Title: Distribution and Bioaccumulation of Zinc, Nickel, Lead and Cadmium in Water, Sediment and Some Biota of Al-Gharraf River South of Iraq
2 Distribution and Bioaccumulation of Zinc Nickel Lead and Cadmium in Water Sediment and Some Biota of Al-Gharraf River South of Iraq
Al- Gharraf is a branch of Tigris River it is considered as the third largest river in Iraq begins near Kut city and runs through Wasit and Dhi-Qar provinces it impacts greatly on the socio-economic aspects of that area. It is the main water source for agriculture and public water supply. The river receives most of the wastewater from many cities including industrial agricultural and domestic wastewater. Associated with the development of the area the increase of pollutants into the river has been a recent cause for alarm. There is no conducted surveys on heavy metals in the river however little is known about metal bioaccumulation in aquatic species inhabiting the river.
3 Trace elements in biological systems
Trace elements occur in minute concentrations in biological systems they may exert beneficial or harmful effects on plant animal and human life depending upon their concentrations.
These elements are introduced into aquatic systems rivers lakes oceans through atmospheric fallout dumping wastes accidental leaks runoff of terrestrial systems (industrial agricultural and domestic effluents) and geological weathering.
Through the processes of precipitation sedimentation and a variety of factors such as chemical reactivity land use pattern and biological productivity some of the heavy metals that are introduced in an aquatic system are deposited in the sediment aquatic plants and organisms.
Although some HMs such as manganese iron copper and zinc are essential micronutrients others such as mercury and lead are not required even in small amounts by any organism.
Some HMs became a matter of concern because of their toxicity and tendency to accumulate in food chains. Fish mollusks or another aquatic life located at the end of the aquatic food chain may accumulate metals and pass them to human beings through food causing chronic or acute diseases.
4 The Aim of This Study
To assess the HMs contamination in water sediments and biota in order to effectively monitor and provide possible recommendations to improve the water quality in the aquatic ecosystem of Al- Gharraf River.
Compare HMs concentration in mixed zooplankton the mosquito fish Gambusia affinis the freshwater shrimp Caridina babaulti basrensis and the aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demeresum to compare potential biomonitors of HMs pollution in the river.
5 Materials and Methods
The Study Area
Four sites along the river were selected for sampling these were Kut (upstream site) Hai and Qalat Sekar (urban areas) and Badaa (downstream site) with a distance of about 50 km between stations. Sampling was conducted from October 2009 to September 2010 which included all the dry and the wet seasons.
6 Sampling Stations on Al-Gharraf River. 7 Figure ( 7 ) Badaa Head Regulator (the forth station) Summer 2010. 8 Field Measurements
Water temperature salinity electrical conductivity dissolved oxygen total dissolved solids water turbidity and pH were measured in each station to know their correlation with the concentrations of metals. Four heavy metals were investigated monthly in water and seasonally in sediment and tissues of three commonly aquatic species namely the mosquito fish Gambusia affinis the freshwater shrimp Caridina babaulti basrensis the submerged aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demeresum and mixed zooplankton from the river. The metals studied were Zn which is known as an essential metal for metabolism in organisms Pb which have no known function in biota Ni and Cd which are micronutrients needed in a few organisms.
9 Samples Collection and Heavy Metals Analysis
Water and sediment samples were collected at each site and preserved at 4C prior to analysis. Enough quantities of the mentioned biota were also collected at each site. Water samples were filtered with Millipore (0.45 µm) filters and treated with HN03 and HCl on a hot plate following the method of the (APHA 2003). Sediment was digested using HN03 H202 and HCl at 95C according to the method of (USEPA 1991). Aquatic biota samples were prepared and acid digested according to (US-EPA 1991) method. Zn Ni Pb and Cd in all samples were measured by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Phoenix 986 AAS.
10 Heavy Metals Analysis Figure (13) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Phoenix 986 AAS. 11 Instruments that were used in field and lab works. Figure (12) a Multi-Parameter (Multi 340i WTW) b Turbidity meter type WTW (TURB 355 IR/T) c Global Positioning System (GPS) Geko 201. 12 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Results showed that the general annual average of Zn Ni Pb and Cd in filtered water were 3.36 2.14. 10.27 and 0.34 µg/L respectively in sediment were 80.3 161.1 16.84 1.12 µg/g respectively. The annual concentrations in the mosquito fish were 66.9 7.17 1.35 and 0.34 µg/g respectively in the aquatic plant were 13.06 7.29 2.05 and 1.19 µg/g respectively in the freshwater shrimp were 34.82 2.56 0.4 and 1.22 µg/g and in mixed zooplankton were 38.05 16.35 1.01 and 0.58 µg/g respectively.
13 Table (18) The general annual concentration average of the studied metals in Filtered water sediment and aquatic biota of Al- Gharraf River during the study by ppm unit. 14 The Bio-Concentration Factor (BCF) and the Bio- Sedimentation Factor (BSF)
The Bio-Concentration Factor (BCF) of the studied metals in the aquatic biota of Al-Gharraf River followed this order
Ni gt Cd gt Zn gt Pb and the order of Bio-sedimentation Factor (BSF) in biota was as follow Zn gt Cd gt Pb gt Ni
The general concentration order of the studied metals in the river water was Zn gt Pb gt Nigt Cd in sediment was Ni gt Zn gt Pb gt Cd and in all studied biota was Zn gt Ni gt Pb gt Cd
The ANOVA test showed significant relationship among metals in water sediment and biota therefore it was concluded that the metals came from the same source and the selected biota samples reflected the metals in the environment. The variations of metals in the river and biota maybe a result of the change of influencing factors in the area and the growth season of biota. There were positive correlation among metals concentrations in water sediment and biota with Temp. Con. and Sal. but negative with pH DO and Turbidity The results of this study clearly demonstrates that the mosquito fish the freshwater shrimp and mixed zooplankton are good potential bio-indicators for metals in Al- Gharraf River since they reflected concentrations of metals in their environment.
15 Figure (46) The Bio-Concentration Factor (BCF) of the studied metals in some aquatic biota of Al-Gharraf River. 16 Figure (47) The Bio- Sedimentation Factor (BSF) of the studied metals in some aquatic biota of Al-Gharraf River. 17 In the field 18 . 19 . 20 (No Transcript) 21 .
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