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MCATPHYSICS REVIEW

January 30, 2006 Dr. Ponn Maheswaranathan

(Mahes)Office Sims 213-B, Phone 323

4940E-mail MAHESP_at_WINTHROP.EDUOffice Hours M

and W 10-1150.

Online Resources

- http//www.aamc.org/mcat
- Cutnell and Johnson
- Giancoli
- http//www.scientia.org/cadonline/home.html
- http//www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Union/5092/
- http//www.udayton.edu/premed/UCMCATReview/MainPa

ge.htm

Major Physics Topics

- Translational Motion
- Force and Motion, Gravitation
- Equilibrium and Momentum
- Work and Energy
- Wave Characteristics and Periodic Motion
- Sound
- Fluids and Solids
- Electrostatics and Electromagnetism
- Electric Circuits
- Light and Geometric Optics
- Atomic and Nuclear Structure

Translational Motion

- Units and dimensions
- Vectors Components and addition
- Speed, velocity, and acceleration
- Freely falling bodies

Units and dimensions

Systems of units

CGS-- Centimeter, gram, and secondSI----- The

international systemBE/USC-- British Engineering

or the US customary

SI Base Quantities and Units

Significant Figures

A radar signal is sent from Earth to a planet

which is 7 x 1010 m from Earth. How long will it

take for the signal to return to Earth? A. 200

s B. 300 s C. 400 s D. 500 s

Vectors and Scalars

Physical quantities are divided into vectors and

scalars. Scalars have magnitude or size only.

Vectors have magnitude and direction.

Components of a Vector

Use Cosine for Adjacent component and Sine for

opposite component.

Vector Addition

Example problem Locating a lost plane

Speed and Velocity

- Average speed, v, is obtained by dividing travel

distance, d, by travel time, t.

The speed at a particular time is known as the

instantaneous speed. When you drive, the

speedometer of a car displays the instantaneous

speed. Speeding tickets are issued using the

instantaneous speed. Velocity Speed with

direction.

Acceleration

Acceleration, a, is the time-rate at which the

velocity changes. It is obtained by dividing the

change in velocity by the time it took for that

change.

Acceleration is a vector quantity. Units

Velocity --gt m/s, Acceleration --gt m/s2

Kinematic Equations

- For a uniformly accelerated motion
- v v0 at
- x ½(v0 v)t
- x v0 t ½at2
- v2 v02 2ax
- x travel distance, a acceleration, v final

velocity, v0 initial velocity, t travel time.

Problem

How long will it take a runner, starting from

rest andaccelerating uniformly at 1.5 m/s2, to

travel 3.0 m? A) 21/2 sec B) 1.5 sec C) 2.0

sec D) 3.0 sec

Freely Falling Bodies

Free fall is motion under the influence of

gravity. When you toss an object in the air it

is in free fall, whether it is going up or down.

Its velocity will decrease as it goes up and

increase as it goes down because the Earth pulls

on it due to its gravity. Close to the surface,

the acceleration due to gravity of the Earth is

about 9.8 m/s2. This means during free fall the

velocity will change by 9.8 m/s every second.

All objects, regardless of their masses, fall at

the same rate on Earth, provided the air drag is

negligible. They all have an acceleration of 9.8

m/s2, vertically down.

Force and Motion, Gravitation

- Mass, center of mass, weight
- Newtons second law
- Newtons third law
- Law of gravitation
- Uniform circular motion, centripetal force
- Friction
- Inclined planes
- Pulley systems

Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation

Every body in the universe attracts every other

body with a force that is directly proportional

to the product of the masses of the bodies and

inversely proportional to the square of the

distance between the bodies.

Centripetal Force

The centripetal force is the net force required

to keep an object of mass m, moving at a speed v,

on a circular path of radius r, and it has a

magnitude of

Direction The centripetal force always points

toward the center of the circle and continually

changes direction as the object moves.

Satellites in Circular Orbits

Orbital speed is given by,

Equilibrium and Momentum

- Equilibrium
- Translational equilibrium
- Rotational equilibrium, torques, lever arms
- Newtons first law, inertia
- B. Momentum
- Impulse
- Conservation of linear momentum
- Elastic and inelastic collisions

Translational equilibrium

For translational equilibrium, the net force

acting on the object must be zero.

The above equation can also be written as,

Rotational equilibrium

For rotational equilibrium, the net torque acting

on the object must be zero.

TORQUE and LEVER ARM

- Torque (Magnitude of the force)(Lever arm)
- t Fl
- Direction Counterclockwise OR Clockwise.
- SI Unit of Torque newton meter (N m)

Problem

Impulse, J

The impulse J of a force is the product of the

average force and the time interval Dt during

which the force acts

Impulse is a vector quantity and has the same

direction as the average force. SI Unit of

Impulse newton second (N s)

Momentum, p

The linear momentum p of an object is the product

of the objects mass m and velocity v

Linear momentum is a vector quantity that points

in the same direction as the velocity. SI Unit of

Linear Momentum kilogram meter/second (kg

m/s)

The Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum

The total linear momentum of an isolated system

remains constant (is conserved).

