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The Holocaust:

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The Holocaust is the name used to refer to this systematic, bureaucratic, and ... The Holocaust. Also included other groups: Poles. Sinti & Roma. Handicapped ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Holocaust:


1
The Holocaust
  • A Very Brief Introduction to the Research Paper
    Topic

2
Definitions
  • Anti-Judaism opposition to the Jewish people
    because of their religious beliefs
  • Antisemitism opposition to specifically the Jews
    because of their allegedly biological or
    racial identity as Jews

3
The Holocaust Word Origin
  • "Holocaust" is a word of Greek
  • origin meaning "sacrifice by fire."
  • Source United States Holocaust Memorial
  • Museum

4
The Holocaust
  • During World War II, Nazi Germany and its
    collaborators murdered approximately six million
    Jews. The Holocaust is the name used to refer to
    this systematic, bureaucratic, and
    state-sponsored campaign of persecution and
    murder. Beginning with racially discriminatory
    laws in Germany, the Nazi campaign expanded to
    the mass murder of all European Jews.
  • Source United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

5
Nazis
  • Came to power January 1933
  • Considered Germans racially superior
  • Invaded Poland 9/1/39 beginning WWII
  • Created ghettos
  • Created camps
  • Created mobile killing units (Einsatzgruppen)

6
  • How many people did Hitler kill?
  • One...himself

7
  • To segregate millions of people
  • To oppress millions of people
  • To deport millions of people
  • To kill millions of people
  • Takes hundreds of thousands of people

8
Jews/Jewish Life
  • 1933 9 million European Jews
  • Eastern Europe spoke own language, Yiddish,
    which combines elements of German and Hebrew
    stayed within own areas
  • Western Europe adopted traditions of non-Jewish
    neighbors
  • Some wealthy, some poor

9
The Holocaust
  • Also included other groups
  • Poles
  • Sinti Roma
  • Handicapped
  • Jehovahs Witnesses
  • Homosexuals

10
Polish Population
  • 2 groups
  • Jewish
  • Roman Catholic Poles
  • Viewed as subhuman occupying land vital to
    Germany

11
Nazi Treatment of Jews
  • Genocidal policy targeted ALL of Polands 3.3
    million Jewish men, women, and children

12
Nazi Treatment of Poles
  • Killed many Polish leaders (political, religious,
    intellectual)
  • Kidnapped Polish children judged racially
    suitable for adoption by German families
  • Confined Poles in prisons camps where many died

13
Forced Labor Camps (Poles)
  • Forced to wear Ps sewn to their clothing
  • Subjected to curfew
  • Banned from public transportation
  • Paid less wages
  • Worked longer hours
  • Often lived in segregated barracks
  • Danzig, Tarnow, Auschwitz, Majdanek

14
Sinti Roma Tribes
  • 1939 30,000-35,000 people known as Gypsies
    lived in Germany Austria
  • Total population of countries occupied by Germany
    during WWII was approx. 942,000
  • Europeans thought they came from Egypt
  • Ethnic minority made up of tribes or nations
  • They were slaves in Balkan areas of Moldavia
    Wallachia until 1864 (Romania liberated them)

15
Sinti Roma Tribes
  • Concentration Camp Prisoner IDs
  • Black triangular patches
  • Symbol for asocials
  • Green ones symbol for professional criminals
  • Letter Z

16
Handicapped
  • Law for the Prevention of Progeny with
    Hereditary Diseases 1933
  • Forced sterilization of people with
  • Mental illness
  • Retardation
  • Physical deformity
  • Epilepsy
  • Blindness
  • Deafness
  • Severe alcoholism

17
Handicapped
  • Euthanasia Program
  • Extermination of those not fitting the perfect
    Aryan person
  • Forced sterilization of people with
  • Mental illness
  • Retardation
  • Physical deformity
  • Epilepsy
  • Blindness
  • Deafness
  • Severe alcoholism

18
Handicapped
  • Hartheim castle, a
  • euthanasia killing center
  • where people with
  • physical and mental
  • disabilities were killed by
  • gassing and lethal
  • injection. Hartheim,
  • Austria, date uncertain

19
Jehovahs Witnesses
  • Religious beliefs did not allow them to swear
    allegiance to any worldly power
  • Religious sect originated in U.S. had about
    20,000 members in Germany in 1933
  • Had opportunity to escape persecution by
    renouncing religious beliefs
  • Vast majority refused
  • Refused to participate in army or politics

20
Homosexuals
  • Offensive to Nazis
  • Nazis arrested, convicted, incarcerated them in
    camps tried to change behavior
  • Wore pink triangle in camps

