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International Seminar 1-3 March. 2008, Hyderabad.

Linguistics, University of Mysore,
  • Introduction
  • 1. The history of vocabulary Culture
  • 2. Nature and reality of culture
  • 3. The categories of definitions of culture
  • 4. Language, thought and culture
  • 5. Language, Culture and Society
  • 6. Language learning
  • 7. Culture, learning and communication
  • 8. The analysis of the social content of language
    teaching and learning
  • 9.Globalization
  • 10.Today, English as an International language
  • 11. Official language or languages in one country
  • 12-Translation
  • 13. Language contact
  • 14. Motivated factors to learn other languages
  • 15. Multi complex category of factors
  • 16. Results
  • English in Globalization
  • References

  • Importance of relationship of language and
  • Culture and language are two unseperatable sides
    of human communication system
  • A language of one society reflects the culture of
    that society
  • Language and culture are inter-linked to each
    others in various ways
  • Language is human societys most precious
    possession not only because of its communicative
    values, but also because language is the vehicle
    of culture
  • Culture is the embodiment of all that a society
    believes produces
  • Language becomes an integral part of culture
  • Language and culture go hand in hand interacting
    with and shaping together

  • The acquisition of one language is done through
    or with culture
  • Society and culture are more than background and
    even more than context
  • Language and society are so inter-linked and
    so much apart each other that are cannot be
    thought of except in relation to the other
  • Language for the individual is his tool for
    interaction with community as well as the
    communitys tool for interaction with the
  • Language acquiring is just one aspect of
  • The two languages are not translation of each
  • Globalization in a literal sense is international
  • Globalization can be described as a process by
    which the people of the world are unified into
    single society
  • The effects of globalization which work to
    linguistic homogenization and cultural
    homogenization is done through modernization,
    translation, standardization and the others
  • Endangered languages are not concluded to
    languages themselves
  • Endanger with or through languages due to
    endanger treasure of culture
  • Various issues have been affect that the
    endangered state and condition occur

1. The history of word Culture
  • Origin of concept culture
  • It is derived form the classical or may be
    pre-classical Latin (Cultura)
  • In 1750, it was used to describe the human
    society for the first time in Germany language
  • In 1871,Tylore defined it as a clear scientific
  • In 1926, Culture was added to Webster
    dictionary (for the same meaning)

2. Nature and reality of culture
  • It refers to some property of community
  • culture is something that everybody has
  • Material culture and Non-material culture
  • Culture is knowledge includes know-how and
    how-that (1957, Goodenough)
  • Cultural knowledge , Shared non-cultural
    knowledge , Non-shared non-cultural knowledge in
    one society
  • Culture
  • is general however, it is particular.
  • is dynamic, however, it is static.
  • is accepted through force, however, it is
    free will
  • Problems of the study of culture

3.The categories of definitions of culture
  • The Descriptive type- The factorial elements of
    culture -Tylor 1871
  • The Traditional type- The social heritage or
    tradition -Sapir 1921
  • The Normative type-
  • The rule or way -Young 1934
  • The values and ideas -Sorokin 1947
  • The Psychological type -
  • Culture as adjustment -Small 1905
  • The learning -Opler 1947
  • The habits -Murdock 1941
  • The structural type- The model, pattern or
    organization of culture

  • -Willey 1926
  • The Genetical type-
  • Culture is as a production - Falsom
  • The ideas in culture - Ward 1903
  • The symbols of culture - Whyite

4.Language, though and culture
  • In language acquisition, cognitive development
    and linguistic development, go hand in hand, each
    interacting with and shaping the other
  • Verbal labels can shape the way we store events
    for later recall
  • culture as socially acquired knowledge
  • culture is one part of memory
  • Culture is really an integral part of the
    interaction between language and thought
  • Meanings for every thing, are in the human

