2 1. Radical LibertarianismA Consistent Version of Classical Liberalism
A radical version of libertarianism.
But many classical liberals argue that this version of libertarianism (often called anarcho-capitalism) has to be rejected.
3 2. What Is Anarcho-capitalism
Anarcho-capitalism is the theory of a society where all the functions and the services (defence protection and law included) are provided by private enterprises.
1849 the starting point (G. de Molinari).
Contemporary versions Rothbard D. Friedman and others.
4 3. Anarcho-capitalism different leanings and essential ideas
Natural law individual rights.
Utilitarianism freedom to choose and economic growth.
5 4. Abolishing eminent domain and political obligation
Eminent domain the power of taxing taking and regulating.
Political obligation the power to force people to accept duties .
6 5.Three Classical Liberal Attacks to Anarcho-capitalism
Radical libertarianism as a Utopian Vision A New Mankind
Radical Libertarianism as an Impossible (Unrealistic)Blueprint
Radical Libertarianism as a Dangerous Project
7 6. Anarcho-capitalism is an Ethical Criterion
Anarcho-capitalism is a criterion we have always to choose liberty and refuse coercion
Is it an abstract criterion But all criteria are abstract!
8 7. Can a radical libertarian society exist
Yes and no. Society is a pure product of human wills but at the same time many men have anti-libertarian attitudes.
National societies and (parallel) libertarian institutions.
9 8. Libertarianism doesnt need a New Man
19th century socialist anarchism implied a New Mankind a sort of rebirth
On the contrary libertarianism is a realistic theory and it moves from an analysis of the nature of actual men.
10 9. Libertarianism doesnt imply the reject of any authority
19th century socialist anarchism was against God the family and all authorities.
On the contrary for classical liberals and libertarians a society with legitimate autorithies is in a better situation vis-à-vis the power.
11 10. Libertarianism isnt an alternative to Law
State and Law are not synonymous.
On the contrary under a State there is a legal war of all against all.
12 11. Is reasonable the libertarian claim to eliminate any aggression
From a realistic point of view all future societies will be forced to fight criminality and other troubles.
But a theory of justice must prospect a model and for this reason a libertarian perspective has to suggest the end of any sort of aggression.
13 12. Can competitive governments protect us better than the State
It is Molinaris argument no need to reject classical liberal principles in some special sectors.
Lockean theory natural rights.
Classical economics competition.
Private companies (arbitration courts and private armies) can substitute bureaucratic State.
14 13. Stateless Society isnt a synonymousof Free-Market Society
A Free-Market Society is a just society.
A Stateless Society is only a Society without State with many institutions and agencies of different nature (peaceful or aggressive).
15 14. Does a stateless society become fatally a State
Following Nozick (Anarchy State and Utopia) state of nature cannot last. All stateless societies are doomed to leave room to a legal and coercive monopoly.
One agency (the strongest)
Many local agencies (division of the territory)
A cartel (a way to unify independent institutions)
But there is no reason to reject the possibility of a market of peaceful private governments.
16 15. A Cartel Is Always a Danger
United Nations this is a cartel of states with the purpose to build a World Government. The outcome is negative.
A cartel of companies can be the effect of the efforts to cooperate in order to satisfy the needs of the consumers. The outcome is positive.
But some aspects of present legal institutions are economic (for instance the problem of extradition).
17 16. Pure economic theory is enough
Market competition is different from military/political competition.
In fact economic competition requires law. But how can be protect the competitive order of a stateless society
Anarcho-capitalists must convince that the absence of a coercive monopoly is the best pre-condition of a market society.
18 17. Economic behaviour in a stateless society
Critics of radical libertarianism say that a stateless society can be conquered by a State. It is true.
But at the same time we can foresee that many people (utilitarian and rational) will be oriented to avoid growing and aggressive institutions. Opportunistic behaviours will contrast the tendencies towards a massive unification
19 18. Is There a Greshams Law for the Governments
Greshams Law Where there is a legal tender currency bad money drives good money out of circulation.
But it is true if there is a LEGAL TENDER. In a competition among governments there is no reason for the customers to opt for aggressive and expensive governments.
20 19. Cooperation Is it Possible
Aristotle man is a social and rational animal.
Robert Axelrod game theory and prisoners dilemma.
21 20. Good Guys and Bad Guys A Simple Argument
All the men are criminals.
Only a minority are criminals.
The majority are criminal.
For the good guys a stateless society is better than a State society where the aggressive groups can use the coercive monopoly to dominate honest people.
22 21. Is Radical Libertarianism against anyTerritorial Monopoly of Force
NO. There are two different forms of legitimate monopolies
All the land is owned by only one agency and the government doesnt force people to remain in the country. Ex gated communities or even Vatican City.
Government receives a free support by all the people and it leaves them the (potential) opportunity to organize privately their own defence or switch to other providers. This is the standard anarcho-capitalist model (see for instance Morris and Linda Tannehill).
23 22. How some local monopolistic governments can create a market
A country is controlled by many local territorial governments.
But these cities or counties accept that their citizens or customers can change their provider (Bruno Freys model). Thanks to this institutional competition we have a marketization of the security.
24 23. First Problem None Should Be a Judge in Ones Own Case
John Locke and the birth of the government.
In a radical liberarian society a man could decide by himself (without courts) the punishment of the criminal but this behaviour would be very dangerous for the criminal and for the victim. The latter could be punished if the penalty is excessive.
So even in an anarcho-capitalist society we would this specialization (judges job).
25 24. Second ProblemWithout a State No Court of Last Resort
In an open and competitive legal system we have to face many problems.
If people can choose different providers for law and security what about the possible chaotic consequences
Many criminals could switch from an organization to a different one each time they risk to be condamned.
26 25. Second Problemfollows
These objections are serious but we should compare pros and cons of the possible solutions.
In a closed system if you control the top of the pyramid you can obtain a complete impunity.
Without a free market of courts there is no competition among the judges (quality of the sentences costs etc.).
A free-market legal order would be the result of two opposite forces the will to choose freely protection and law the will to receive services of a good degree of integration.
27 26. Third ProblemThe Need of an Integration
A radical libertarian society would be a free-market society where all companies would be called to satisfy the needs of the other people.
But a chaotic legal order is not what people desire. For this reason we can foresee that in a radical libertarian society we would have a mixed situation nor atomistic nor monopolistic.
What about the degree of this partial integration We cannot decide and it must be the outcome of the preferences and the choices of customers and providers.
28 27. Are We Sure that West Never Knew a Competition of Governments
In the past we did some experiences of societies without State and also of quasi-libertarian legal orders.
Ancient Ireland and Iceland American West Native Indian Americans etc.
But in my opinion a much more intersting historical epoch is European Middle Ages. Capitalism is the best product of the medieval anarchy (Jean Baechler) and of the legal complexity of a society based on overlapping institutions (Harold Berman).
29 28. Conclusion
Anarcho-capitalism as normative idea
Stateless society is not a libertarian society
But a stateless society is the path towards a libertarian order
30 29. Short Bibliography
Ayn Rand The Nature of Government in Capitalism The Ideal Unknown (New York New American Library 1967).
Robert Nozick Anarchy State and Utopia (New York Basic Books 1974).
Murray N. Rothbard The Ethics of Liberty (Atlantic Highlands Humanities Press 1982).
Bruce Benson The Enterprise of Law (San Francisco Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy 1990).
Tibor R. Machan Anarchism and Minarchism A Rapprochement Journal des économistes et des études humaines vol.12 n.4 December 2002.
Vari Auctores Symposium Market Anarchism Pro and Con The Journal of Libertarian Studies vol.21 n.1 Spring 2007.
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