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Title: TOWARD A COMPREHENSIVE TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH AGENDA: Bridging Strategic Federal and UniversityBased


1
TOWARD A COMPREHENSIVE TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH
AGENDA Bridging Strategic Federal and
University-Based Partnerships to Achieve Health
EquityFIRST NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE
ACADEMY FOR HEALTH EQUITYBuilding Capacity to
Eliminate Health DisparitiesDenver, CO, Monday,
June 27th, 2008
  • Phillip J. Bowman, Director
  • National Center for Institutional Diversity
  • Professor, Higher Education and Urban Planning
  • Faculty Associate,
  • Center for the Study of Group Dynamics
  • Institute for Social Research
  • National Poverty Center
  • Gerald Ford School of Public Policy

2
FEDERAL COLLABORATION FOR HEALTH DISPARITIES
RESEARCH(FCHDR)
  • THE FCHDR HAS DEVELOPED PARTNERSHIPS ACROSS HHS
    AND A BROAD RANGE OF
  • OTHER FEDERAL AGENCY SECTORS TO PROMOTE HEALTH
    EQUITY
  • FCHDR AIMS TO ACCELERATE COLLABORATION IN
    HEALTH DISPARITIES RESEARCH
  • A SEPTEMBER 2007 FCHDR MEETING INCLUDED BROAD
    REPRESENTATION ACROSS
  • FEDERAL SECTORS AND PROMOTED THE VALUE OF CROSS
    AGNECY COLLABORATION
  • MY PRESENTATION ON DIVERSITY, HEALTH
    DISPARITIES HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, EMPHASIZED THE
    COMPLEMETARITY OF FCHDR AND UNIVERSITY-BASED
    PARTNERSHIPS
  • BRIDGING STRATEGIC FCHDR AND UNIVERSITY-BASED
    PARTNERSHIPS CAN SUPPORT
  • MORE INNOVATIVE TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH TO
    ACHIEVE HEALTH EQUITY
  • THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR INSTITUTIONAL DEVERSITY
    HAS LANCHED SEVERAL NEW
  • INITIATIVES TO HELP BRIDGE UNIVERSITY-BASED AND
    FCHRD-TYPE PARTNERSHIPS
  • TO PROMOTE A MORE COMPREHENSIVE TRANSLATIONAL
    RESEARCH AGENDA

3
Figure 2 NATIONAL CENTER FOR INSTITUTIONAL
DIVERSITY Toward A Comprehensive Translational
Research Agenda University-FCHDR
Partnerships Bridging University Scholarship with
Multilevel FCHDR-Sponsored Intervention Research
4
NCID Working Mission Statement
  • The National Center for Institutional Diversity
    (NCID) represents a strategic commitment by U-M
    to address complex diversity issues within higher
    education and other major social institutions.
    The Center is inspired by the vision of higher
    educations critical role in promoting knowledge,
    justice and opportunity in a diverse democracy
    and global economy. NCID aims to prepare people
    for active engagement in a diverse society and
    works toward building productive as well as
    inclusive communities at U-M and beyond.
  • NCID promotes national exemplars of diversity
    scholarship, multilevel engagement, and
    innovation by operating as a catalyst, venture
    fund, incubator, clearinghouse, publisher, and
    think tank. Strategic NCID partnerships bridge
    creative scholarship with social change through
    engagement at the campus/community, local/state,
    national/global levels. Core priorities and
    activities focus on the challenges and
    opportunities of diversity in the broadest sense
    including considerations of race, ethnicity,
    gender, class, geography, age, culture, and
    multiple viewpoints.

