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IVORY COAST:

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Title: IVORY COAST:


1
IVORY COAST A COLONIAL LEGACY By BG Sakhawat
Hussain ndc,psc(Retd)
2
PRESENTATION ONCOTE DIVOIRE
3
INTRODUCTION
IVORY COAST
4
Aim
To give you an idea on Cote dIvoire as a whole
5
Sequence
  • Geography Climate
  • History
  • Population
  • Languages
  • Infrastructure
  • Economy
  • Basic Data
  • Questions
  • Conclusion

6
GEOGRAPHY
Gulf of GUINEA
Total Area 322,459 sq km
7
GEOGRAPHY
8
GEOGRAPHY
9
GEOGRAPHY
  • Three General Regions
  • ?The Lagoon Region
  • ? The Forest Region
  • ? The Savanna Region

10
The lagoon Region
? Narrow coastal belt along Gulf of Guinea from
Ghana border to the mouth of Sassandra River.
? A strip of low, sandy islands and sandbars.
11
The Forest Region
? Broad belt of dense forest covers nearly
one-third of the country.
? Eextending north of the lagoon region in the
east and reaching to the coastline in the west
between the Sassandra River and the mouth of the
Cavally River.
12
The Savanna Region
? The northern half of the nation.
? A large plateau of rolling hills, low-lying
vegetation and scattered trees.
13
CLIMATE
? Generally warm humid. ? Seasons are more
clearly distuinguishable by rainfall and wind
direction than by temperature. ? Three distinct
seasons. ? Warm Dry ( November to
March) ? Hot Dry ( March to May ) ? Hot Wet
( June to October ) ? Average temperature ranges
between 25-30 degree C.
14
HISTORY
? In 11th century the Senufo form their own state
in present area of Ivory Coast.
? Between 1880 and 1898 France occupied the
Mandingo state.
? The whole of Ivory Coast became a French
protectorate in 1891
? This was changed into a colony in 1893.
15
HISTORY
? In 1904 Ivory Coast became a constituent part
of French West Africa.
? It became a French overseas territory Inside
French West Africa in 1946.
? After the dissolution of French West Africa in
1958, Ivory Coast got autonomy as the Republic of
Ivory Coast.
16
HISTORY
? Ivory Coast became independent in 1960, at that
moment Houphouët-Boigny became president.
Felix Houphouent BOIGNY (First President)
17
HISTORY
? Houphouët-Boigny made the country a one-party
state under the PDCI and rules until 1993.
? In 1990 he allowed mulit-partyism and won the
presidential election.
? After his death in 1993 his co-partisan Henri
Konan Bédié succeeded him.
18
HISTORY
? Henri Konan Bédié was elected president at the
1995 election.
Henri Konan BEDI (Second President)
19
HISTORY
? In 1999 the army stages a coup and Ivory Coast
become a military dictatorship under Robert Guei.
General Robert GUEI
20
HISTORY
? The leading opposition candidate, Alassane
Ouattara from the Liberal Rassemblement des
Républicains (Rally of Republicans, RDR) was
excluded from the elections in 2000.
Alassane OUATTARA
21
HISTORY
? Laurent Gbagbo of the social Democratic Front
Populaire Ivorien (Ivorian Popular Front, FPI)
became president.
Laurent GBAGBO
22
HISTORY
? In 2002, Gbagbo formed a De Facto Government of
National Unity. Shortly after that rebels start
to attack.
? That coup attempt was stopped within hours, but
it resulted in the death of Guei.
? The government launched an aggressive security
operation in Abidjan.
? The coup and that operation evolves into a
rebellion, splitting the country in two.
23
HISTORY
? Rebels of the Mouvement Patriotique de Côte
d'Ivoire (MPCI) controlled part of the country.
? New rebels organizations became active in other
parts of the country.
? The three movements called themselves the "New
Forces".
? Since 2003 a peacekeeping force and French
troops were stationed in the country.
24
POPULATION
25
POPULATION
? The first national census was held in 1975 and
counted 6.7 million inhabitants
? The 1987 estimate was 10.6 million
? The annual growth rate was 4.1 percent at that
time ( 1987)
? As per CIA World Fact Book (Julr 2005 ), the
total population was 17.3 million
26
POPULATION
? Facts ? Density 50 per sq
km. ? Urbanized population 45. ?
Population Growth Rate 2.11 (2004 est) ?
Fertility Rate ( Birth/Woman) 5.42
Children ? Birth Rate 39.64 /1000 ?
Death Rate 18.48 /1000 ? Infant Mortality
97.1Deaths/1000 Live Births. ? Life Expectancy
at Birth 42.48 . ? HIV/AIDS Adult Prevalence
Rate9.7(2001) ? People Living with HIV
770,000 (2001) ? HIV/AIDS Death 75,000 (2001)
27
POPULATION
  • Population is ethnically diverse.
  • More than sixty ethnic groups.

