1 Urban Planning Environmental Governance 56th Senior Staff Course BPATC Savar Dhaka. Paper prepared by Md. Shamsul Arefin Director General ( Designate) Rural Development Academy Bogra Dated 03-08-2011 2 Definition of Urban Planning
Urban Planning means the scientific aesthetic and orderly disposition of land resources facilities and services with a view to securing the physical economic and social efficiency health and well-being of urban communities.
The goal of urban planning is to ensure welfare of the people and their communities by creating convenient equitable healthful efficient and attractive environments for present and future generations. (Agenda 21)
3 Scope of Urban Planning
Deals with the future of a city.
Manages urban growth
Considerations the physical social and economic aspects of communities and examine the connections among them.
Highly collaborative process Working with local residents politicians and special groups.
Much of planning is functional.
4 What do planners do
Planners formulate plans to meet the social economic and physical needs of communities and they develop the strategies to make these plans work such as
Land use patterns
Parks and recreation
Roads and transportation systems
Economic development strategies
5 Planning Process
Land use and its organization is an important function in the planning process
Why your city is different from other cities in terms of layout size and scenic beauty
6 The planning profession deals with urbanization issues such as
conversion of land from natural habitats to urban built areas
maintenance and use of natural resources and habitats
development of transportation related infrastructure
7 Planners not only deal with land use but also
Planning social and community services
Managing cultural and heritage resources
Creating economic capacity in local communities
Addressing transportation and infrastructure issues
Planners must feel comfortable interpreting population statistics economic and social data geographical information resource inventories and environmental indicators and have a genuine interest in geography and environment.
8 Urban Planning people
recommend policy and guidelines on land use environmental conservation housing and transportation
do research and prepare reports on demographic economic cultural social and environmental issues
review proposals for development to ensure that they follow regulations and generally accepted planning practice
prepare plans for developing private lands providing public spaces and services and maintaining and improving the environment
answer questions from the public on planning policies and procedures
speak before public meetings or formal hearings
consult with landowners interest groups and citizens.
Pillars Urban Planning Environment
Urban planning integrates land use planning and transportation planning to improve economic and social environments of cities.
Urban planner cares for environment
Urban Planners appreciate physical planning
Urban planners acknowledges concepts of sustainable development
Urban Policy Initiatives
The National Report on Human Settlements submitted to the UN Habitat I conference held at Vancouver in Canada in 1976 came close to a policy statement on human settlements and urbanization.
Besides this the various five year plan documents prepared between 1973 and 1998 also indicated urban policy directions.
The National Habitat Report had recommended that various planning regions were to be identified and in each region one medium-sized town would be chosen as focal point of regional growth.
The National Housing Policy 1993
The Bangladesh Urban and Shelter Sector Review (1993)
11 Why Do We Need Urban Planning
A city government usually includes sectoral approaches that manage individual sectors such as
Water and sewer
Good sectoral management is indispensable but it is not enough!
12 Urban Planning Work Across Sectors
By contrast with sector managers Urban Planners work across sectors
For this reason their contribution to the efficiency of a city is unique
13 Urban Planning
Physician Benjamin Ward Richardson wrote Hygeia City of Health (1876) envisioning
air pollution control
14 Father of City Planning The Greek Hippodamus (c. 407 BC) has been known as the Father of City Planning for his design of Miletus Alexander commissioned him to lay out his new city of Alexandria the grandest example of idealized urban planning of the ancient Mediterranean world. 15 Olmsteds Park Design Principles
SCENERY design spaces in which movement creates constant opening up of new views and obscurity of detail further away
SUITABILITY respect the natural scenery and topography of the site
Pastoral open greensward with small bodies of water and scattered trees and groves create a soothing restorative atmosphere
Picturesque profuse planting especially with shrubs creepers and ground cover on steep and broken terrain create a sense of the richness and bounteousness of nature produce a sense of mystery with light and shade
Art to conceal Art
of areas designed in different styles
of ways in order to ensure safety
SANITATION promote both the physical and mental health of users
Source National Association of Olmsted Parks http//www.olmsted.org/pages/philosophy.htm 16 Settlement House Movement
Jane Addams founded Hull House (Chicago) 1889
Housing settlement must care for harmonious society
17 Garden Cities (a British innovation)
Ebenezer Howard Garden Cities of Tomorrow (1902)
town (high wages opportunity and amusement)
country (natural beauty low rents fresh air)
town-country (combination of both)
18 Ebenezer Howard
Opposed urban crowding/density
He wanted a city of village
Priority Area of urban policy
Water and sanitation
Biodiversity protection and ecosystem management
19 (No Transcript) 20 Best Practice 21 Best practices of urban Planning
Water quality and sanitation is ensured
Most people have adequate light and air
Fire danger is controlled
Disease is controlled
Security is protected
Urban growth continues to create healthy and humanizing environments
22 (No Transcript) 23 Singapore 24
Why Urban Planning is necessary
Extreme pressure on housing growth of slums and the pressure on urban services.
Economic Leading to income inequality and poverty
Social resulting in increased violence and crime social degradation.
Cultural entry of alien culture loss of national cultural identity.
Political Heavy unrest of citizens
Environmental water and air pollution high level of noise pollution and degradation of land uncollected garbage adds public health hazards massive traffic congestions have become regular features deforestation cutting down of hills encroachment and filling of water bodies
25 Emerging Issues at City Environmental crisis pollution inadequate solid waste management Poor transportation system and traffic congestion Pressure on land housing growth of slums and squatter settlements Pressure on all services (health education recreation water sanitation electricity fuel etc) Low productivity and system loss Inequality and poverty Insecurity Lawlessness violence and crime 26
Urban Planning Encourages
Growth of secondary cities and small towns.
