1 Problem SolvingInformation Processing Involvement 2 Generic Model of Consumer Problem Solving Problem Recognition Information Search Perceived difference between ideal and actual state of affairs Seek relevant information about potential solutions to the problem from external environment or activate knowledge from memory Evaluation of Alternatives Judge competing alternatives in terms of salient beliefs about relevant consequences and combine this knowledge to make a choice Product Choice Postpurchase Evaluation Buy the chosen alternative Use the chosen alternative and evaluate it again in light of its performance 3 Problem Recognition(Buyer Readiness) Consumer Sees a Significant Difference Between the Current State of Affairs and Some Desired State of Affairs.
Consumers Desired State Consumers Current State 4 Determinants of Problem Recognition Consumers Current State Consumers Desired State Perceived Discrepancy Problem Recognition
Changes in Current State
Depletion of stock
Increase in finances
Decrease in finances
Changes in Desired State
New need circumstances
New want circumstances
New product opportunities
Purchases of other products
5 Information Search Memory The Process Where a Consumer Searches for Appropriate Information to Make a Reasonable Decision. Might Search for Information from Friends Recommendations Brochures Internet 6 Simple Truisms of the Human Mind
Human minds are limited
Human minds cant cope
Human minds hate confusion
7 Information Processing and Memory Stores Attention - Preconscious - Focal - Selective Comprehension Exposure - Intentional - Accidental - Selective 8 TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE 1. General knowledge - peoples interpretations of relevant information in their environment
Episodic - specific events in a persons life
Semantic general meanings and beliefs people have acquired about their world
2. Procedural knowledge - scripts on how to do things 9 Cognitive Structure Associative Network -- An organized structure of knowledge meanings and beliefs about some concept such as a brand. An associative network consists of Nodes (concepts) Links (beliefs) Each meaning concept (node) is linked to other concepts (nodes) to form a network of associations 10 Memory Process
A man has no ears for that which experience has given him no access
Reported in Trout 1996
Apperception -- the process of understanding by which newly observed qualities are related to past experience
11 Associative Network Sweet Moderately Sweet Caffeine Lem/Lime Flavor Tasty Cola Tasty Lem/Lime Pepsi Sprite Clear Caramel Color Cola Flavor Fizz/Re- Freshing Caffeine Free 12 Associative Network Sweet Moderately Sweet Caffeine Lem/Lime Flavor Tasty Cola Tasty Lem/Lime Pepsi Sprite Clear Caramel Color Cola Flavor Fizz/Re- Freshing Caffeine Free Pepsi Crystal Poor Cola Taste 13 Associative Network Sweet Moderately Sweet Caffeine Lem/Lime Flavor Tasty Cola Tasty Lem/Lime Pepsi Sprite Clear Caramel Color Cola Flavor Fizz/Re- Freshing Caffeine Free Sugar Free Diet Pepsi Womans Drink After Taste Moderately Tasty Cola 14 Associative Network Sweet Moderately Sweet Caffeine Lem/Lime Flavor Tasty Cola Tasty Lem/Lime Pepsi Sprite Clear Caramel Color Cola Flavor Fizz/Re- Freshing Caffeine Free Sugar Free Diet Pepsi Pepsi One Mans Drink Womans Drink After Taste Moderately Tasty Cola 15 Extended Problem Solving Buying behavior exhibited by consumers who are considering a purchase in an unfamiliar category.
Need for substantial information and time to choose
Attention is less guided
Less apt to be involuntarily interrupted
Uses only three to four attributes in the evaluation
Relies more on brand recognition than on attitudes
16 Limited Problem Solving Buying behavior exhibited by consumers when they are confronted by a new brand in a familiar category.
Developed hierarchy for the category of brands
Category (form) subcompact SUV sports
Within Category recognizable attributes benefits provided
The product hierarchy controls the consumers search attention memory utilization and choice
Characterized by considerable information seeking and time to choose
17 Routine Problem Solving Buying behavior exhibited by consumers when they are confronted by familiar brands in a familiar product category and already have formed an evoked set of the familiar brands
Characterized by little or no information seeking and quick problem solving
Evoked set of brands well developed
Brands tend to be more standardized and there are few product changes compared to LPS
Price and availability are more likely to produce product shifts
18 Consumers Product Involvement INVOLVEMENT The perceived importance or personal relevance of an object event or activity Involvement with a product or brand has both cognitive and affective aspects
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