Collisions

Collisions are often classified according to

whether the total kinetic energy changes during

the collision 1.Elastic collisionOne in which

the total kinetic energy of the system after the

collision is equal to the total kinetic energy

before the collision. 2.Inelastic collisionOne

in which the total kinetic energy of the system

is not the same before and after the collision

if the objects stick together after colliding,

the collision is said to be perfectly inelastic.

Head-on Collision

A 1200-kg car moving east at 15 m/s collides

head-on with a 1500-kg car moving west at 20 m/s.

If the collision is perfectly inelastic, What is

the velocity of the wreckage? A) 4.4 m/s

eastB) 18 m/s east C) 18 m/s westD) 4.4 m/s

west

Work and Energy

- Work
- Kinetic energy
- Potential energy
- Conservation of energy
- Energy transformations
- Conservative forces
- Power

Work

The work done on an object by a constant force F

is

F magnitude of the force, s magnitude of the

displacement, and ? angle between the force and

the displacement.

Kinetic Energy

SI Unit of Kinetic Energy joule (J)

Work-Energy Theorem

Gravitational Potential Energy

The gravitational potential energy PE is the

energy that an object of mass m has by virtue of

its position relative to the surface of the

earth. That position is measured by the height h

of the object relative to an arbitrary zero

level

SI Unit of Gravitational Potential Energy joule

(J)

Problem

How much work is done when a constant horizontal

20-N force pushes a 50-kg block a distance of 10

m on a horizontal surface? A) 50 J B) 100 J

C) 200 J D) 500 J

Wave Characteristics and Periodic Motion

- Wave characteristics
- Transverse and longitudinal motion
- Wavelength, frequency, velocity, amplitude,

intensity - Superposition of waves, phase, interference,

addition - Resonance
- Standing waves, nodes
- Beats
- B. Periodic motion
- Hookes law
- Simple Harmonic Motion
- Pendulum motion

Wave Speed

Sound

- Production of sound
- Relative speed of sound in solids, liquids, and

gases - Intensity, pitch
- Doppler effect
- Resonance in pipes and strings
- Harmonics

The Doppler Effect

Standing wave patterns in a Stretched String

Fluids and Solids

- Fluids
- Density, specific gravity
- Buoyancy, Archimedes principle
- Hydrostatic pressure
- Viscosity
- Continuity equation
- Bernoullis equation
- Turbulence
- Surface tension
- B. Solids
- Density
- Elementary topics in elastic properties

Electrostatics and Electromagnetism

- Electrostatics
- 1. Charge, charge conservation,

conductors,insulators - 2. Coulombs law, electric force
- 3. Electric field
- a. Field lines
- b. Fields due to charge distribution
- 4. Potential difference, absolute potential,

equipotential lines - 5. Electric dipole
- B. Electromagnetism
- 1. Magnetic fields
- 2. Electromagnetic spectrum, X-rays

Coulomb's Law

The magnitude F of the electrostatic force

exerted by one point charge on another point

charge is directly proportional to the magnitudes

q1 and q2 of the charges and inversely

proportional to the square of the distance r

between them.

The Parallel Plate Capacitor

Definition of Electric Potential

The electric potential V at a given point is the

electric potential energy EPE of a small test

charge q0 situated at that point divided by the

charge itself

SI Unit of Electric Potential joule/coulomb

volt (V)

The Force That a Magnetic Field Exerts on a

Moving Charge

The following two conditions must be met for a

charge to experience a magnetic force when placed

in a magnetic field 1.The charge must be moving.

No magnetic force acts on a stationary

charge. 2.The velocity of the moving charge must

have a component that is perpendicular to the

direction of the magnetic field.

Right-hand Rule No. 1

When the right hand is oriented so the fingers

point along the magnetic field B and the thumb

points along the velocity v of a positively

charged particle, the palm faces in the direction

of the magnetic force F applied to the particle.

Electric Circuits

- Current
- Batteries, electromotive force, voltage, terminal

potential, internal resistance - Resistance, Ohms law, series and parallel

circuits, resistivity - Capacitor, dielectrics
- Electric power
- Root-mean-square current and voltage

Light and Geometric optics

- Visual spectrum, color
- Polarization
- Reflection, mirrors, total internal reflection
- Refraction, refractive index, Snells law
- Dispersion
- Thin lenses, combination of lenses, diopters,

lens aberrations

Lens/Mirror Equation and Magnification, m

Atomic and Nuclear Structure

- Atomic number, atomic weight
- Neutrons, protons, isotopes
- Radioactive decay, half-life
- Quantized energy levels for electrons

Atomic model

Nuclear Structure

A Rutherford scattering experiment

Atoms Are Mostly Empty Space

Bohr Model

The line spectra for neon and mercury, along with

the continuous spectrum of the sun.

Hydrogen Spectra

Radioactivity

a Decay and the Release of Energy

The decrease in mass is, 238.0508 u 238.0462 u

0.0046 u. 1 u 931.5 MeV The released energy

is 0.0046 x 931.5 4.3 MeV.

Half-Life

The half-life T1/2 of a radioactive decay is the

time in which one-half of the radioactive nuclei

disintegrate.

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