5
NCID CORE STRATEGIES AND PRIORITY AREAS
BRIDGING SCHOLARSHIP, MULTILEVEL ENGAGEMENT ,
INNOVATION Strategic Collaboration Across
Decentralized UM Campus Partners and External
Partners)
  • B. CORE PRIORITIES - Pressing Diversity
    Challenges Opportunities
  • DIVERSITY ISSUES IN HEALTH DISPARITIES HUMAN
    DEVELOPMENT
  • (i.e. Public Health, Medicine, Nursing,
    Dentistry, Pharmacy, and other health-related
    campus-external partners)
  • DIVERSITY, URBAN REVITALIZATION COMMUNITY
    DEVELOPMENT
  • (i.e. Social Work, Architecture Urban
    Planning, and other strategic campus-external
    partners)
  • DIVERSITY ISSUES IN PUBLIC POLICY SOCIAL
    JUSTICE
  • (i.e. Public Policy, Law, Social Work, other
    professional schools and strategic
    campus-external partners)
  • DIVERSITY ISSUES IN ORGANIZATIONS SUSTAINABLE
    DEVELOPMENT
  • (i.e. Business, Information, Natural Resources,
    professional schools and other strategic
    campus-external partners)
  • DIVERSITY ISSUES IN SCIENCE, ENGINEERING,
    TECHNOLOGY MATHEMATICS
  • (i.e. STEM units - Sciences, Engineering, Math
    and other strategic campus-external partners)
  • A. CORE STRATEGIES PRIORITIES
    Scholarship-Engagement, Education Culture

6
NCID - DIVERSITY ISSUES IN HEALTH DISPARITIES
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE
  • Initiative Focus
  • Develop strategic partnerships to bridge
    exemplary scholarship, multilevel collaboration,
    and innovation to address diversity challenges
    and opportunities related to health disparities
    a comprehensive human development framework
    considers risk and protective factors across the
    life course and at multiple levels within a
    diversifying social-ecological contexts.
  • Campus ( Related External) Partners/Collaborators
  • Institute for Social Research, CTSA Health
    Disparities Research Program, all health
    profession schools (Medicine, Public Health,
    Dentistry, Nursing, and Social Work), and related
    campus-external partnerships (clinical/professiona
    l, institutional/organizational, local/state,
    national/global) with strong commitments to
    addressing diversity issues in health disparities
    and human development consistent with the NCID
    mission, goals and objectives.

7
NATIONAL CENTER FOR INSTITUTIONAL
DIVERSITYDIVERSITY ISSUES IN HEALTH
DISPARITIES HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE
  • U-M CAMPUS PARTNERS
  • COLLABORATORS
  • Institute for Social Research and other relevant
    Institutes/Centers
  • CTSA Health Disparities Research Program
  • All Health Sciences and other Academic Units
    (NCID Priorities)
  • EXTERNAL PARTNERS
  • COLLABORATORS
  • FCHDR
  • MULTI-LEVEL
  • Clinical/Professional
  • Institutional/Organizational
  • Local Metropolitan/State
  • National/Global

8
NATIONAL CENTER FOR INSTITUTIONAL
DIVERSITYDIVERSITY ISSUES IN HEALTH DISPARITIES
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVEEmerging
Collaborative Initiatives and Campus Partnerships
for Bridging Exemplary Scholarship with
Multilevel Engagement Innovation
  • Emerging Priorities NCID Campus Partners
  • National/International Engagement
  • National Consortium for Diversity Research
    Policy Institute for Social Research
    Inter- University Consortium for Political
    and Social Research Office of the Vice
    President for Research School of Public
    Policy (James Jackson, Myron Gutmann,
    Marvin Parnes, Sheldon Danzinger, etc.)
  • Neighborhood/Local Metropolitan/State Engagement
  • Community-Based Cultural Intervention School
    of Public Health, Center for
  • Community-Based Participatory Research
    Methodological Research on Ethnicity, Culture
    Health,
  • Diversity Issues in Health Disparities
    Research Detroit Community-Academic Urban
    Research Center (Harold Neighbors,
    Derek Griffith, Sean Joe, Amid Ismail,
    Antonia Villarruel Barbara Israel, etc.)
  • Institutional/Campus-Based Clinical Engagement
  • CTSA Health Disparities Research
    Program Medical School, Public Health,
    Nursing,
  • Translational Science in Health
    Disparities Dentistry, Social Work (Carmen
    Green,
  • Multilevel-Reciprocal Approach Ken Jamerson,
    Tim Johnson, Josephine
  • (Bench-to-Bedside-to-Multilevel Intervention
    Research) Kasa-Vubu, Sonya Miller, David Gordon,
    etc.)

