Title: Accountability and Transparency and their impact on Public Administraion
1 Accountability Transparency Their impact on Public Administration By Md. Shamsul Arefin A member of Bangladesh Civil Service belonging to 84 Batch (Admin) 2 Crossing the Boundary between Traditional Public Administration and Postmodern Public Administration Modern Public Administration Traditional Public Administration Inclusiveness of Civic Society Governing for the betterment of Society Bureaucracy State Diverse groups pluralism High Performance Oppositional Civil Society
Citizen Public Officials Social issues Citizen Active participation Democratic Inclusion Corporatism
State Democracy Election vote 3
Accountability refers to the obligation on the part of public officials to report on the process of public resources answerability for failing to meet stated performance objectives.
Require to answer with reason
4 Accountability 5 (No Transcript) 6 (No Transcript) 7 Transparency Transparency is about the sharing of information about government decisions and activities good records management and access to information etc. There is emerging potential for new forms of conflict of interest involving an individuals private interests and public duties. 8 Five Factors of Transparency Measure Timely 9 Transparency Transparency is introduced as a means of holding public officials accountable and fighting corruption. When government meetings are open to the press and the public when budgets and financial statements may be reviewed by anyone when laws rules and decisions are open to discussion they are seen as transparent and there is less opportunity for the authorities to abuse the system in their own interest. Transpar ency is the opposite of privacy an activity is transparent if all information about it is open and freely available. 10
in public administration
Citizens expect public servants to serve the public interest with fairness and to manage public resources properly on a daily basis.
Fair and reliable public services and predictable decision-making inspire public trust and create a level playing field for services
The transparency and accountability in public administration are a prerequisite to public trust.
Corruption and maladministration in this context could be seen as not only individual acts but also the results of systemic failure
Publicized corruption and administrative failure cases have had a major negative impact on trust in public.
11 Public Trust Create more institutions to reduce corruption . increasing citizen access to information about government programs activities and performance and informing citizens of their rights and responsibilities An important component of this function is involving more and better training the press to report on integrity and accountability of public sector entities. Gaining and keeping public trust must be approached holistically as the threads of integrity transparency and accountability together uphold all public trust. Integrity refers to honesty or trustworthiness in the discharge of official duties serving as an antithesis to corruption or the abuse of office. 12 The Mountain of Public Administration Purpose PUBLIC TRUST Legality Integrity Fairness Dependability Effectiveness Involvement Transparency Efficiency GOODSELL C.T. (2006). A New Vision for Public Administration. Public Administration Review 66(4) 623-635. 13 Corruption
Bid collusion inflated invoices kickbacks to influence award of contracts theft or misuse of project assets abuse of official discretion disclosure of privileged information to assist friends/ relatives falsification of accounts audit anomalies etc.
Corruption hurts the poor disproportionately by diverting funds intended for development undermining a governments ability to provide basic services feeding inequality and injustice and discouraging foreign investment and aid 4 14 Transparency in Public Works In the context of transparency mechanisms Construction is the most corrupt sector according to TIs 2010 Bribe Payers Index. The size of the sector is globally US 3.2 trillion per annum. Construction infrastructure accounts for a high percentage of government investment budgets in all countries. Therefore tackling construction can have a high overall impact on corruption. 15 Corruption in Public Works Corruption in construction raises cost and lowers quality of infrastructure. It leads to bad investments damages the environment leads to deaths (through ignoring building codes) undermines economic and sustainable development Risks for corruption in construction exist throughout design planning preparation contracting and implementation. Risks include bribery collusion deception and abuse of unexposed conflicts of interest. To curb financial environmental and human damage from corruption in construction government must assure transparency of preparation procurement and execution process and enforce all relevant laws. Civil society and the media should monitor public construction projects. 16 Impact of Corruption Unethical practices bribery and fraud have a very real human cost. whether it be in the lives and health of people who are robbed of quality health care and medicines or children who are not properly educated. The financial and even public safety costs of corruption are astonishing. A lack of public trust undermines and even destroys political stability. Corruption remains the single most significant obstacle to achieving the development of the country. 17 GOVERNMENT Legislative Body Executives Offices Judiciary People Public Agency Input 18 Concept of Good Governance Good governance provides a platform that enables the Government to operate efficiently effectively and transparently and to be accountable to the public. Primary Principles of Good Governance include
Public participation in Government
Respect for the rule of law
Freedom of expression and association
Transparency and accountability
Press Electronic Print Media Good Governance 1) Citizens Report Card 2) Social Audit 3) Community Awareness 4) Parliamentary oversight 5) Anti corruption Initiatives Civil Society CBO NGO 20 GOVERNANCE
Governance means the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented).