28
POPULATION
G
MALI
  • Seven clusters of ethnic groups.
  • Reduced to four major cultural regions
  • ? Akan
  • ? Kru
  • ? Voltaic
  • ? Mandé

BURKINA FASO
H
Tengréla
A
VOLTAIC
N
A
Lobi
Ferkessédougou
Korhogo
Boundiali
Odienné
Bouna
Dioula (Mandé)
Sénoufo
MANDE
Koulango
Malinké
GUINEE
Dabakala
Touba
Katiola
Mankono
Bondoukou
Séguéla
Gagou
Toura
Bouaké
Tanda
Béoumi
Gouessesso
Brong
Biankouma
G
Vavoua
Man
Dan
Sakassou
M'bahiearo
Zuénoula
Wobé
2
H
Baoulé
Guro
Danané
Agnibilekrou
Daoukro
Bangolo
A
AKAN
Yamoussoukro
Bouaflé
Agni
Duekoué
N
Daloa
Dimbokro
Sinfra
Abengourou
Toumodi
Guiglo
A
Bongouanou
Issia
Guéré
Gagou
Oumé
Bété
Akié
KROU
Gagnoa
Adzopé
Lakota
Soubré
Tiassalé
Abé
LIBERIA
Divo
Bakwé
Agboville
Dida
Aboisso
Godie
Abobo
Peuple des lagunes
ABIDJAN
Krou
Grand
Lahou
Langues Akan
Sanssandra
San Pédro
Langues Mandé
OCEAN ATLANTIQUE
Tabou
Langues Kru
Langues Voltaïques
29
AKAN
? Most representatives of East Atlantic cultures.
? Descendants of eighteenth-century migrants
from the kingdom of Asante.
30
AKAN
? Boule is the largest Akan population inCôte
d'Ivoire.
31
KRU
  • ? Across the Bandama River, West Atlantic
    cultures are represented by Kru peoples.
  • ? The oldest of Côte d'Ivoire's present-day
    ethnic groups.
  • ? Traditional Kru societies were organized into
    villages.
  • ? The largest Kru population in Cote dIvoire is
    the Bete.

32
MANDE
  • Descendants of early Mandé conquerors occupy
    territory in the northwest, stretching into
    northern Guinea and Mali.
  • ? Mandé peoples-includes the Malinké, Bambara,
    Juula and smaller related groups.

33
VOLTAIC
? To the east of the Mandé are Voltaic peoples.
? The Sénoufo migrated to their present location
from the northwest in the sixteenth and
nineteenth centuries.
34
OTHERS
? 130,000 Lebanese ? 14,000 French
35
LANGUAGES
? French. ? Official Language. ? Used
throughout the country. ? Four of the eight major
branches of the Niger-Congo language family are
represented including the Kwa, Atlantic, Mandé
and Voltaic (Gur). ? Language areas correspond
closely, but not exactly to the four cultural
regions of the nation.
36
LANGUAGES
? Agni and Baoulé, both Kwa languages are the
most widely spoken languages in the south.
? Variants of Mandé and Sénoufo are the most
widely spoken in the north but are also heard in
all southern trading areas. ? Most Ivoirians
speak two or more languages fluently, but no
single African language is spoken by a majority
of the population.
37
LANGUAGES
  • ? French is used in schools, commerce and is
    spoken more frequently by men than women.
  • ? Most publications, including government
    documents are also printed in French.
  • ? Biblical texts and educational materials have
    been translated into major African languages.