and engagement
9
NCID DECENTRALIZED ORGANIZATONAL STRUCTURE
DISTRIBUTED LEADERSHIP NETWORK (Diversity
Issues in Health Disparities Human Development
Initiative)
  • I. NCID-Based Activities
  • A. Core Administrative Staff Steering
    Committee
  • B. National Meetings/Conversations/Lectures
  • C. Faculty and Center Fellows
  • D. Postdoctoral Scholars
  • E. Collaborative Research, Training
    Development
  • F. National Consortium for Diversity Research
    and Policy Initiative
  • G. National Communications Marketing
    (Web-based, Print, etc) Initiative
  • H. Arts and Social Change Programming
  • IV. NCID Decentralized/Distributed Leadership
    Network
  • A. Strategic Campus Multilevel External
    Partnerships
  • B. Deans Advisory Network - 19
    Schools/Colleges
  • C. Faculty-Centered Leadership Mentoring
    Networks
  • D. Critical Issues Forum Series
  • E. Strategic Working Groups Program
    Development Networks
  • F. Exemplary Scholarship Engagement Awards
  • G. Co-Sponsored Exemplary Events/Ventures/Interve
    ntions/Innovations

10
A. Selected NCID Sponsored Meetings/Conversation
s/Lectures focused onDiversity Issues in Health
Disparities Human Development
  • Beyond Description
  • Addressing Health Disparities through
    Campus-Community Partnerships
  • March 28-29, 2006, David Williams, Sociology
    Institute for Social Research
  • Health researchers, practitioners, community
    leaders, policy makers, and educators gathered to
    determine how to address health disparities at a
    community, state, and national/international
    level.
  • National Workshop of Achieving Diversity in
    Genetics Policy Making
  • October 5, 2006, Toby Citrin et al., School of
    Public Health
  • Leaders from educational, institutional, and
    community groups gathered at Howard University
    (Washington, D.C.) to identify and evaluate
    opportunities for increasing diversity in genetic
    decision-making.
  • Women in Healthcare Leadership Conference
  • Fall 2007,Organizers
  • Jeanne Yhouse, Griffith Leadership Center,
    School of Public Health
  • Paula Lantz, UM Health Management and Policy

11
B. Selected NCID Sponsored Faculty Fellows
Projects Focused onDiversity Issues in Health
Disparities Human Development
  • Derek Griffith, School of Public Health
    expanding a curriculum to enhance graduate
    students understandings of racial and ethnic
    health disparities (2006 cohort)
  • Antonia Villarruel, School of Nursing examining
    the costs and benefits of community-university
    partnerships in addressing health disparities
    (2006-2007 cohort)
  • Sonya Miller and collaborators, Medical School
    Improving the Health of Persons with Disabilities
    through Medical Education (2007-2008 NCID-ADVANCE
    cohort)

12
NCID CRITICAL ISSUES FORUM (11-30-06)
onDiversity Issues in Health Disparities Human
Development
  • Panelists
  • Derek Griffith, School of Public Health,
    Assistant Director, Center for Research on
    Ethnicity, Culture Health (CRECH)
  • Sonya Miller, Medical School, Associate
    Professor of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation
  • Sean Joe, School of Social Work and Psychiatry,
    Assistant Professor, Faculty Associate, Center
    for Research on Group Dynamics
  • Discussants
  • Amid Ismail, School of Dentistry Epidemiology,
    Director, Detroit Center for Research on Oral
    Health Disparities
  • Harold Neighbors, School of Public Health,
    Director, Center for Research on Ethnicity,
    Culture Health (CRECH) Professor, Health
    Behavior and Health Education