5. Language, Culture and Society
  • The facility of communication and interaction for
    social living, is as a result of social being and
    living in societies as characteristic of the
  • Language does not develop in a vacuum
  • Language records the cultural history of a
  • A language is part of the culture of a people and
    the chief means by which the members of a society
  • Language is component of culture and central
    network through which the other components are
  • Differences in cultural meanings across language
    are a problem in learning a new language
  • Contacting with people of another society,
    identifies some characteristics of the behavior
    ,that show they are as member of a different

6. Language learning and teaching
  • Learning is as acquiring or getting of knowledge
    of a subject or skill by study, experience, or
  • The concept of learning, as it is understood
    today, has been generally influenced by the
    psychological study of the learning process
  • Teaching is as" showing or helping someone to
    learn how to do something, giving instruction,
    guiding in the study of something, providing with
    knowledge, causing to know or understand
  • Your understanding of how the learner learns,
    will determine the philosophy of education

7. Culture, learning and communication
  • To understand some materials and subject in one
    language, we should understand the meanings of
    the culture expressed by the words of the
  • There can be no real learning of a language,
    without understanding something of the patterns
    and values of the culture of which it is a part
  • To become truly educated in language, it is
    necessary to absorb the full cultural meaning of
    the target language
  • Breaking free of the elements meaning units of
    the learners native language, let him to achieve
    right communication through a second language

  • If we suppose that
  • M Meaning which exists in the mind
    of sender of message during the specific
    communication, as it is called Communication A.
  • M' Meaning which consist in the mind
    of receiver of message during the specific
    communication, as it is called Communication A.
  • Among the two individuals communication, one
    of the below states, will occur

  • State one M'/M1, Two individuals communicate
    each others completely.
  • State two M'/M0, Two individuals do not
    communicate each each others.
  • State three M'/M lt1, Two individuals
    communicative each others, but not
  • State four M'/M gt1, Two results will occur
  • A-Complete communication B - Self

8. The analysis of the social content of
language teaching and learning
  • The social content of language learning can be
    regarded as a set of factors that is likely to
    exercise a powerful influence on language
  • Socio-cultural factors that bear upon motivation
  • Sociolinguistic and socio cultural factors in
    learning environment
  • Importance to the influence of interethnic
    relations upon ethno-linguistic attitudes and on
    language learning
  • the social opportunities for contact with the
    second language
  • Educational frame work in which the teaching
    normally occurs

  • Globalization (generally written with a Z) has
    been defined by Giddens as the intensification
    of worldwide social relations which link distant
    localities in such a way that local happenings
    are shaped by events occurring many miles away
    and vice versa (Giddens, 1990)
  • Globalization in a literal sense is international
  • Globalization can be described as a process by
    which the people of the world are unified into
    single society
  • Scholars from various disciplines such as
    sociology, political, science and geography have
    perceived globalization differently and tried to
    define it from various angles

  • Commodity of chains whereby production is
    coordinated on a global scale
  • Diffusion of practice, values and technology that
    have an influence on peoples life world wide
  • Increasing technological scale and information
  • Increasing broader flow of goods, services,
    money, information and culture
  • we can find some of common concepts like mutual
    interdependence, exchange, and sharing the
    community around the world in all aspects such as
    social, economic, cultural and even linguistic
    aspects CONTINUE

  • Although there seems to be a consensus that we
    are living in increasingly globalized world,
    there is by no means agreement about related
    issues Compression of space and time, shrinking
    of world
  • Globalization has various aspects which affect
    the world in several different ways such as
  • 1.Industrial, 2) Financial, 3) Economic, 4)
    Political, 5) Informational, 6) Cultural, 7)
    Social and 8) Ecological
  • In cultural aspects, there are many international
    exchanges such as
  • 1. Spreading of multiculturalism, 2)
    International travel and tourism, 3) Immigration,
    4) formation or development of a set of universal
    values, 5) Development of a global
    telecommunications infrastructure, 6) Internet,
    Communication satellites and the other related
    tools, 7) Increase in the number of standards
    applied globally CONTINUE

  • Globalization is the emergence that is common
    cross-culturally and across national boundaries
  • The global communication leads to some extent
    functional homogenization of culture and language
  • Homogenization of culture and homogenization of
    language, are particularly relevant for
    translating globalization as a reality
  • The active responses of sub-national languages
    and cultures to the global force are also very
    important for their own survival and progress