38
LANGUAGES
  • ? Arabic is taught in Quranic schools and is
    spoken by immigrants from Lebanon and Syria.
  • ? Non-Ivoirian African languages are also heard.
  • ? Many Ivoirians understand English, which is
    taught in high school and the National University
    of Côte d'Ivoire .
  • ? English is not popular even among educated
    people.

39
INFRASTRUCTURE
40
INFRASTRUCTURE
? Rail roads. ? 660 km. ? Abidjan- Burkina Faso
border. ? Meter guage. ? Single track.
41
INFRASTRUCTURE
? Roads. ? 53,736 km. ? 3,600 km bituminous
bituminous- treated surface. ? 32,000 km
gravel,crushed stone,laterite and improved
earth. ? 18,136 km unimproved. ? Hard
surface roads run northsouth, linking to
Abidjan.
42
ABIDJAN
43
INFRASTRUCTURE
? Ports Shipping. ? Major ports are at Abidjan
and San-Pédro ? Thirty-five deepwater berths
for general, bulk and container cargo At
Abidjan. ? Roll-on/roll-off facility and
specialized quays for fish, timber, cement,
hydrocarbons and tankers.
44
INFRASTRUCTURE
? Ivoirian Air Transport and Liaison known as
Air Ivoire, provide domestic and regional
service. ? International service is provided
by Air Afrique. ? International airports at
Abidjan,Bouaké and Yamoussoukro. ? 13 major
domestic airfields, 17 smaller regional airfields
and 50 private airfields.
45
INFRASTRUCTURE
Telecommunication.
? For domestic open wire lines and microwave
radio relay are used out of those 90
digitalized. ? For international two satellite
station and two submarine cables are used.
? Outside of commercial capital Abidjan, 115
cities has telephone service.
46
INFRASTRUCTURE
  • Electricity
  • ? In the late 1980s, electrical production in
    Côte d'Ivoire surpassed that of most other
    countries in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • ? Its five hydroelectric
  • stations and the large
  • thermal station at Vridi
  • provided electricity for
  • the central and southern
  • portions of the country.

47
INFRASTRUCTURE
? A number of smaller thermal facilities provided
electricity for urban areas. ? In 2002 total
production was 4.759 billion kwh, consumption was
2.976 billion kwh and export was 1.45 billion
kwh.
48
ECONOMY
49
ECONOMY
? Economy is oriented toward private enterprise.
? Foreign investment welcomed multinational
corporations heavily involved. ? Country's
principal resource agricultural land.
50
ECONOMY
Agriculture ? 34 of population engaged in
subsistence farming.
51
ECONOMY
? Cash cropping on small plots (coffee, cocoa,
and cotton) and large plantations (bananas, palm
oil, pineapples, rubber, and sugar).
52
ECONOMY
  • Agriculture second largest contributor to gross
    domestic product and main source of exports.
  • USE OF LAND
  • Arable land
    5
  • Permanent Crop 14
  • Other
    77

53
ECONOMY
Top Export Countries France 13, US 8,
Netherlands 7, Germany 7 Italy 6 Top Import
Countries France 26 Nigeria 10 China 7
Italy 5 Germany 4 Most industry
require imported intermediate materials.
54
ECONOMY
  • Mining
  • Some diamonds, manganese, iron , cobalt, bauxite,
    copper, nickel, colombo-tantalite, ilmenite and
    gold.
  • Offshore oil met about two-thirds of local needs