13
In general, the National Consortium for Diversity
Research Policy (NCDRP) initiative has six
major goals and core activities
  • 1) Provide advanced methodological training
    opportunities through a NCID/ICPSR Summer
    Workshop on Methodological Issues in
    Quantitative Research on Race and Ethnic
    Diversity this workshop would help to develop a
    national network of researchers at different
    stages of development who are committed to
    improving the quantity, quality, and
    policy-relevance of diversity reserch on
    pressing racial/ethnic disparities in the
    following areas
  • Health disparities, including multilevel risk
    protective mechanisms
  • Educational disparities, including higher
    education K-12 pipeline issues
  • Political disparities, including participation,
    citizenship crimial justice
  • Economic disparities, inclulding urban distress,
    dislocation family poverty
  • 2) Provide boader access to high quality data by
    supporting the development of a NCID/ICPSR
    Disparities Data Resource Archive this Archive
    would design new technologies to improve data
    access for a national network of scholars
    committed to research programs with rigorous
    methodological standards and policy-relevant
    analysisof racial/ethnic disparities and related
    diversity challenges.
  • 3) Develop partnerships with major national
    organizations to design a series of Diversity
    Research and Policy Semimars for reciprocal
    exchanges between (a) emerging scholars with
    strong commitments to develop rigorous,
    policy-relevant research programs on
    racial/ethnic disparities (b) established
    university-based scholars with exemplary programs
    of policy-relevant research and (c) policy
    analysts and leaders engaged in debate about
    pressing racial/ethnic disparities at multiple
    levels (e.g. campus/institutional, local/state,
    national/international ).
  • 4) In collaboration with governmental agencies
    and foundations, support the efforts of
    postdoctoral, graduate student, and undergraduate
    scholars striving to build research programs that
    better bridge rigorous analysis of racial/ethnic
    disparities with related policy debates on
    presing diversity issues at multiple levels.
  • 5) Develop national and regional networks of
    university-based partners committed to
    cooperation that supports rigorous research on
    racial/ethnic disparities to inform related
    policy debates on pressing diversity issues at
    multiple levels.
  • 5) Promote innovative initiatives developed by
    university-based partners that represent
    exemplary institutional strategies for bridging
    rigorous scholarship on racial/ethnic disparities
    with policy-relevant analysis, advocacy, and
    engagement.

14
Table 1 Competing Research Perspectives on
Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities
BEHAVIORAL
PATTERNS MALADAPTIVE ADAPTIVE _________
____________________________ C A U S INTERNAL
Pathology Racial/Ethnic A Strengths L ___
__________________________________ F A C T EXTERNA
L Racial/Ethnic Mainstream O Discrimination Ass
imilation RS __________________________________
____
Adapted From Bowman, P.J. (1995). Family
structure and marginalization of black men
Policy implications/ Commentary (Chapter 9, pp.
309-23). In M.B. Tucker and C. Mitchell-Kernan
(Eds.), The decline of marriage among African
Americans Causes, consequences and policy
implications. NY Russell Sage.
15
Figure 1 ROLE STRAIN-ADAPTATION APPROACH TO
HEALTH DISPARITIES Toward a Multilevel Model of
Psychosocial Risk and Protection
Adapted From Bowman, P.J. (2006). Role strain
and adaptation issues in the strength-based
model Diversity, multilevel, and life-span
considerations. Counseling Psychologists, 34,
118-136.
16
II. Can theory-driven research help clarify how
multi-level cultural strengths promote
resiliency, adaptive coping strategies, and
reduce health disparities among racial/ethnic
populations faced with faced with structural
role barriers?
  • ROLE STRAIN AND ADAPTATION APPROACH Toward A
    Strengths-Centered Model of Well-Being and Health
    Disparities
  • PROPOSITION I
  • Structured inequalities combine with multi-level
    risks, chronic role strains, and risky coping to
    increase racial/ethnic health disparities.
  • PROPOSITION II
  • Multi-level cultural strengths can promote
    resiliency, more adaptive modes of coping, and
    reduce racial/ethnic health disparities.