10. Today, English as an International language
  • Since 1950s, English is applied as a
    international language for the most of situations
  • The role of Lingua France of English is very
  • The most power of such Lingua Franca may lead to
    situations that many believe that acquiring of
    their mother-tongue which do not have universal
    economic, social scientific and political
    benefits and advantages and they waste their time
    during acquiring and using their mother tongue
    for themselves and their children
  • And also many others who believe that world with
    one universal language is wonderful idea that due
    to unit peaceful world
  • Eagerness, zeal and enthusiasm to acquire such
    international language only plus lack of
    motivation to acquire their mother tongue during
    more than one generation lead to death of one
    language as results of lack of speakers

11. Official language or languages in one country
  • Multi ligulas are as a usual phenomenon which
    includes many millions of people in different
  • There is not particular and exact number among
    multi lingual people and also the number of
  • In countries which are called as monolingual
    countries such as England, France, German and
    U.S., there are many percentages of speakers of
    other languages
  • For example, in U.S., 10 of people speak
    languages other than English and in England
    more than one hundred languages are spoken

  • There are different percentages of multi lingual
    in different countries and also there are
    different reasons for such multi lingual
  • It is difficult to find balance in number of
    speakers of different languages in one country
    ,and the condition without social contradiction
  • In such multi lingual situations, in order to
    balance linguistic condition of country, internal
    changes of society and governments policies will
    be done
  • The governments policies will be done in
    different ways such as a selection of one or more
    native or non-native language or languages for
    country as official language or languages

  • At least two below states may occur
  • 1.The acculturation condition among the speakers
    of particular native languages through mandatory
    and compulsory acquiring of the particular
    languages for long time (at least more than one
    generation). In such condition, the speakers do
    not have motivation to acquire their mother
    tongue and they eager to acquire official
    language only
  • 2.Different percentages of influences and
    linguistic borrowing on and in non-official
    languages by the official language or languages
    during long time (especially more than one
    generation). In heavy influences and borrowing,
    even new language or dialect will be created, or
    the language or dialect will be forgotten

  • Translation is transfer of concepts from one
    language to another in both oral and written
  • Nowdays, because of importance of knowledge,
    sciences and modern technology, translation plays
    a main role
  • The number of languages as source or target, or
    large languages in translation and the topics and
    subjects for translation are increasing during
    the time
  • Translation in both types, through human and
    specially machine (because of lack of cultural
    and social background) due to enter and transfer
    some strange and unknown values to the target
    language from source language

  • In reality, the languages are not used for
    symbols merely, but they different ways of view
    to the world
  • Different cultures and languages families among
    source and target languages make problems more in
  • Word for word translation and literal translation
    of text are two main highways of entrance strange
    values to target language
  • Strange values are not set and suitable to the
    speakers own culture of target languages which
    are as new lexical items or same words to target
    language words with new values to target language

13. Language contact
  • Language contact or contact vernaculars are
    contact of speakers of different languages which
    dues to influences and linguistic borrowing
  • Such contact is depend on different percentages
    of contact of speakers, long time of contact,
    varieties of social economic and political
    relationships, similarities of languages and the
    other factors
  • Close contact and heavy influence and borrowing
    for long time will due to death of some organ of
    language body
  • The most dramatic examples of new language are
    arising out of contact situations are pidgins and
    after that Creole

  • There are some main characteristics which are
    belonging to pidgin languages contrast to natural
  • 1.The lexical items of pidgin languages are more
    limited than natural languages, because pidgin
    languages have minimum lexical items for
    communication in particular situations
  • 2.Pidgin languages are found or created during
    two or three generations contrast to natural
    languages, in this way, natural languages has big
    treasure of cultural background.
  • 3.Pidgin languages have simple structure contrast
    to natural language, such simple structure due to
    many linguistic ambiguous cases ,social and
    cultural ambiguous states
  • 4.Normally, pidgin languages have less social
  • 5.The values of lexical items of pidgin languages
    can be different from lexical items of natural
    languages which pidgin languages are outcome of
    their contract