Governance as the manner in which power is exercise by the government in the management of a countrys social and economic resources - (CIDA)
Governance as the exercise of economic political and administrative authority to manage a countrys affairs at all lever (UNDP)
Therefore governance is viewed as comprising the mechanisms processes and institutions through which citizens and groups
articulate their interest
exercise their legal rights
meet their obligations and
mediate their differences
23 Process of GG Preparation of Policy Result Oriented Budgeting Ministries External Monitoring Internal Monitoring Strategic Planning Performance Measurement POISTER T.H. Streib G.D. (1999). Strategic Management in the Public Sector concepts Models and Processes Public Productivity Management Review 22(3)318. 24 Good Governance
Pillars of Good Governance
Good governance is integral to economic growth the eradication of poverty and hunger and sustainable development. The views of all oppressed groups including women youth and poor must be heard considered by governing bodies because they will be most negatively affected if good governance is not achieved 2 Source World Banks report 25 Features of GOOD GOVERNANCE UNDPs Definition 26 Features of Good Governance
UNDP identifies the principle characteristics of effective governance as
Political legitimacy accountability
Freedom of association and participation
A reliable legal system
Accountability of public service
Freedom of information expression
Effective efficient management of the public sector
Freedom of expression the role of media
27 Good Practice Good Governance Framework 8 28 In Short Good Governance
Enabling Peoples Satisfaction
Ensuring accountability and transparency
Ensuring participation of public in governance
29 Good Governance allows people to access any
Information pertaining to any of public authorities
Photocopies of Government contracts payment estimates measurements of engineering works drawings records books and registers etc.
Samples of materials used in the construction of any Government project like roads drains buildings etc.
30 What is Civil Society Civil society or civil institutions can be in totality referred to as voluntary civic and social organisations or institutions which form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system). 31 Conceptual Model of Approaches to Civic Engagement Civil Society Approach People Electoral Information Exchange Civil Society Bureaucracy Enhancing Government Trust in citizens Enhancing Government Legitimacy Citizen-Centered Collaborative Public Management Enhancing Government Responsiveness Enhancing Citizen Efficacy Enhancing Citizen Trust in Government Enhancing Government Competence COOPER T. L. T. A. Bryer et al. (2006). Citizen-Centered Collaborative Public Management. Public Administration Review 66(1) 76-88. 32 Basic Elements of a Production Process Understanding of Effectiveness Effects Inputs Activities Outputs effectiveness efficiency/productivity Effects (outcome) are nor part of the production process they refer to the impacts on society 33 Management System Concept A Model Process in Good Governance INPUTS OUTPUTS
PROCESSES or PROCEDURES
Programs plans and schedules
FEED BACK PERFORMANCE U.S. Army Management Engineering Training Agency (1973). Special Studies of Measurement Problems 2 Rock Island Illinois. 34 Communication as an Early Outcome of Performance Measurement Implementation Performance Achieved Long-term outcomes Improved program quality responsiveness and effectiveness Better management of programs and public organizations more informed fiscal allocation decisions Intermediate outcomes Changed/improved communication among program/ agency staff and with external stakeholders and policymakers Initial outcomes Communication of performance information about programs and activities Outputs Performance measurement development and integration into existing and new decision processes and systems Activities MELKERS J. (2006). On the Road to Improved Performance Changing Organizational Communication Through Performance Management Public Performance Management Review 30(1) 73-95. 35 Social Audit Social Audit is an independent and participatory evaluation of the performance of a public agency or a programme or scheme. Social Audit enables the Civil Society to assess whether a public authority lives up to the shared values and objectives it is committed to. 36 Principles of Social Audit Complete transparency in the process of administration and decision-making Right based entitlement for all the affected persons to participate in the process of decision making and validation. Immediate and public answerability of all representatives functionaries of a public authority to affected people on relevant actions inactions. 37 Internal check external monitoring In Primary Health Services
Attendance of medical officer and other staff
Field visits supervisory visits of the PHC staff
Stock registers and inventory of medicines
No. of Outpatients treated
No. of Surgeries conducted and their success rate
Inspection of immunisation registers cold chain
Inspection of other relevant registers
Samples of medicines being supplied to patients.
38 Internal check external monitoring In Primary Education
Teacher Attendance Registers
Pupil Attendance Registers
Teaching standards in the schools (Curriculum and daily lessons)
Enrollment and drop-out rate of students
Student performance (Progress reports)
Implementation of Mid-Day Meal Programme
Infrastructure standards in schools (Class rooms black boards teaching aids toilets etc.)
Good governance is an ideal which is difficult to achieve in its totality.
Very few countries and societies have come close to achieving good governance in its totality.
Transparency Accountability will always be there with sustainable human development and good governance.
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