2 Outline Gender verification entering sport world effected women explanation on intersexuals effected intersexuals Explanation on trans terms Transexuals enter the sport scene Every sexuality is accepted 3 History
In the early days of the Modern Olympics gender verification was not considered a pressing issue
Males used to have to parade in the nude as a tradition so there was no question of their gender
However when females began entering the sports world gender issues came along with them
4 Arising Suspicion... Culturally constructed veiws of gender roles 1920s - Sex reasignment surgery TOO Look Stella Walsh Behave Successfull Mildred Ella Didrikson Babe Helen Stephens 5
Was discovered to have male genitalia at autopsy after she was killed in a shooting Was discovered to have male genitalia after the European Championships. The German Athletic Federation then banned her from competing in womens sports. Both underwent genital surgery and somehow one of them became a father. 1932- Stella Walsh 1938- Dora Retjen 1946 (shortly after) - Claire Bresolles and Lean Caula 6 History...
1948 Women Amateur Athletic Association required a doctors letter verifying their sex after a gynecological examination.
1966 the European Athletic Championships introduced the mandatory gender verification test on site
1968 IOC introduces the sex chromatin test at Mexico Olympic games
USED INVASIVE METHODS 7 The Sex Chromatin Test
AKA the Buccal Smear test taking samples from check to examine chromosome makeup
These tests rely on fact that all cells of females contain two x chromosomes where cells from the male have one x and one y
Until 1991 each woman competing internationally needed a gender verification
card which contained a
photograph and statement that
she had passed the
chromosome sex test
Barr Bodies XX 8 PROBLEMS!!!
The trouble with the Buccal smear test is that it does not detect certain hereditary disorders and genetic abnormalities.
Caused many women with such disorders to be exposed as genetically male (had a Y chromosome).
INFURIATED!!!! Gynecological exams and Buccal smear testing Discriminating to Intersexuals Awards LIVES Athlete 9 An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex or which combine features of both sexes 10 In many cases individuals are neither XX (F) nor XY (M)
Possible Genetic Combos
XO XXY XO/XY XYY XX male and XY Female.
Klinefelters syndrome The presence of one or two additional X chromosomes in a male (XXY or XXXY)
Turners syndrome Presence of only a single X chromosome (XO). It inhibits breast development and also causes a range of medical problems.
Eva Klobukowska Maria Jose Martinez Patino 11 XY (Male) Intersexuality
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome
develop either partially or fully as females due to their bodies failing to respond to testosterone.
Complete Androgen Insensitivity (CAIS)
- Normal Female External Organs and breasts at puberty.
- Will NOT develop a uterus or Fallopian Tubes.
- NO Menstruation.
Partial Androgen Insensitivity (PAIS)
- Reduced sensitivity compared to male normal.
- Individuals can develop male or female or a combination of both external anatomy.
12 XY (Male) Intersexuality (Contd)
5-Alpha Reductase Deficiency
Have Testes Vagina Labia and a small penis capable of ejaculation instead of a clitoris.
Individuals normally raised as girls.
At puberty testes descend voice deepens limited facial hair
At puberty will often develop a male sexual identity.
13 XX (Female) Intersexuality
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
- Female internal anatomy.
- Male or ambiguous external anatomy
- Will develop Male secondary sexual characteristics.
- Male hormones caused by use of drug Progestin.
- Internal and External Female anatomy.
- Will develop some Male secondary sexual characteristics.
14 Dora Retjen All Ineligible were Intersexuals!!!..... in fact... Results of Sex Verification Testing... Only male individual in history to pass off as female 15 It is outrageous on so many levels I hardly know where to begin. First there is the tacit sexism that implies no woman would ever try to pass her self off as a man but a men would try to pass themselves off as women because the competition would be so much easier. Second its very presence suggests that if a woman is a great athlete she may not really be a woman. Her femininity is suspect. And last there is the incorrect scientific assumption that having a Y chromosome is and off itself gives a person athletic advantage. Alison Carlson -member of the IAAF work group on gender verification 16 New testing procedures
1992 the IOC decided to move on to more sophisticated tests
These tests looked even more closely at the genetic makeup of the y chromosome
This test still did not eliminate all the issues surrounding the accuracy of the gender verification process
At the 1996 Atlanta Olympic games officials again reverted to the buccal smear test
1 in 400 females in Atlanta tested male but all were cleared after further physical examination
In late 1999 the IOC medical commission reviewed its medical code and agreed to change the requirement for gender verification tests from mandatory for all female athletes to random
Resultantly intersexuals were more accepted in sports which enticed transsexuals to try and follow their lead
18 Transexuals Entering the Sporting Scene
The 1998 Amsterdam Games required competitors who had changed their birth gender to the opposite gender to provide proof
The 2000 Sydney Games tried dividing competitions into 2 divisions male or female. Where everyone including transgender and intersex athletes had to choose a category to compete in based on the passport or birth certificate gender