55
ECONOMY
Energy ? Rural population heavily depend on wood.
56
ECONOMY
? Urban population on electric power, natural gas
and kerosene.
57
ECONOMY
  • Foreign Trade
  • Principal exports cocoa, coffee, and timber

58
ECONOMY
  • Other exports cotton, sugar, rubber, palm oil,
    and pineapples.

59
ECONOMY
  • Principal imports petroleum products, machinery
    and transport equipment

60
GOVERNMENT
61
GOVERNMENT
? Government. ? Strong, centralized,
presidential. ? Independent judiciary.
? National legislature.
? Administrative Divisions. ? Forty-nine
prefectures. ? Thirty-seven municipalities .
62
GOVERNMENT
? Judicial System. ? Customary law .
? Upper-level Courts include Supreme Court,
High Court of Justice and State Security
Court. ? Lower Courts include Courts of
appeal, Courts of first instance, Courts of
Assize and Justice of Peace Courts.
63
FOREIGN AFFAIRS
64
FOREIGN AFFAIRS
? Maintain an organic relationship with France.
? Control the regional environment in order to
guarantee access to cheap labour from Mali and
Burkina Faso.
65
  • ? ENVIRONMENT CURRENT ISSUE
  • ? Heavy Deforestation because of excessive
    logging of once known to be most forested
    country.
  • Inland Water Pollution
  • Pollution and deforestation is also caused by
    the presence of 350,000 Liberian refugees not
    recognised by UN.

66
BASIC DATA
67
2004
POPULATION PROJECTION GROWTH RATE
2.45 PROJECTED
2025 25,571,657
(2000) PROJECTED 2050
35,707,824 (2000) DENSITY
URBAN
46 RURAL
54

68
2002
RELIGIOUS PERCENTAGE MUSLIM
39
INDIGENOUS BELIEFS 35
CHRISTIAN
26 HEALTH AND EDUCATION
LIFE EXPECTANCY
44.7 years FEMALE
46 years MALE

43.5 years
69
2002
INFANT MORTALITY RATE
92 per/1000 DOCTOR per/population
15, 241 LITRECY RATE
TOTAL
66.3 FEMALE
61.5
MALE
71 6 years in primary
school but not compulsory.
70
2000
ECONOMIC DATA GDP (US)
9.4 billion
GDP (per capita)
590 GDP (by economic sector)
AGRI, FORESTRY, FISHING 29.2
INDUSTRY
22.4 SURVICES
48.4
71
2000
EMPLOYMENT NUMBER OD\F WORKERS 6,
406, 801 WORK FORCE SHARE ECONOMIC
SECTOR AGRI, FORESTRY, FISHING
60 INDUSTRY
10 SURVICES 30 UNEMPLOMENT
RATE NA
72
2002
OTHER ECONOMIC DATA TIMBERS
Mahogany, Iroko, Sipo, Obch Makore
13.4 million cubic meters (473 million CFT)
produced 2001-2002
Fishery Catch 2001-2002 67,
617 MT
73
2004
AGRICULTURE EARNING (EXPORT) COCA 40
of export earning TOP COFFEE PRODUCER IN
AFRICA COTTON PINEAPPLE OTHERS
TROPICAL FRUITS
74
OTHERS
75
OFFSHORE OIL 5.8 million barrels/ year
meets half domestic requirements
Diamonds Gold 2000-2001 75,000 carats
diamond Gold mining began in 1996


76
NEO COLONIALISM (French Control)
Cote DIvoire (IVORY COAST) contributes 35
of French GDP 1800 large Business
controlled by 180 French companies
Big business with Cote dIvoire is also
controlled by Lebanese Business people
France maintains three military bases with 3000
troops permanently stationed
Maintains a separate chamber of commerce
77
Bangladeshi Doctor at work on humanitarian
ground
78
QUESTIONS ?
79
CONCLUSION
PRESENTATION PREPARED BY MUHAMMAD SHAFAQ
HUSSAIN (STUDENT of IUB)
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