrium For translational equilibrium the net force acting on the object must be zero. The above equation can also be written as 22 Rotational equilibrium For rotational equilibrium the net torque acting on the object must be zero. 23 TORQUE and LEVER ARM
Torque (Magnitude of the force)(Lever arm)
Direction Counterclockwise OR Clockwise.
SI Unit of Torque newton meter (N m)
24 Problem 25 Impulse J The impulse J of a force is the product of the average force and the time interval Dt during which the force acts Impulse is a vector quantity and has the same direction as the average force. SI Unit of Impulse newton second (N s) 26 Momentum p The linear momentum p of an object is the product of the objects mass m and velocity v Linear momentum is a vector quantity that points in the same direction as the velocity. SI Unit of Linear Momentum kilogram meter/second (kg m/s) 27 The Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum The total linear momentum of an isolated system remains constant (is conserved). 28 Collisions Collisions are often classified according to whether the total kinetic energy changes during the collision 1.Elastic collisionOne in which the total kinetic energy of the system after the collision is equal to the total kinetic energy before the collision. 2.Inelastic collisionOne in which the total kinetic energy of the system is not the same before and after the collision if the objects stick together after colliding the collision is said to be perfectly inelastic. 29 Head-on Collision A 1200-kg car moving east at 15 m/s collides head-on with a 1500-kg car moving west at 20 m/s. If the collision is perfectly inelastic What is the velocity of the wreckage A) 4.4 m/s eastB) 18 m/s east C) 18 m/s westD) 4.4 m/s west 30 Work and Energy
Conservation of energy
31 Work The work done on an object by a constant force F is F magnitude of the force s magnitude of the displacement and angle between the force and the displacement. 32 Kinetic Energy SI Unit of Kinetic Energy joule (J) 33 Work-Energy Theorem 34 Gravitational Potential Energy The gravitational potential energy PE is the energy that an object of mass m has by virtue of its position relative to the surface of the earth. That position is measured by the height h of the object relative to an arbitrary zero level SI Unit of Gravitational Potential Energy joule (J) 35 Problem How much work is done when a constant horizontal 20-N force pushes a 50-kg block a distance of 10 m on a horizontal surface A) 50 J B) 100 J C) 200 J D) 500 J 36 Wave Characteristics and Periodic Motion
Transverse and longitudinal motion
Wavelength frequency velocity amplitude intensity
Superposition of waves phase interference addition
Standing waves nodes
B. Periodic motion
Simple Harmonic Motion
37 Wave Speed 38 Sound
Production of sound
Relative speed of sound in solids liquids and gases
Resonance in pipes and strings
39 The Doppler Effect 40 Standing wave patterns in a Stretched String 41 Fluids and Solids
43 Coulombs Law The magnitude F of the electrostatic force exerted by one point charge on another point charge is directly proportional to the magnitudes q1 and q2 of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance r between them. 44 The Parallel Plate Capacitor 45 Definition of Electric Potential The electric potential V at a given point is the electric potential energy EPE of a small test charge q0 situated at that point divided by the charge itself SI Unit of Electric Potential joule/coulomb volt (V) 46 The Force That a Magnetic Field Exerts on a Moving Charge The following two conditions must be met for a charge to experience a magnetic force when placed in a magnetic field 1.The charge must be moving. No magnetic force acts on a stationary charge. 2.The velocity of the moving charge must have a component that is perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. 47 Right-hand Rule No. 1 When the right hand is oriented so the fingers point along the magnetic field B and the thumb points along the velocity v of a positively charged particle the palm faces in the direction of the magnetic force F applied to the particle. 48 Electric Circuits
Batteries electromotive force voltage terminal potential internal resistance
Resistance Ohms law series and parallel circuits resistivity
Root-mean-square current and voltage
49 Light and Geometric optics
Visual spectrum color
Reflection mirrors total internal reflection
Refraction refractive index Snells law
Thin lenses combination of lenses diopters lens aberrations
50 Lens/Mirror Equation and Magnification m 51 Atomic and Nuclear Structure
Atomic number atomic weight
Neutrons protons isotopes
Radioactive decay half-life
Quantized energy levels for electrons
52 Atomic model 53 Nuclear Structure A Rutherford scattering experiment Atoms Are Mostly Empty Space 54 Bohr Model 55 The line spectra for neon and mercury along with the continuous spectrum of the sun. 56 Hydrogen Spectra 57 Radioactivity 58 a Decay and the Release of Energy The decrease in mass is 238.0508 u 238.0462 u 0.0046 u. 1 u 931.5 MeV The released energy is 0.0046 x 931.5 4.3 MeV. 59 Half-Life The half-life T1/2 of a radioactive decay is the time in which one-half of the radioactive nuclei disintegrate.
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