to appreciate the reality of rural life and how populations were civilized through urbanization
to understand the nature of the relationship between population density and social pathology
to know how the size of urban populations is related to specialization in goods and services
to grasp why Canadian and US patterns of suburbanization have been so different
to see where and why deviance service centers originate
To realize why we expect the relationship between city size and rates of homicide (or urbanization and social pathology) tend to be U-shaped.
3 Image of the city
Until recently rural areas were high in mayhem while towns and cities with their greater intensity of local and state control were relatively safe.
Today rates of pathological behavior and conditions will be most prevalent in rural regions and in particular sections of the largest cities. Rates will be lowest in mid-sized cities where the presence of state control is more widespread and complete only exception city in Canada is Toronto
4 History Urbanization and Crime
Media has created a culture of fear (i.e. stereotype of large cities having more violence and murders than smaller towns)
to properly make this argument though one needs to examine crime RATES instead of NUMBER of cases or worst dramatic incidents shown on TV.
Except for in the last 50-60 years serious crime has been in decline in the West since the Middle Ages (historically urbanization was over all a negative predictor of illegal activities started in Europe with the Renaissance and re-urbanization)
5 History Urbanization and Crime
Despite the image of Christianity expanding throughout medieval Europeit was ineffective in deterring crime (e.g. evidence of mutilation mortification of the flesh and repression of natural urges --gtfeelings of fatalism personal instability and unpredictable outburst of violence).
Later on at MACRO level- patterns of social control (civility) evolved from direct coercion to more indirect integrative control through the use of the economy information systems and the courts.
Social capital Urbane self-control- became part of the cultural capital of the city increasing the trustworthiness of the social environment (Coleman 1988)
Until 1960s- negative association between urbanization and rates of serious crime continued (reversed in the US) why shift after 1960s INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE (e.g. decline in institutional integration and control argues Banfield 1990).
6 Link between Population Density and Social Pathology
Louis Wirth (1938) defined urban in terms of DENSITY SIZE and SOCIAL HETEROGENEITY (meaning diversity in lifestyle) of a locations population
John Calhoun (1962) sought to apply lab rat experimental findings on the impact of population density on distress and abnormal behaviors to humans
first used term SOCIAL PATHOLOGY (defn) a catch-all term for the behaviours in the high-density pens of his experiment on rats. The behaviors included infanticide aggression and sexual assault asexuality careless mothering and apparent depression.
Behavioral sink (defn) the growth of unusual behaviours (social pathologies) under conditions of high density in Calhouns experiment with rats
What could be learned from Calhouns experiment Implications
7 Link between Population Density and Social Pathology Calhouns Experiment 8 City size and Deviant subcultures (living in big cities compared to smaller ones) 9 City size and Deviant subcultures (of living in big cities compared to smaller ones) 10 Deviance Service Centres
(defn) an area specializing in providing illegal goods and services adjacent to another area that openly regards them as disreputable
These concentrations of disreputable activities often emerge in disorganized areas of the city where there are limited economic opportunities and a reduced presence of state control.
They vary in SIZE (i.e. as large as national states such as in Thailand large sex trade) political units within states (i.e. Nevada- legalized gambling prostitution and quick divorces) metropolitan areas (i.e. Atlantic City) or small neighborhoods (Storyville in old New Orleans or Africville (Halifax squatter housing)) or even buildings (i.e. bootleggers in Canada)
John Hagan (1994) points out although a deviance service centre may generate income it places the community on the moral as well as the physical periphery of the economic system
POLITICAL DIFFERENCES also play a large part in defining the nature of urban life (Box 9.4) for example some cities can be pro-prostitution (by allowing legal prostitution as part of service sector authorities can keep restrictions/control on associated problems (i.e. STDs offer protection to sex workers and their clients).
11 Different Theories of Urban Pathology
Civilization theory argues Lack of systems of control -gt Higher rates of serious crimes (i.e. rural areas and not cities)
Modern urban theory higher the density and larger the populations of cities greater neighborhood disorganization evidence of deviant subcultures emergence of deviance service centres
Disorganization theory decline in institutional integration and control breakdown of moral order (primarily within most populous cities in specific sectors)
Non-linear relationship theory (defn a statistically significant association where the best-fitting line of least squares is quadratic cubic or some other departure from linearity) certain rural regions and small towns may lack the population or resources necessary to maintain institutional support and control to curtail more spontaneous outburst and higher rates of passionate violence (207).