17
Figure 2
POST-INDUSTRIAL GLOBALIZATION,
COMMUNITRY-FAMILY ROLE STRAINS, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL
OUTCOMES Toward a Comprehensive Multilevel
Intervention Agenda
CORPORATE PUBLIC POLICY INITIATIVES
POST-INDUSTRIAL GLOBALIZATION,
DISLOCATION FAMILY ROLE STRAINS - Global
Restructuring Deindustrialization
Immigration - Urban Diversity Resegregation,
Enclaves Gentrification - Family Poverty
Reconcentrated, Dispersed Generational
Global, Federal, State and Local Levels
  • Short-Run Policies
  • Long--Run Policies

STAGE I - Jobless (or Under-employed)
Fathers Family
Provider Role Strain
Psychosocial Coping Child Support, Distress,
Drugs, Prison, Re-Entry, etc.
PSYCHOSOCIAL OUTCOMES
Psychosocial Coping TANF, Distress,
Welfare-to-Work, etc
- Health Outcomes Disparities - Personal
Family Well-Being - Community Life Quality

STAGE II - Single Working Mothers
Multiple Role Strain

Psychosocial Coping Family-School Distress,
Risky Behavior, Gangs, etc. etc.
STAGE III - Children and Youth in Poverty
Family-School-Peer
Role Strain
MULTILEVEL CULTURAL-ECOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS -
Community Development/Advocacy Etic Emics -
Familial/Kinship Empowerment Etics Emics -
Individual/Personal Intervention Etics Emics
Note Adapted from Bowman, P.J. (1988).
Post-Industrial Displacement and Family Role
Strains Challenges to the Black Family In P.
Voydanof and L. Majka (Eds.), Families and
Economic Distress (pp.75-101). Newbury Park, CA
Sage. (Also from Prepared Statement for Work
in America Implications for Families Hearing
before the Select Committee on Children, Youth,
and Families, House of Representatives, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 1986).
18
III. Within a cultural ecological framework,
multi-level interventions to address the health
disparities among African American males must
also consider related systemic issues involving
the impact of post-industrial globalization on
African American communities and families.
  • IMPACT OF POST-INDUSTRIAL GLOBALIZATION ON URBAN
    POVERTY AND AFRICAN AMERICAN FAMILY ROLE STRAINS?
  • FATHERS PSYCHOSOCIAL COPING WITH PROVIDER ROLE
    STRAIN AMONG JOBLESS AFRICAN AMERICAN FATHERS?
  • MOTHERS PSYCHOSOCIAL COPING WITH MULTIPLE ROLE
    STRAIN AMONG SINGLE AFRICAN AMERICAN MOTHERS?
  • CHILDREN AND YOUTH PSYCHOSOCIAL COPING WITH
    FAMILY-SCHOOL-PEER ROLE STRAINS AMONG AFRICAN
    AMERCIAN CHILDREN AND YOUTH (MALE VS. FEMALE) IN
    POVERTY?
  • IN ADDITION TO THERAPUETIC MODALITIES, CAN
    MULTILEVEL CULTURAL-ECOLOGICAL INTERVENTION
    STRATEGIES (Individual, Family, Community) REDUCE
    PSYCHOSOCIAL DISTRESS AND PROMOTE RESPONSIVE
    PUBLIC POLICY?

19
III. Within a cultural ecological framework,
multi-level interventions to address the health
disparities among African American males must
also consider related systemic issues involving
the impact of post-industrial globalization on
African American communities and families.
  • IMPACT OF POST-INDUSTRIAL GLOBALIZATION ON URBAN
    POVERTY AND AFRICAN AMERICAN FAMILY ROLE STRAINS?
  • FATHERS PSYCHOSOCIAL COPING WITH PROVIDER ROLE
    STRAIN AMONG JOBLESS AFRICAN AMERICAN FATHERS?
  • MOTHERS PSYCHOSOCIAL COPING WITH MULTIPLE ROLE
    STRAIN AMONG SINGLE AFRICAN AMERICAN MOTHERS?
  • CHILDREN AND YOUTH PSYCHOSOCIAL COPING WITH
    FAMILY-SCHOOL-PEER ROLE STRAINS AMONG AFRICAN
    AMERCIAN CHILDREN AND YOUTH (MALE VS. FEMALE) IN
    POVERTY?
  • IN ADDITION TO THERAPUETIC MODALITIES, CAN
    MULTILEVEL CULTURAL-ECOLOGICAL INTERVENTION
    STRATEGIES (Individual, Family, Community) REDUCE
    PSYCHOSOCIAL DISTRESS AND PROMOTE RESPONSIVE
    PUBLIC POLICY?