Attention to allocation of land for housing of all income categories particularly the low-income groups and to space for economic activities for the poor.
Adoption of a transportation system that would be efficient affordable and environment friendly (these may imply reducing dependence on private cars cycle rickshaws and auto rickshaws non-mass public transport).
Protection of cities from floods and other natural hazards water logging.
Control of environmental pollution such as pollution of air water and land.
Urban Planning Encourages
Higher efficiency of urban centres by introducing better management and participatory governance.
Control of Traffic congestion.
Pure drinking water and sanitation system
Making provision of public park and garden
Implementation of a comprehensive urban policy and improvement of environmental management
28 Environmental Management
Environmental Management is simply a set of procedures to reduce environmental footprint in our day-to-day activities.
An EM is the combination of people policies procedures and plans to address environmental issues.
29 The Continuous Cycle of Environmental Management
PlanPlanning identifying environmental aspects and establishing goals
DoImplementing includes training and operational controls
CheckChecking includes monitoring and corrective action
ActReviewing includes progress reviews and acting to make needed changes
Biodiversity - is a term we use to describe the variety of life on Earth.
It refers to the wide variety of ecosystems and living organisms like animals plants their habitats and their genes.
Managing environment means showing honor to biodiversity
Urban Planning respects Ecology
The word ecology (Ökologie) was used first in 1866 by the German scientist Ernst Haeckel (18341919).
Ecology is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the distribution and abundance of organisms and their interactions with their environment
Ecology is a sub-discipline of biology the study of life. An observations on the natural history of plants and animals.
Ecology is not synonymous with environment. It is closely related to physiology evolutionary biology genetics.
Urban Planning respects Ecosystems ie every life-supporting function on the planet including climate regulation.
39 The Greenhouse Effect Environment A T M O S P H E R E S U N G R E E N H O U S E G A S E S 40
Urban Policy GHG
Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere are called greenhouse gases
Greenhouse gases are those that can absorb and emit infrared radiation.
In order the most abundant greenhouse gases in Earths atmosphere are
Emission of GHGs in Bangladesh
GHG emission is low and negligible
Per capita GHG emission is 230 kg only
Sectoral consumption of electricity
Large part of GHG is coming from electricity generation and transport sector
Landfills also generate GHG
Source Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Data) IPCC SRES Emissions Scenarios - Version 1.1 (July 2000)
42 Source Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Data) IPCC SRES Emissions Scenarios - Version 1.1 (July 2000) 43 Global Warming The burning of fossil fuels land use change and other industrial activities have increased the GHGs in the atmosphere that are liable for Global Warming. Cities are more vulnerable due to global warming. 44
Spread of dengue and other diseases
Heavy rains severe draughts
Floods storms hurricanes
Changed rainfall patterns
Warming and aridity
Loss of biodiversity
45 Global primary energy consumption in 2006 15.8 TW 15.8 x 1012 W Global population in 2006 6.56 billion Global energy consumption per person in 2006 15.8 x 1012 W 6.56 x 109 2.4 kW
Source International Energy Annual 2006 (posted Dec 19 2008) http//www.eia.doe.gov/iea/ 46 Energy Options Fossil fuels (coal oil and natural gas) Hydropower Nuclear energy Solar energy Wind energy Geothermal energy Ocean (wave tidal and ocean thermal) energy Biomass energy Biofuels (bioethanol or biodiesel) energy 47 Fuels Source BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2008 48 Nuclear fission energy is the best CO2 emissions-free energy source so far. IAEA2000 49 EF is 1.3 times the bio capacity in 2005. That is to say we need 1.3 planets to provide the resources we use and absorb our waste. This means in 2005 it took the Earth one year and four months to regenerate what we use in a year. Source http//www.footprintnetwork.org 50 EF will be 2 times the bio capacity by the mid 2030 if current population and consumption trends continue according to moderate UN scenarios. It means by the mid 2030s we will need the equivalent of 2 Earths to support us. Source http//www.footprintnetwork.org 51 Ecological Footprint (EF)
EF measures how much land and water area
a human population requires to produce the
resource it consumes and to absorb its wastes
using prevailing technology.
EF does not include an economic indicator.
Sustainable global EF per capita Total Bio capacity per capita Source http//www.footprintnetwork.org 52 Biocapacity Biocapacity is shorthand for biological capacity which is the ability of an ecosystem to produce useful biological materials and to absorb wastes generated by humans. Source http//www.footprintnetwork.org 53 For the World Before 1986 the world consumed resources and produced CO2 at a rate consistent with what the planet could produce and reabsorb. Source http//www.footprintnetwork.org 54 Urban Environment degradation Labour Energy ted Raw material Capital Industry Products Unlimited Environmental degradation Unlimited Unlimited Waste material Unlimited 55 Forest industry waste Most wood companies only handle one type of wood and burn the rest. These burn piles are 15 to 20 ft high. 56 Factory waste More than 500 factories (mostly textiles) line the banks of the 200-mile Citarum river near the Indonesian capital of Jakarta. Source http//rekkerd.org/citarum-river-a-shockin g-display-of-abuse/ 57 Computer industry waste Source http//www.greenpeace.org/international/ph otosvideos/photos/ close-up-of-a-huge-pile-of-com 58 Boat playing on a city road 59 Water logging in Dhaka city road 60 Solar System in the City 61 Electric Rail 62 PRT System 63 Conclusion
Planning is not just the layout of buildings
Planning should involve people in the process
Look at the different opportunities for the city
Balance among competing interests
Urban Planning is comprehensive economic social environmental design
Improved conditions for peoples lives
Manage scarce resources
64 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
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