Title: Teaching Children with Learning Disabilities
1 Teaching Children with Learning Disabilities
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS
2 LEARNING DISABILITIES
I. Introduction and Definition under IDEA
A. Information Processing Disorder
B. Difficulties in Learning
C. Exclusionary Rule
D. Discrepancy Controversy
III. Characteristics of Students with LD
IV. Teaching Strategies for Students with LD
3 I. Introduction to LD
The term learning disabilities was only founded in 1963 by Samuel Kirk. At that time children with LD were referred to by such terms as
were served in classrooms for students with MR or in most cases were not receiving any specialized services in the public schools.
4 Definition of a Learning Disability under IDEA
(1) a disorder in the processing of information
involved in understanding and using language (spoken or written)
(2) Difficulties in learning particularly reading writing mathematics and/or spelling
(3) The problem is not primarily due to other causes
(4) Special educational services needed to succeed in school
Severe discrepancy between potential and achievement
5 1. Disorder in the Processing of Information
First having a learning disability means that the brain processes information differently than most other students.
Simply stated certain kinds of information get stuck or lost while traveling through the brain of the student with LD.
6 1. Disorder in the Processing of Information
Information processing refers to how your brain
Takes in information
Stores the information in memory
Retrieves the information from memory
and Expresses the information
7 1. Disorder in the Processing of Information
Students with LD struggle with certain kinds of learning because their brains have difficulty processing certain kinds of information.
It is like when you go on a car trip and get stuck in road construction and need to take a detour. It takes you a lot longer to get where you are going. Its the same with information going through the brain of a student with LD.
8 1. Disorder in the Processing of Information
Different kinds of information travel through different parts of the brain. Thats why some information is learned quickly and easily while other information is much more difficult.
9 1. Visual Processing
Visual Processing involves how well a student can use visual information. When he sees something especially something complex
e.g. does he understand it quickly and easily Can he visualize things (like pictures shapes words etc.) in his head Can he remember information that he sees
10 Read this Story
Mhat I bib last snwwer
Wy frieub Roddie donght a bop frow the det shod for 148. His darents pave hiw the wouey pnt saip that he wonlp have to day half to thew over the snwwer dy poinp sbecial chores aronud the yarp. He fipnreb he conlp rebay his dareuts L4 bollars.
Later that pay I cawe over to share sih exciteweut. With the bops pip ears aup mappinb tail we blayeb all bay. Roddie chose a dlne collar for hiw. The E of ns bassep onr snwwer pays dike ripinp hikiup and blayinp pall.
11 Answer these Questions
Mhat bib Roddie duy frow the det shod
Mhat color bib Roddie choose for the bops collar
Hom wnch wouey bib Roddie fipnre he conlp rebay his dareuts
12 What I did last summer
My friend Robbie bought a dog from the pet shop for 148.
His parents gave him the money but said that he would have to pay half to them over the summer by doing special chores around the yard.
He figured he could repay his parents 74 dollars.
Later that day I came over to share his excitement.
With the dogs big ears and wagging tail we played all day.
Robbie chose a blue collar for him.
The 3 of us passed our summer days bike riding hiking and playing ball.
13 Answers to What I Did Last Summer
What did Robbie buy from the pet shop A dog
What color did Robbie choose for the dogs collar Blue
How much money did Robbie figure he could repay his parents 74 dollars
14 1. Auditory Processing
Auditory Processing- involves how well a student can use auditory information.
When he hears something especially something detailed does he understand it quickly and easily Can he hear things (like sounds numbers words etc.) in his head Can he remember information that he hears
15 1. Processing Speed
Processing Speed refers to how fast information travels through the brain.
All LD students experience some processing speed difficulty when required to process information through their weakest processing channel or modality.
It is like having the brain work at 30 miles per hour when the rest of the world (and all the information) is going 55 miles per hour. Such students just cant keep up.
16 1. Processing Speed
Who was the first President of the United States
Who a question
Was Past tense
President of United States-Leader of Nation
17 2. Difficulties in Learning
Dyslexia-Severe difficulty learning to read
Dysgraphia- Severe difficulty learning to write
Dyscalculia- Severe difficulty learning to do mathematical concepts and computation
Dysorthographia- Severe difficulty learning to spell
18 Object Orientation and Object Identification
19 Object Orientation and Object Identification
20 Famous People with LD
21 3. Problem is NOT Primarily Due to Other Causes
Emotional Cultural or Economic Disadvantage
22 4. Special Educational Services Needed to Succeed in School
It is possible for a student to technically have a disability but not to qualify for special education services.