21
Research Paper Topics
  • Concentration Camps (and/or Auschwitz)
  • Nazi Propaganda (Joseph Goebbels)
  • Medical Experiments
  • Hitler Youth (Hitlerjugend)
  • The Final Solution
  • Anti-Jewish Legislation
  • Persecution of the Jews in Germany, 1933-38
  • Kristallnacht Nuremberg Laws
  • Three Rescuers Chiune Sugihara, Raoul
    Wallenberg, Oskar Schindler
  • Jewish Resistance Movements
  • Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

22
Concentration Camps
  • Forced-Labor Camps Auschwitz
  • POW Camps Majdanek

23
Transit Camps
  • Transit Camps
  • Westerbork in Netherlands
  • Drancy in France
  • en route to killing centers in occupied Poland
  • last stop before deportation to death camp

24
Death Camps
  • Extermination Camps
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau had four gas chambers

25
Labor Camps
  • Forced-Labor Camps
  • Auschwitz-Monowitz, etc.
  • Labor for local rubber plant

26
Auschwitz patrolled by SS
  • Auschwitz I 1940
  • gas chamber, crematorium
  • medical experiments
  • Auschwitz II (Auschwitz-Birkenau) 1942
  • death camp
  • Auschwitz III (Auschwitz-Monowitz) 1942
  • labor camp for local rubber plant

27
Nazi Propaganda
  • May 1933 Book Burnings (Ernest Hemingway, Helen
    Keller)
  • Covered up atrocities, convinced people Jews were
    subhuman
  • The Nazi Propaganda Ministry
  • Dr. Joseph Geobbels
  • Controlled all forms of communication
  • newspapers, magazines, books
  • art, music
  • rallies, meetings, movies, radio

28
Medical Experiments
  • Dr. Josef Mengele at Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Experiments without consent
  • Twins, dwarfs, children
  • To find better medical treatments for German
    soldiers airmen
  • intended to establish "Jewish racial inferiority

29
Hitler Youth
  • Hitlerjugend
  • Lured children with camping, games, fun
  • Trained children to be faithful to the Nazi Party
  • League of German Girls

30
The Final Solution
  • Nazi anti-Jewish policy evolved into a
    comprehensive plan to concentrate and eventually
    annihilate European Jewry
  • Genocide using killing squads, ghettos, and camps

31
Persecution of the Jews in Germany, 1933-1938
  • Rise of Nazi Regime from Hitlers appointment to
    chancellor
  • Laws enacted against Jews taking businesses
    away, deportation
  • Police power brutality, killing
  • Exterminate Jews who were considered subhuman

32
Kristallnacht
  • Night of Broken Glass
  • 11/9/38
  • Violence against Jews broke out
  • Set off by Germans' anger over the assassination
    of a German official in Paris at the hands of a
    Jewish teenager
  • Synagogues, businesses looted and destroyed, etc.
    while police stood by
  • 30,000 Jewish Germans were arrested next morning
    for being Jewish sent to camps

33
Nuremberg Laws
  • Laws excluded German Jews from Reich citizenship
  • Prohibited them from marrying or having sexual
    relations with persons of "German or related
    blood"
  • Additional ordinances to the laws disenfranchised
    Jews and deprived them of most political rights
  • Grandparents rule

34
Rescuers
  • Chiune Sugihara
  • Participated in rescue plan providing visas to
    Polish Jewish refugees stranded in Kovno (against
    Japanese policy)

35
Rescuers
  • Raoul Wallenberg
  • Swedish diplomat who saved the lives of tens of
    thousands of Jews in Budapest in 1944
  • issued thousands of protective documents
  • established the International Ghetto of protected
    houses
  • secured their release from deportation trains,
    death march convoys, and labor service brigades

36
Rescuers
  • Oskar Schindler
  • Schindler employed Jewish workers in his
    factories
  • Set up bogus munitions factory

37
Jewish Resistance Movements
  • Residents of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, a Protestant
    village in southern France, helped thousands of
    refugees, including about 5,000 Jews, escape Nazi
    persecution between 1941 and 1944
  • Organized armed resistance was most direct form
    of Jewish opposition
  • Jewish resistance also focused on aid, rescue,
    spiritual resistance
  • Preservation of Jewish cultural institutions
    the continuance of religious observance were acts
    of spiritual resistance to the Nazi policy of
    genocide

38
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
  • Most famous attempt by Jews to resist the Germans
    in armed fighting occurred in the Warsaw ghetto
  • Resist going to railroad cars knowing they head
    to death camp
  • 750 fighters used a small supply of weapons that
    had been smuggled into the ghetto (lasted a month)
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