19 Clearing up some gender related terms...
a person who establishes a permanent identity with the opposite gender to their assigned sex.
-Desire to make a transition from birth sex to that of opposite sex
a person who derives pleasure esp. sexual pleasure from dressing in clothing and assuming behavior specifically associated with the opposite sex.
Gender identifies primarily as the opposite sex and in most cases cross-lives as the opposite sex on a full-time basis. This person may alter physical appearance by the intake of hormones of the opposite sex but has no intention of altering the genitalia. (Also known as non-op transsexual)
Transexual Transvestite Transgenderist 20 Terms cond... Transgender Transsexual Personal Identity NOT Sexual Desire 21 Transsexual golfer allowed to play in womens British Open
It has taken a considerable amount of time to finalize the gender policy document and we are convinced that we have a document that is fair to all- Andy Salmon chief executive of the LGU
22 Transexual Golfer
Mianne Bagger is a transsexual golfer who is playing this season on the Ladies European Tour and is expected to enter the womens British Open.
Identity Genetics 23
Bagger has become the first male-born golfer to play in a professional womens tournament.
Bagger had a sex-change in 1995.
24 Renee Richards Transexual Tennis Player
Formerly known a Richard Rashind
Had SRS in 1975
Began playing in Womens Tennis Tournaments
1976- The U.S. Tennis Association denied her entry into the U.S. Open
Took it to court
25 Michelle Dumaresq Transexual Mountain Biker
Had a SRS in 1997
Began racing in the womens circuit in 2001
License was suspended later that year but was reissued in April 2002
Is it fair
Won the National Series in 2002 and 2003. In 2003 she dominated by a
2.62 s lead.
26 May 18 2004 IOC Announcement
IOC approved consensus proposed by the IOC Medical Commission with regard to athletes who have changed their sex.
Stated that if sex reassignment before puberty
-Male to Female Girls or Women (Female)
-Female to Male Boys or Men (Male)
27 May 18 2004 IOC Announcement (Contd)
Stated that if sex reassignment after puberty
May participate in reassigned sex category
IF THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS ARE MET
Surgical anatomical changes have been completed including external genitalia changes and removal of gonads.
Legal recognition of their assigned sex has been conferred by the appropriate official authorities.
Hormonal therapy appropriate for the assigned sex has been administered for long enough to minimize any gender-related advantages in sport competitions a period that must be at least 2 years after removal of gonads.
28 Transsexuals in Sport Today
-Now the International Olympics Committee has approved a rule change that allows transsexuals to compete under their assigned sex - first in the Summer Olympics held in Athens Greece.
Only if they are legally their new gender and have undergone postoperative hormone therapy for at least two years . This covering both male to female and female to male cases
Although men have higher levels of testosterone greater muscle to- fat ratio and heart and lung capacity testosterone levels and muscle mass drop after hormone therapy and sex change surgery
29 It is important that all society including sports organizations recognize that gender development is not always clear cut. The only appropriate way to assign to one or the other sex is to allow them to choose for themselves. It is equally important that this minority not be discriminated against. It is possible of course (but not established) that the accompanying hormonal imbalances in some of these disorders might prove athletic advantage. However people are not equal in athletic prowess in regard to height weight coordination or any other parameters and it follows that this is just another way in which athletes will not be equal. Jean Wilson - cheif editor of the Harrisons Principle of internal Medicine (1992) 30 Discussion Time!!!
Do you think it is fair to include intersexuals and transsexuals in athletic competition
31 Jaime Lee Curtis Intersexuals QUESTIONS
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