This happens when a student demonstrates the information processing difficulties associated with a LD but his or her academic skills are not found to be severely discrepant from their ability. This may indicate that the student has learned how to cope with his/her learning difficulties at least to some extent.
23 Severe Discrepancy Between Potential and Achievement
Look for a discrepancy between potential and achievement ( Not mandated under reauthorization of IDEA but can still be used)
There is no one sign that shows a person has a learning disability.
24 II. Prevalence
Almost 3 million children (ages 6 through 21) have some form of a learning disability and receive special education in school.
LD form the largest category in special education.
25 II. Prevalence
In fact approximately 50 of all children who receive special education have a learning disability
31 ratio males to females
26 III. Characteristics
may have trouble learning the alphabet or connecting letters to their sounds
may make many mistakes when reading aloud and repeat and pause often
may not understand what he or she reads
may have real trouble with spelling
may confuse math symbols and misread numbers
27 III. Characteristics
may have very messy handwriting or hold a pencil awkwardly
may struggle to express ideas in writing
may learn language late and have a limited vocabulary
may not follow the social rules of conversation such as taking turns and may stand too close to the listener
28 III. Characteristics
may have trouble remembering the sounds that letters make or hearing slight differences between words
may have trouble following directions
may not be able to retell a story in order (what happened first second third)
may mispronounce words or use a wrong word that sounds similar
may have trouble organizing what he or she wants to say or not be able to think of the word he or she needs for writing or conversation
29 IV. Teaching Strategies
Provide high structure and clear expectations. Children who are LD tend to have difficulty focusing getting started and setting priorities. Creating a clear structured program allows the student to be exposed to fewer distractions and possible avoidance and allow for greater focus on work related tasks.
30 IV. Teaching Strategies
Allow flexibility in classroom procedures (e.g. allowing the use of tape recorders for note taking and test-taking when students have trouble with written language). Keep in mind that the greater the number of options in responding to a task the greater chance that a particular students learning style will be useful and successful.
31 IV. Teaching Strategies
Learning materials should easily accessible well organized and stored in the same place each day. The less the LD student has to worry about comprehend or remember the greater chance for success. Too many details can easily overwhelm this type of student.
32 IV. Teaching Strategies
All assignments should be presented on the blackboard as well as orally presented. This multilevel sensory approach will only enhance the chances of the child being able to bring home the correct assignment. This will also cut down on parent child frustration which often occurs when the child with learning disabilities brings home part of the assignment or and assumption of what needs to be done due to a lack of ability in copying quickly.
33 IV. Teaching Strategies
Make sure that the childs desk is free from all unnecessary materials. Children with learning disabilities tend to have organizational problems as well. The less chaos the better the focus. Use small binders that hold fewer papers. Keep the desk free of most materials. Otherwise he may be embarrassed to get up to go to the pail and stuff it in his desk.
34 IV. Teaching Strategies
Correct the students work as soon as possible to allow for immediate gratification and feedback. Students with learning disabilities do not often have foundations of success when it comes to schoolwork. Therefore when they hand in work they begin to worry about how they did. If they do not receive it back quickly some children may use a great deal of energy worrying about the reactions of others if they did not do well.
35 IV. Teaching Strategies
Try to separate him from students who may be distracting. Some children with learning disabilities are very distractible while others may use any external situation to avoid a potential failure situation. Sitting a child with learning disabilities next to students who are self-motivated and internally controlled will provide extra structure and controls.
36 IV. Teaching Strategies
Use multi-sensory teaching methods whenever possible. This is a common sense issue since all the research indicates that the greater number of sense utilized to learn something the greater chance for the information to be understood and retained. Using visual auditory kinesthetic or tactile input together is highly recommended for children with learning disabilities.
37 IV. Teaching Strategies
Respond to the childs comments praising whenever possible. Many children with learning disabilities tend to have secondary emotional issues as a result of frustration and lower sense of self worth due to academic failure and stress. Consequently when he responds or initiates conversation praise for the initiation of communication should be praised.
38 IV. Teaching Strategies
Give constant feedback. Many children with learning disabilities tend to write negative scripts about their ability and their performance. Feedback in any form reduces this negative energy pattern and offers reality the only thing that breaks down fear.
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