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Setting the Stage for Revolution: Absolute Monarchies

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Title: Setting the Stage for Revolution: Absolute Monarchies


1
Setting the Stage for Revolution Absolute
Monarchies
  • World History B
  • Seminar 1

Warm Up Define 1. divine right
2. absolute monarch
2
Definitions
1. Divine Right
Belief that a rulers authority comes directly
from God.
2. Absolute Monarch
Ruler with complete authority over the government
and lives of the people he or she governs.
3
Absolute Monarchies in Europe1550-1800
  • Spain
  • France
  • England
  • Austria
  • Prussia
  • Russia

4
Absolute Monarchies in Europe1550-1800
From World History Connections to Today
Prentice Hall, 2003
5
Thirty Years War1618-1648 (page 427)
  • 1640 Holy Roman Empire has broken down into
    several Prussian (German) principalities.
  • Electors from the 7 major German states elect the
    Holy Roman emperor. Many other German states no
    longer recognize the power of the Holy Roman
    emperor.
  • 1641 Ferdinand of Bohemia (Hapsburg king)
    elected emperor. He is Anti Protestant. Tried
    to return Prussia (Germany) to Catholicism.
    Spain, Poland supported Ferdinand. Protestant
    countries Sweden, Netherlands sent troops
    into Prussia to protect Protestants. France comes
    in on side of Sweden to protect Alsace from
    Prussian control.
  • Over thirty years alliances continually changed.
  • War led to starvation, famine and disease. Area
    severely depopulated.
  • 1648 Peace of Westphalia signed. France is clear
    winner, gains territory from Spain and Prussia,
    including Alsace. Prussia remains fragmented and
    Hapsburgs lose much power.

6
From World History Connections to Today
Prentice Hall, 2003
7
The Philosopher Behind the Age
  • Thomas Hobbes
  • 1660 Wrote the Leviathan (Giant)
  • Discussed the perfect government
  • People first lived in anarchy
  • Needed a social contract
  • Required an absolute monarch to maintain order
  • People retained the right only to maintain their
    lives.

8
England - Pathway to Revolution1603-1689
  • Elizabeth I (1558 1603) Absolute ruler of
    England.
  • Kept Parliament on her side.
  • Stabilized the nation and expanded British
    territory.
  • Died without an heir.
  • Country had to decide who would replace her.

9
England - Pathway to Revolution1603-1689
10
England James I (1603 1625)
  • James VI of Scotland
  • Became James I of England when Elizabeth I died.
  • Believed in Divine Right of Kings. (page 435)
    Kings are called gods because they sit upon
    Gods throne on earth.
  • Ran up a huge debt in England.
  • Had Bible translated from Latin into English

11
England Charles I1625 - 1649
  • Charles I of England
  • Absolute monarch - had no problem with putting
    his enemies in prison without trial
  • Ran up a huge debt
  • Dissolved Parliament in 1629
  • Touched off a massive English Civil War between
    supporters of Charles and supporters of
    Parliament led by Oliver Cromwell.
  • Charles I beheaded in 1649.

12
England Oliver Cromwell1649 - 1658
  • Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector England
  • Ruled through the army
  • Exiled Catholics to Ireland
  • Strict Puritan laws passed theaters closed,
    Sunday set aside for worship, no lewd dancing,
    taverns or gambling
  • Religious freedom for everyone else
  • When Cromwell died, Restoration began.

13
England Charles IIThe Restoration1660 - 1685
  • Charles II - Popular ruler
  • Monarchy restored Hence Restoration
  • Bowed to the wishes of Parliament
  • Restored the Church of England
  • Stabilized government

14
England James II1685 - 1688
  • James II - Absolute Ruler
  • Antagonized Parliament
  • Ran up a huge debt
  • Openly Catholic
  • Forced from throne in what came to be called the
    Glorious Revolution.
  • Glorious Revolution

15
England William and MaryEnglish Bill of
Rights1689
  • William and Mary were given the throne after the
    English Bill of Rights was passed.
  • Guaranteed supremacy of Parliament over the
    monarchy.
  • Parliament had to meet on a regular basis
  • Monarchy could neither make nor suspend laws
  • Trial by jury reinstated.
  • Abolished fines and cruel and unusual punishment.
  • Affirmed writ of habeas corpus no person can
    be held in prison without first being charged
    with a specific crime. Due process of laws.
  • Laid groundwork for American system of laws.

16
The Philosophy Advances
  • John Locke
  • 1690
  • People first lived in anarchy
  • Needed a social contract
  • People gave up only SOME of their individual
    rights.
  • Kept the right to - Live - Enjoy Liberty -
    Own Property
  • Rulers who violated these rights broke the social
    contract and could be overthrown.

17
France Louis XIVRuled 1643 - 1715
  • Called himself the Sun King
  • Believed in divine right. Letat, cest moi. I
    am the state. (page 417)
  • Made French army the strongest in Europe
  • France was the wealthiest country in Europe under
    Louis XIV
  • Louis XIV spent huge amounts of money
  • Built Versailles. (page 419)
  • War of Spanish Succession (page 420)

18
France Louis XIVVersailles
  • Expanded from a hunting lodge in 1669.
  • Became the symbol to European monarchs of the
    wealth and power of the king of France.
  • Seat of French government for nearly over 100
    years.
  • Its upkeep consumed as much as 25 of the income
    of France.

19
France Louis XIVVersailles
  • Expanded from a hunting lodge in 1669.
  • Became the symbol to European monarchs of the
    wealth and power of the king of France.
  • Seat of French government for over 100 years.
  • Its upkeep consumed as much as 25 of the income
    of France.

Hall of Mirrors
20
Spain Philip IIRuled 1556-1598
  • Philip II - Sought to expand Spanish influence
    ruled Spain when the empire was at its height.
    Included the Spanish New World (page 414)
  • Devout tried to strengthen Catholic church
  • Centralized royal power
  • Married Mary I of England returned England to
    Catholicism
  • Invaded England with Spanish Armada against
    Elizabeth I He lost most of the Armada.

21
Spain Philip IIRuled 1556-1598
22
Russia Peter the GreatRuled 1682-1725
  • Peter the Great of Russia
  • Goal was to westernize Russia. Forced powerful
    boyars to bow to his will.
  • Built modern Western city for Russian capital
    St. Petersburg.
  • Spread serfdom.
  • Studied Western technology. Worked in a shipyard
  • Extended Russian territory to Pacific Ocean.
  • 1700 Fought Sweden for control of Baltic. Gained
    several Baltic ports

23
Russia Peter the Great
From World History Connections to Today
Prentice Hall, 2003
24
Austria Maria Theresaruled 1740 - 1780
  • Absolute monarch of Austria
  • Fought Frederick II of Prussia for control of
    Hungary and Silesia
  • Reorganized the government
  • Enlightened Despot
  • Eased tax burden on her people
  • Gave more rights to her subjects
  • Gave birth to 16 children while in power

25
Prussia Frederick IIRuled 1740-1786
  • Absolute ruler of Prussia (Germany)
  • Attacked Austria, sparking the War of Austrian
    Succession
  • Unified Prussia, part of the Holy Roman Empire,
    into one nation

26
Absolutism Summary ChartTextbook page 436
From World History Connections to Today
Prentice Hall, 2003
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