12 Evidence Homicide Outcomes
Table 9.1/9.2 in your book.
evidence from 1994 1995 2001 and 2002 Statistics Canada data show that the relationship between CMA population and homicide rate is NON-LINEAR (possible explanations contributing to institutional control smaller proportion of young single males in mid-sized CMAs or fewer pockets of poverty)
also non-linear relationship in US data (yet Canada has much lower average of 2 homicides per 100000 between 1992-2001 while US has 5.6 homicide rate in 2003)
may find a different pattern in relationship if using other dependent variables (i.e. rates of violent assault or variation in quality of medical care)
Exception Toronto (1.74 homicide rate!!!- Why does Toronto have lower homicide rate than other smaller Canadian metropolitan areas (i.e. Montreal Vancouver and Edmonton)
may represent an interlude in or the end of turf war between the Hells Angels and the Rock Machine (bigger problem in Montreal)
Perhaps due to selective migration east-west cultural differences or presence of a larger number of homicide-susceptible subpopulations such as aboriginal people rates of homicide and other crimes increase going from east to West in Canada.
13 Murder in Metros Cities and Suburbs
US has three times higher rate of homicide (5.5/100000) than Canada (1.8) in 2000.
Difference in homicide rate between the CMAs of Canada and the US is even larger (yet rates may differ since Canadas definition of CMAs include suburbs) (see Table 9.3)
Why possible US-Canadian difference
14 Example Chicago vs. Toronto
Factors to Discuss
Ethnic neighbourhoods and residential segregation
15 (No Transcript) 16 (No Transcript) 17 Conclusion
Different patterns of suburbanization explain much of the difference in rates of homicide between US and Canada
Other explanations include the difference in the structures of Canadian and American cities (US more laissez-faire both socially and economically and less of a welfare state than Canada) these political cultural distinctions lead to different crime rate consequences
Today in Canada rates of pathological behaviours and conditions will be most prevalent in rural regions and in particular sections of the largest cities. Rates will be lowest in mid-sized cities where the presence of state control is more widespread and complete.
18 Crime in Media
Urban vs. non-urban
Canadian vs. U.S. Police Procedurals
Growth in coverage
Perceptions vs. reality
19 News Perceptions vs. Reality
Conceptions of crime are distorted by exposure to media coverage.
U.S. Even as violent crime rates shrink news outlets unfairly focus on young Latino and black men who commit acts of violence (2001 study)
Homicide coverage on network news increased 473 from 1990 to 1998 while homicides decreased 32.9 during that time the report said. While homicides committed by youth declined by 68 from 1993 to 1999 62 of the public reported they believed youth crime was on the rise.
black people too often are portrayed as perpetrators and are underrepresented as victims.
if a suspect in a violent crime was black the average article length was longer
20 Cops Gangs Innocent bystanders Drugs Urban Crime Film Themes Organized Crime Bleak Futurism Race/ethnic issues Marginalized and Weirdoes 21 Non-urban crime films Westerns Horror flicks Foreign/Genocides Serial killers Family Conflicts Good people gone bad Misunderstood hero Rural-Urban crossovers Perhaps a sign that genre is getting stale some movies combine both worlds 22 Urban Crime on our minds Television Police procedurals Canadian American Hill Street Blues Police (NYC) Crossing Jordan (Boston) medical examiner Forever Knight (Toronto) supernatural police/Cop show Due South (Chicago via Canada) Buddy Cop show Da Vincis inquest (Toronto) medical examiner Cold Squad (Toronto) Police investigators CSI crime scenes (NY Miami Las Vegas) Cold Case (Philly) Police investigators Law and Order and the Shield Police and Prosecutors (NY) 23 Crime on our minds Books Games 24 Source On Balance Volume 10 Number 8 1997 and Volume 11 Number 2 1998 25 News Perceptions vs. Reality 26
In 1997 The National Media Archive completed a study comparing the local TV newscast reporting of crime accidents and natural disasters in Canada and in the United States. The study revealed that this chaos news accounted for 22 percent of local Canadian TV news items compared to 40 per cent on local TV news in the U.S. American stations were also more likely to lead their newscast with a report on crime accidents or disasters (72 per cent) than were Canadian stations (34.7 per cent). 27 Homicide reporting United States 28 Video and Evaluations
Caught in the Crossfire (1993) (60 minutes).
After video in final 10 minutes of class we must complete course evaluations.
Urban Public Space Order and Disorder
Review for Test 3 (last 30 minutes I will go over practice questions)
I will also post several practice questions on our course webpage.
29 Another good documentary source on crime
History of the 20th century videorecording / presented by Sir David Frost producer Robyn Wallis executive producers David Weiland Simon Welfare. Videocass 003997 AVL Pt.1-26 United States Reuters Television Ltd. 1996. 26 videocassettes (1248 mim. 48 min. ea.) sd. col. 1/2 in. (VHS) Pt.8. Crime and Terrorism. Crime and terrorism videorecording
30 (No Transcript) 31 Theres a notorious Iron Highway which brings guns up from the South. 32 Are the same things happening in other western countries
33 International Data Urban and Rural Scotland As the following graph shows in terms of trends since 1980 there is some evidence of a slight narrowing of the gap in absolute levels of recorded crime between urban and rural Districts though is largely accounted for by the sharper decrease in urban crime rates since the early 1990s. 34 International Data South West England Figure 9.4 Rural and urban crime rates 2002/03 rates per 1000 population
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