  • To conclude
  • Language contact can due to finding new dialect
    or language which partly or mostly different from
    varieties of languages which are in contact
  • Such new dialect or language will have new
    treasure of cultural and social reflection
  • For long time, through decreasing the number of
    speakers of language which are in contact, the
    death of partly or completely will occur and long
    traditional and big treasure will be forgotten
    through less reflection in limited vehicle

14. Motivated factors to learn other languages
  • There are some motivated factors that lead people
    to acquire other than mother-tongue directly or
    indirectly, and partly or completely
  • 14.1. International relationships
  • As it was discussed before, for example,
    English has a main political, academic and social
    role among the different countries to communicate
    each others. For long and much power of such role
    of English or any language, can due to such
    feeling that the speakers of different language,
    believe that their mother-tongue do not have much
    uses in the world and they will lose their
    motivation to use and also teach their
    mother-tongue to their children as next

  • 14.2.The press
  • Since four hundreds years ago, English is as a
    primary medium of the press
  • Today, 1/3 of the worlds press are in countries
    which English has special importance in them and
    it is logically that if we think that most of
    such press in English
  • New York Times, Washington post, Wall Street
    journal and Sunday Times have highest printed
    press in the world
  • Since the end of 19th century, advertisements
    play primary role, today, especially
    advertisements in English CONTINUE

  • 14.3.Television, Radio, Cinema and Music
  • It is estimated that serial films in U.S and
    England channels are watched more than 120
  • Regarding to BFI, in 1996, 80 percent of
    produced films in the world are in English
  • However, there are some governments policies
    against English in France and German, but only 25
    percent of Cinemas income is for non-English
    movies in such countries
  • During the recent decades, English has
    distinctive role in songs
  • 549 from 557 famous music groups (99percent) act
    in English
  • language
  • 1156 from1219 famous singers (95percent) sing in

  • Nowdays, people believe in what they watched and
    listen through television, radio, cinema and
    music and they do as they had watched and listen
    in other words, television, radio, cinema and
    music are peoples religion. Primary medium of
    this religion is English. In such way, English
    can affect the languages, cultures and social
    treasure of different people in different
    countries. For long time and much moer, such
    effect can be dangerous because of power of

  • 14.4. Abroad travel
  • The people travel abroad for different reasons
    such as business and study
  • The main facility in abroad for communication is
    language which should be as a international
    communicative language
  • Living, immigration and traveling which are for
    long time, due to acquire and use language in
    order to communicate with the majority in abroad
  • Such acquiring and using language will influence
    the native language of the speakers and even
    their native language will be lost for long time

  • 14.5. Internet
  • 80 of registered information in Internet is in
    English which includes different information of
    different companies, organizations, universities,
    and so on
  • However, there is not particular method to
    determine particular official language in
    Internet, but if every body wants to find answers
    for his questions in Internet , it is necessary
    that he should know English
  • It is estimated that in 2020, one milliard users
    will use Internet and for such using, mainly,
    knowing of English is necessary. The progress of
    knowing and using Internet affect the languages
    of many speakers
  • One sociologist stated that now days, finding of
    translation of Destoevskys works in English in
    Internet is easier than finding such works in
    Russian language in bookshops

15. Multi complex category of factors
  • There are some factors which are called as a
    multi-complex category here, because such factors
    are not distinctive factors themselves and
    separate form the others mentioned categories
  • 15.1 .Political condition
  • The political aexation, military occupation,
    groups migration and the other political
    factors, due to new linguistic outcomes. For
    example, as result of political asylum, the
    people will learn language of foreign country
  • 15.2. Religional factors
  • Sometimes shifting and acceptance of new
    religion or triness to maintenance of own
    religion due to learn new language partly or
    completely CONTINUE

  • 15.3. Cultural factors
  • Interesting in other foreign or other than own
    cultural and social groups can be important
    motivation to acquire new language, and for long
    time, joining to such groups due to communicate
    through such new language only
  • 15.4. Natural catastrophe
  • Earthquakes, eruption, drough and the other
    natural catastrophes can be reason for many
    groups migration to areas and countries which
    different languages are spoken there
  • 15.5 .Educational, cultural, economical and
    social factors
  • Such factors, as mentioned before are as
    separate or related factors to many factors which
    can act as main reasons to acquire new language
    and lose mother tongue for long time.