20
Human Development Salient Health RisksToward
a Life Span Approach to Role Strain Adaptation
  • Salient Health Risks
  • Developmental Stage
  • Childhood Birth Outcomes/Injuries
  • Adolescence Violence/Homicide
  • Early Adulthood HIV/AIDS
  • Middle Adulthood Hypertension/Cardiovascular
  • Older Adulthood Cancer

21
IV. Within a life span approach, multi-level
cultural strengths among African Americans can
reduce health disparities by protecting from
chronic role strain processes and preventing
risky coping strategies at each stage of
development.
  • LIFE SPAN CHALLENGES SALIENT ROLE STRAIN AND
    RESILIENCY
  • LIFE SPAN RISKS PSYCHOSOCIAL COPING STRATEGIES
  • LIFE SPAN PROTECTION EMIC CULTURAL STRENGTHS

22
TABLE 2 Life Span Development Issues in Role
Stain and Adaptation
PANEL A SALIENT ROLE STRAIN AND RESILIENCY
CHALLENGES ---------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------
SALIENT GOALS PRESSING BARRIERS RESILIENCY
CHALLENGES ADOLESCENCE
Educational Systemic Student Role
Discouragement Student Role Strain Preparation Edu
cation Barriers vs. Educational
Achievement EARLY ADULTHOOD Career Post-Industr
ial Worker Role Discouragement Worker Role
Strain Consolidation Dislocations vs. Career
Attainment MIDDLE
ADULTHOOD Familial Chronic Provider Role
Discouragement Provider Role Strain Fulfillment
Employment Problems vs. Husband/Father
Success OLD AGE Dignified
Inadequate Elder Role Discouragement Elder Role
Strain Aging Retirement Policies vs. Functional
Health ___________________________________________
____________________________________________
Adapted From Bowman, P.J. (1989). Research
perspectives on black men Role strain and
adaptation across the adult life cycle (pp.
117-50). In R.L. Jones (Ed.), Black adult
development and aging. Berkeley, CA Cobbs
Henry
23
TABLE 2 Life Span Development Issues in Role
Stain and Adaptation (continued)
PANEL B RISKY PSYCHOSOCIAL COPING
STRATEGIES ---------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------
STRUCTURAL SELF-DEFENCIVE
CLINICAL RESPONSES MECHANISMS
CATEGORIES ADOLESCENCE Rebellion Fantasy/
Conduct Identity Confusion
Identification Disorders/Delinquency EARLY
ADULTHOOD Innovation Displacement/
Antisocial Isolation/Alienation Compensation
Disorders/Crime MIDDLE
ADULTHOOD Retreatism Denial/Emotional
Substance Use Stagnation/Indulgence
Insulation Disorders/ Alcoholism
OLD AGE Helplessness Repression/ Psychosomat
ic Despair/Disgust Suppression Illness/Disabil
ity ______________________________________________
__________________________________________
Adapted From Bowman, P.J. (1989). Research
perspectives on black men Role strain and
adaptation across the adult life cycle (pp.
117-50). In R.L. Jones (Ed.), Black adult
development and aging. Berkeley, CA Cobbs
Henry
24
TABLE 2 Life Span Development Issues in Role
Stain and Adaptation (continued)
PANEL C PROTECTIVE EMIC CULTURAL
STRENGTHS --------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------
- COMMUNITY FAMILY RELATIONS PERSONAL BELIEF
SYSTEMS ADOLESCENCE Rites of Race-related Ethni
c Identity Passage Rituals Socialization
Achievement Orientations EARLY Community Flexib
le Racial Consciousness ADULTHOOD Support
Groups Family Roles System Blame MIDDLE
Para-Kin Extended Family Religious
Beliefs ADULTHOOD Relationships Kinship
Bonds OLD AGE Ethnic Consanguineous Spirituali
ty Institutions Relationships
Adapted From Bowman, P.J. (1989). Research
perspectives on black men Role strain and
adaptation across the adult life cycle (pp.
117-50). In R.L. Jones (Ed.), Black adult
development and aging. Berkeley, CA Cobbs
Henry
25
Related References Bowman, P.J. (2006). Role
