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Reconstruction

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Assassination of Lincoln left question unresolved when Andrew Johnson became president. ... Andrew Johnson. Rags to Riches Story 'Treason must be made odious' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Reconstruction


1
Reconstruction
  • Triumph of Race, Politics, and Redeemers,
    1863-1877

2
Books to Read
  • William C. Harris, With Charity for All
  • Eric Foner, Reconstruction, Americas Unfinished
    Revolution

3
Frederick Douglass, 1866
  • The arm of the Federal government is long, but it
    is far too short to protect the rights of
    individuals in the interior of distant States.
    They must have the power to protect themselves,
    or they will go unprotected, in spite of all the
    laws the Federal government can put upon the
    national statute-book.

4
Reconstruction Began as War Measure
  • First Emancipation Proclamation
  • Lincolns 10 Plan
  • Goal was an easy peace to shorten war

5
Who Should Control ReconstructionCongress or
President?
  • Wade-Davis Bill
  • Lincoln Pocket Veto
  • Assassination of Lincoln left question unresolved
    when Andrew Johnson became president.

6
Lincolns Second Inaugural
With malice toward none with charity for all
with firmness in the right, as God gives us to
see the right, let us strive on to finish the
work we are in to bind up the nation's wounds
to care for him who shall have borne the battle,
and for his widow, and his orphan--to do all
which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting
peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.
7
Freedmans Bureau
  • The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned
    Land, often referred to as the Freedmen's Bureau,
    was established in the War Department on March 3,
    1865. The Bureau supervised all relief and
    educational activities relating to refugees and
    freedmen, including issuing rations, clothing and
    medicine. The Bureau also assumed custody of
    confiscated lands or property in the former
    Confederate States, border states, District of
    Columbia, and Indian Territory.
  • Built Schoolsmany of whom were forerunners of
    the Historically Black Colleges in the South.

8
Freedmans Bureau Schools
9
Andrew Johnson
  • Rags to Riches Story
  • Treason must be made odious
  • Initially a darling of and later a disappointment
    to Radical Republicans
  • Reconstruction Plan (Proclamation of AmnestyMay
    1865) similar to Lincolns

10
Andrew Johnson
11
Radical Republicans Thaddeus Stevens, Charles
Sumner, Ben Wade
12
Southerners Dont Get It
  • Elect ex-CSA leaders to Congress, including
    Alexander Stephens
  • Black Codes
  • Race Riots

13
Radicals Respond
  • Barely failed to override Johnsons Veto of Bill
    to Extend Life of Freedmans Bureau
  • Overrode Johnsons Veto of CRA of 1866
  • Enacted a new Freedmans Bureau
  • Sent 14th Amendment to Statesratified by them in
    1868
  • Radicals insisted on Civil Rights for former
    slaves and a federal enforcement mechanism

14
Radicals on a RollMarch 2, 1867
  • Military Reconstruction Act
  • Command of the Army Act
  • Tenure of Office Act

15
Military Reconstruction Act--1867
  • Divided South into Military District
  • Southern StatesTn. Exceptedwould write new
    constitutions w/ Universal Adult Male Suffrage
  • States had to ratify 14th amendment
  • Subsequent legislation gave Army power to
    register voters and to disqualify disloyal
    persons from registering.

16
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17
South Readmitted
  • By 1870, Southern states were readmitted
  • Some had to ratify 15th amendment too
  • Reconstruction Constitutions were most
    LIBERALyes, thats a mighty fine word, look it
    upin history of Southern States.
  • Legal means to overturn Reconstruction often
    culminated with rewriting these Reconstruction
    Constitutions.

18
Johnson Impeached
  • Vote to remove was 35 to 18, one shy of the
    2/3rds needed
  • Radicals didnt need to remove Johnson by the
    time of his trial it was 1868, an election year
    he could simply be ignored.

19
Major Achievements of Reconstruction
  • 14th and 15th Amendments
  • African American Participation in Public Life
  • Readmission of Southern States

20
14th Amendment
  • National Definitions of Citizenship
  • Equal Protection Clause
  • Due Process Clause
  • High Confederate Official banned from national
    office
  • Confederate debt repudiated

21
15th Amendment
  • The right of citizens of the United States to
    vote shall not be denied or abridged by the
    United States or by any State on account of race,
    color, or previous condition of servitude.

22
Failure of Reconstruction
  • Southern whites were violently opposed to black
    rights many in north were indifferent
  • Rise of KKK
  • Where army was present, KKK leaders were
    apprehended and imprisoned
  • Land Reformblacks (and poor whites) left to farm
    tenancy

23
Boy, You aint a votin here!
24
WHITE SUPREMACY
25
Freedmens World
  • Independent Churches
  • Political Participation600 served in State
    legislatures down to the 1890s.
  • Dunningite myth still clouds African American
    achievements during Reconstruction

26
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27
Grant Presidency
  • Did attempt to enforce Reconstruction
  • Presidency clouded by scandals
  • Republican party divided between Stalwart and
    Liberal Republicanslittle energy left to devote
    to Reconstruction.

28
President Grant
29
1876 Presidential Election
  • Disputed results between Hayes and Tilden
  • Democrats accept result of Wormsley Hotel
    Conference
  • Southerner named to cabinet, army withdrawn from
    south, southern pacific railway

30
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