  • Language and culture go hand in hand, each
    interacting with and shaping together
  • Language and culture are inter-linked to each
    others in various ways
  • Language is an integral part of culture and the
    vehicle of culture
  • Effects on every one of them, leads to affect the
    other as it can to be called directly or
  • Globalization, through linguistic homogenization
    and cultural homogenization, affects on language
    and culture as modernization, translation,
    standardization and the others

  • Globalizations effects can be positive and
    negative effects
  • The homogenization of culture due to
    globalization process results in the
    marginalization of indigenous cultures
  • However, globalization through cultural
    homogenization, can be helpful in the progress
    and development of the cultures if .
  • The members of one culture community should try
    to maintain their positive aspects of culture and
    replace negative aspects of their culture through
    positive aspects of globalization
  • The members of one culture community should
    aware about outcomes of globalization

  • At the language level , globalization leads to
    growth of many countries
  • The technological and advanced communicational
    facilities make the world to shrink and pave way
    for homogenization
  • many who believe their mother tongue does not
    have universal role , they waste their time to
    use their mother tongue or teach it to their
  • many others who believe such language (English)
    is as a language that can make the world as a
    peaceful unit world through understanding same

  • Some ideas as result of globalization and
    English or any language with such effect can be
    dangerous for national, local languages,
    specially endangered language which are
    understood to be moribund languages
  • The industrialists, traders and their marketing
    techniques play a major role in shaping the
  • It should be mentioned that, in fact the control
    over the language is not in the hands of scholar
    or academic institutions. It is shaped by the
    traders and marketing agencies

English in Globalization
  • English is as a language of communication and
    official language in many countries
  • English is not own language of particular
    community or country
  • Since 1945 (after second world war), English
    became a lingua France
  • More than 2/3 of scientists in the world, write
    their books and articles in English
  • 3/4 of letters in the world are written in
  • 90 percent of all communications in Internet as
    international network, is in English

  • The education English programs of English radios
    are used by more than 150 millions in the world
  • More than 500 millions of children in elementary
    schools and more than 800 hundreds in secondary
    and high school (without china) are familiar with
    English as a second or foreign language
  • However, there are some governments policies
    against English in countries such as France,
    German, Spain
  • There are three circles regarding to English
    first circle, such as U.S and England, the second
    circle such as India, which English has much
    dominance and it is applied as a second language
    and the third circle ,such as china and Russia
    which English has special importance as a
    international language and for such countries is
    as first foreign language

  • In 1994 , 1/3 of the press in the world, are
    printed in countries which English has special
  • In 1995, 110 from 160 of linguistics journals(70
    percent) were printed in English
  • In 1995, there were 5000 radio station that 45
    percent of them were in countries that English
    has special role
  • It is estimated that English film serials in U.S.
    and England are watched in more than 120
  • In 1996, 80 percent of produced films were in
    English CONTINUE

  • 85 percent of incomes of worlds cinemas are for
    English production of Hollywood
  • In countries such as German and France,
    although, there are governments policies against
    English, but only, 25 percent of their cinemas
    incomes are for non-English movies
  • In 1990, 549 from 557 of famous music groups act
    in English
  • 1156 from 1219 of famous singers, sing in English
  • In 1998, U.S. had the first percentage of income
    of tourism (50 milliards dollars )
  • Around 80 percent of register of information in
    Internet, is in English .The users of Internet in
    1990 had been one million and in 1993,Tthey
    became 20 millions and 40 millions in 1995. It is
    estimated that in 2020, Such numbers will be one

  • I Acknowledge that I did main from work of
    the present work based on the work of Hossein

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  • YOU