1 NANOROBOTS FOR TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ARTERY OCCLUSION 2 AIM
This paper deals with the nanorobots control activation for coronary occlusion
Inside view of a occluded LAD coronary artery RBCs and Nanorobots 3 ABSTRACT
This paper is an innovative approach to advance the study of biomedical treatments using nanobots for coronary atherosclerosis.
This work demonstrates how chemical and thermal parameters could be successfully applied to achieve a suitable control strategy for nanobots to trigger their actuation upon target areas.
In medicine cardiovascular field is the most technically advanced discipline.
Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death morbitidy and disability.
Nanobots help us to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic technologies that provide safe and efficient solution for our patients.
Nanotechnology is an extremely diverse and multidisciplinary field.
Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the microscopic scale of nanometers.
Nanobots are Complex molecular machines.
The diameter is 0.5-3 micron.
The main element used is CARBON in the form of DIAMOND/FULLERENE nanocomposites.
These are used for diagnosing treating and preventing disease relieving pain preserving and improving human health.
6 BIOMEDICAL FLOWS
The bloodstream keeps the human body alive.
WHITE BLOOD CELLS(WBC) RED BLOOD CELLS(RBC) and PLATELETS are found in the blood suspended in the PLASMA.
Size of RBC- 7.5 micrometer in diameter and 2m thick.
Size of platelets- 2 to 4 micrometer in diameter.
The pumping system comprises of a closed system of blood vessels.
For human and mammals this system is basically comprised of 2 pumps.
The heart delievers oxygen to large range of tissue which returns carbon dioxide to lungs.
The blood is pumped from the left ventricle through the artery and arterioles to capillaries.
After that the blood flows from venules into the veins back to right atrium completing the systematic circulation.
In the right atrium the blood is pumped through lungs.
8 (No Transcript) 9 (No Transcript) 10 (No Transcript) 11 ARTERY OCCLUSION
Also known as CORONARY HEART DISEASE(CHD).
It is the most common form of heart disease.
THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH estimates that 7 million Americans suffer from it.
The coronary arteries surround the heart to supply blood full of oxygen.
Just like other organs the heart needs constant supply of oxygenated blood to feed itself.
When the body goes into more strenous activity heart has to work harder to supply the bodys demands for fresh oxygen-rich blood.
The constrictions in coronary arteries prevent it from receiving the desired amount and hence CHD occurs.
Fig. heart with coronary artery disease
13 MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
Some relevent parameters when monitoring patients-
Different gradients on temperature
Concentration of chemicals in bloodstream
Teams of nanobots must cooperate to perform predefined complex tasks on medical procedures.
CMOS VLSI design using deep ultraviolet lithography is a high precision technique.
This approach is a commercial way for manufacturing nanodevices and nanoelectronics.
14 TEMPERATURE SENSOR
INTEGRATED NANOTHERMOELECTRIC sensors can be implemented as CMOS devices.
It has advantage of linear self-generated response with system integration without requiring bias or temperature stabilization.
One positive aspect for CMOS is that it requires less voltage level for its operation.
Nanorobots using this sensor open new medical possibilities for clinical diagnosis.
15 ENERGY SUPPLY
Directly from bloodstream
To create chemical reactions with blood to burn it for energy
It can also use patients body heat to create power
Batteries are viable power source as it supplies small amount of power related to their size and weight.
So a very small battery would only provide a fraction of power a nanorobot would need.
A more likely candidate is a capacitor which has a slightly better power-to-weight ratio.
16 DATA TRANSMISSION
For communication in liquid workspace it is worth to quote acoustic RF light and chemical signals for communication and data transmission.
CHEMICAL SIGNAL is quite useful for nearby communication.
ACOUSTIC COMMUNICATION is useful for long distance communication.
OPTICAL COMMUNICATION permits faster rates of data transmission.
But its energy demand makes it not ideal for nanorobots.
17 SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
Consists of adopting multi scale-view of environment.
The simulation includes NCD(NANOROBOT CONTROL DESIGN) simulator for the nanorobot sensing and actuation and CFD(COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS) software for the patient parameters.
These simulations are used to achieve high fidelity control modelling of nanorobots.
Also includes nanorobot orientation drive mechanisms sensing and control.
18 NANOROBOT DESIGN
Comprised of integrated nanoelectronics and components such as molecular sorting rotors and a robot arm(telescoping manipulator) derived from biological models.
External surface consists of a diamondoid material to which may be attached an artificial glycocalyx surface.
This glycocalyx surface ensures sufficient biocompatibility to avoid immune system attack.
Different molecule types are distinguished by a series of chemotactic sensors.
19 (No Transcript) 20 MODULAR INTEGRATION
The NANOROBOT CONTROL DESIGN(NCD) is a multithread software.
It is comprised of collision detection and physically based simulation.
The NCD simulator is used for the 3D-investigation of a stenosed left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery.
The NCD simulator consists of several modules that performs functions as
Simulate the physical condition
Run the nanorobot control programs
Determines their action
Provide a visual display of the environment in 3D
Record the nanorobot behaviours for later analysis
The approach used aims to trigger the process of medical molecular machine activation.
This trigger will turn the nanorobot ON switching it to REPAIR MODE.
22 Fig. view of NCD simulator workspace 23 MEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF NANOBOTS
Applied in chemotherapy to combat cancer.
Breaking up kidney stones.
Monitoring diabetes and controlling glucose levels.
Breaking up blood clots.
24 ADVANCEMENT OF NANOBOTS
Nanobots are expected to enable new treatments for patients suffering from different disease and will result in a remarkable advance in the history of medicine.
In recent years the potential of nanotechnology has indeed motivated many governments to devote significant resources to this new field.
The US NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION has launched a program in SCIENTIFIC VISUALISATION.
A 1 trillion US market consisting of devices and systems with some embedded nanotechnology is projected by 2015.
A study with advanced ways to establish a trigger and control behaviour for nanorobots in cardiology was adopted.
The approach presented in this paper has successfully combined a precise physical simulation to establish the environment for operation of nanorobots.
The aim in this study was to show an innovative framework for enabling designs and models of medical nanorobots.
Hence this study points towards possible ways to advance nanotechnology as diagnostic and treatment tool using nanorobots for cardiology patients.
Freitas Jr. R.A. nanomedicine Basic capabities
Cavalcanti A. assembly Automation with Evolutionary nanorobots and sensor based control applied to nanomedicine
G.M.Patel G.C.Patel R.B.Patel J.K.Patel nanorobotA versatile tool in nanomedicine.
Chandran K.B. cardiovascular biomechanics New york university.
Purcell E.M. life at low reynolds number american J. of physics.
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