Strain and Adaptation Issues in the
Strength-Based Model Diversity, Multilevel, and
Live Span Considerations. The Counseling
Psychologist, 34 (1), 118-133. Bowman, P.J.
(1989). Research perspectives on black man Role
strain and adaptation across the adult life cycle
(pp. 117-50). In R.L Jones (Ed.) Black adult
development and aging. Berkeley, CA Cobbs
Henry. Bowman, P.J. (1988). Post-industrial
displacement and family role strains Challenges
to the black family (pp. 75-99). In P. Voydanoff
and L.C. Majka (Eds.), Families and economic
distress. Beverly Hills, CA Sage
Publications. Bowman, P.J. (1986). Testimony
Statement Work in America Hearing before the
Select Committee on Children, Youth, and
Families, U.S. House of Representatives, 99th
Congress, 2nd Session, April-1986. Washington,
DC Government Printing Office.
26
Other References Bowman, P.J. (1984). A
discouragement-centered approach to studying
unemployment among black youth Hopelessness,
attributions and psychological distress.
International Journal of Mental Health, 13,
68-91. Bowman, P.J. (1990a). The adolescent to
adult transition Discouragement among jobless
black youth (pp. 87-105). In V.C. McLoyd C.
Flanagan (Eds.), New directions in child
development. San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
Bowman, PJ (1990b) Cultural resources among
black husband-fathers. Journal of Black
Psychology, 16,1-22 Bowman, P.J. (1993). Impact
of economic marginality among African American
husbands and fathers (pp. 120-37). In H.P. McAdoo
(Ed.), Family ethnicity Strength in diversity.
Newbury Park, CA Sage Publications. Bowman,
P.J. (1995). Family structure and marginalization
of black men Policy implications/Commentary
(Chapter 9, pp. 309-23). In M.B. Tucker and C.
Mitchell-Kernan (Eds.), The decline of marriage
among African Americans Causes, consequences and
policy implications. NY Russell Sage. Bowman,
P.J. (1996b). Education and responsible
fatherhood among African Americans
Socialization, Mobilization, and Allocation
Challenges (pp. 13-52). In Vivian L. Gadsden
William Trent (Eds.), Transitions in the life
course of African American males. Philadelphia,
PA National Center for Fathers and Families.
27
Other References Bowman, P.J., Forman, T.
(1997). Instrumental and expressive family roles
among African American fathers (pp. 216-47. In
R.J. Taylor, J. S. Jackson and L.M. Chatters
(Eds.), Family life in black America. Newbury
Park, CA Sage. Bowman, P.J., Howard, C.S.
(1985). Race-related socialization, motivation
and academic achievement A study of black youth
in three generation families. Journal of the
American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24,
134-141. Bowman, P.J., Jackson, J.S., Hatchett,
S.J., Gurin, G. (1982). Joblessness and
discouragement among black Americans. Economic
Outlook U.S.A., Autumn, 85-88. Bowman, P.J.,
Sanders, R. (1998). Unmarried African American
fathers A comparative life span analysis.
Journal of Comparative Family Studies, XXIX,
39-56. Neighbors, H., Jackson, J.S., Bowman,
P.J., Gurin, G. (1983). Stress, coping and
black mental health. Journal of Prevention in
Human Service, 2, 5-9. Orellana, M. and Bowman,
P.J. (2003). Cultural diversity issues in
learning and development. Conceptual,
Methodological and Strategic Considerations.
Educational Researcher, 32 (5), 26-33. Williams,
L. (2004). Cultural intervention and perceptions
of violence-related behavior among adolescents A
role strain and adaptation approach. Unpublished
dissertation.
28
Contact Information
  • Phillip J. Bowman
  • National Center for Institutional Diversity
  • pjbowman_at_umich.edu
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