Negative Flattened emotions social withdrawal apathy.
21 Causes of Schizophrenia
Strong evidence from twin studies
Too much dopamine
Disruptions to the brain before or at birth
22 Discussion Question
Recent editions of the DSM include everyday problems that are not traditionally thought of as mental illnesses (e.g. developmental coordination disorder nicotine dependence disorder). Do you think its appropriate for these kinds of problems to be included among severe psychological disorders such as multiple-personality disorder and schizophrenia
23 Discussion Question
If a person does not pose a threat to anyone else and is not unhappy with his or her behavior but is socially deviant (e.g. a transvestite) should that person be considered abnormal and mentally ill
24 Chapter 16-Psychotherapy 25 What is Psychotherapy
An umbrella term including many types of therapies/treatments.
Three Main Elements
Helping Relationship (treatment)
Professional with special training (therapist)
Person in need of help (client)
26 Who Seeks Therapy
15 of US population/year
Two most common problems
Women more likely to seek therapy than men.
Many people who need therapy dont receive it.
27 Who Provides Treatment
Clinical and Counseling
Must have doctoral degree
Must go to medical school (M.D.)
Emphasize drug therapies
Psychiatric Social Workers
28 INSIGHT THERAPIES
Involve verbal interactions intended to enhance clients self-knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behavior.
29 Client-Centered Therapy
Proponent Carl Rogers
Goal Foster self-acceptance and personal growth.
Unconditional Positive Regard
30 Cognitive Therapy
Proponent Aaron Beck
Goal Change the way clients think.
Detect automatic negative thoughts
Subject automatic thoughts to reality testing
31 THOUGHT RECORD 32 Evaluating Insight Therapies
Insight therapy superior to no treatment or placebo treatment and effects are relatively durable.
Problems with Evaluating Therapy
Mechanisms of Action/Common Factors
33 BEHAVIOUR THERAPY
Involve the application of the principles of learning to direct efforts to change clients maladaptive behaviors.
All behavior is a product of learning.
What has been learned can be unlearned.
Goal To change behavior.
34 Systematic Desensitization
Proponent Joseph Wolpe
Goal Reduce clients anxiety through counterconditioning.
Build an anxiety hierarchy
Deep muscle relaxation
Work through the hierarchy while remaining relaxed.
35 Aversion Therapy
Goal To reduce a particular maladaptive behavior.
Technique Pair behavior with a stimulus that elicits an undesirable response.
36 Evaluating Behavior Therapies
Place a large emphasis on measuring outcomes
Insight vs. Behavioral
Differences are small
Modestly favour behavioral
37 BIOMEDICAL THERAPIES
Psychopharmacotherapy Treatment of mental disorders with medication.
38 Antipsychotic Drugs
Used to reduce psychotic symptoms like mental confusion and hallucinations.
Reduce symptoms in 70 of people.
Tremors muscle problems
Newer atypical antipsychotics have fewer side effects.
Gradually elevate mood to bring people out of depression.
Prior to 1987
SSRIs (Prozac Paxil Celexa)
Effective in 2/3 of patients
Link with suicide
40 Evaluating Drug Therapies
Side effects worse than disorder
Influence of pharmaceutical agencies on research.
41 The Toronto Affair
Offered a job in 2000 at CAMH Toronto.
Invited for job talk on November 30 2000.
December 7 2000 Job offer retracted.
Eli Lilly supports 52 of CAMH mood/anxiety budget.
Healy filed lawsuit
42 Trends/Issues in Treatment
Blending Treatmentseclectic approach
43 Discussion Question
What do you think would be the benefits and disadvantages of group therapy Is it possible that it could somehow support the symptoms rather than recovery Would you prefer to be in group therapy or individual
44 Discussion Question
One of the main assumptions of behavior therapies is that behavior is a product of learning. On the surface this seems like a straightforward and reasonable assumption but do you think that some psychological disorders may develop as a result of genetic factors rather than learning Why or why not
45 Final Exam on Monday August 18th
Any Questions let me know.
PowerShow.com is a leading presentation/slideshow sharing website. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow.com is a great resource. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use.
You can use PowerShow.com to find and download example online PowerPoint ppt presentations on just about any topic you can imagine so you can learn how to improve your own slides and presentations for free. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows - with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music - that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. That's all free as well!
For a small fee you can get the industry's best online privacy or publicly promote your presentations and slide shows with top rankings. But aside from that it's free. We'll even convert your presentations and slide shows into the universal Flash format with all their original multimedia glory, including animation, 2D and 3D transition effects, embedded music or other audio, or even video embedded in slides. All for free. Most of the presentations and slideshows on PowerShow.com are free to view, many are even free to download. (You can choose whether to allow people to download your original PowerPoint presentations and photo slideshows for a fee or free or not at all.) Check out PowerShow.com today - for FREE. There is truly something for everyone!